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CRS Annotated Constitution

ARTICLE I63
LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT63
Section 1.Legislative Powers63
SEPARATION OF POWERS AND CHECKS AND BALANCES63
The Theory Elaborated and Implemented63
Judicial Enforcement65
BICAMERALISM70
ENUMERATED, IMPLIED, RESULTING, AND INHERENT POWERS71
DELEGATION OF LEGISLATIVE POWER73
Origin of the Doctrine of Nondelegability73
Delegation Which Is Permissible75
Filling Up the Details76
Legislative Powers76
Contingent Legislation76
The Effective Demise of the Nondelegation Doctrine78
The Regulatory State78
Standards82
Foreign Affairs86
Delegations to the States86
Delegation to Private Persons87
Delegation and Individual Liberties88
Punishment of Violations89
Investigatory Power89
CONGRESSIONAL INVESTIGATIONS90
Source of the Power to Investigate90
Investigations of Conduct of Executive Department92
Investigations of Members of Congress93
Investigations in Aid of Legislation93
Purpose93
Protection of Witnesses: Pertinency and Related Matters96
Protection of Witnesses; Constitutional Guarantees100
Sanctions of the Investigatory Power: Contempt103
ARTICLE I105
LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT105
Section 2.The House of Representatives105
Clause 1.Congressional Districting105
CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTING106
ELECTOR QUALIFICATIONS109
Clause 2.Qualifications of Members of Congress110
QUALIFICATIONS OF MEMBERS OF CONGRESS110
When the Qualifications Must Be Possessed110
Exclusivity of Constitutional Qualifications110
Congressional Additions110
State Additions113
Clause 3.Apportionment of Seats in the House114
APPORTIONMENT OF SEATS IN THE HOUSE114
The Census Requirement114
Clause 4.Vacancies116
Clause 5.Officers and Power of Impeachment116
ARTICLE I116
LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT116
Section 3.The Senate116
Clause 1.Composition and Selection116
Clause 2Classes of Senators116
Clause 3.Qualifications117
Clause 4.The Vice President117
Clause 5.Officers117
Clause 6.Trial of Impeachments117
Clause 7.Judgments on Impeachment117
ARTICLE I117
LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT117
Section 4.Elections117
Clause 1.Congressional Power to Regulate117
FEDERAL LEGISLATION PROTECTING ELECTORAL PROCESS118
Clause 2.Time of Assembling121
ARTICLE I121
LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT121
Section 5.Powers and Duties of the Houses121
Clause 1.Power to Judge Elections121
Clause 2.Rules of Proceedings121
Clause 3.Duty to Keep a Journal121
Clause 4.Adjournments121
POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE HOUSES122
Judge Elections122
Power To Judge Elections122
Quorum122
“A Quorum To Do Business”122
Rules of Proceedings123
Rules of Proceedings123
Power Over Members124
Powers of the Houses Over Members124
Journal124
Duty To Keep a Journal125
ARTICLE I125
LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT125
Section 6.Rights and Disabilities of Members125
Clause 1.Compensation and Immunities125
Clause 2.Disabilities125
Compensation, Privileges126
COMPENSATION, IMMUNITIES AND DISABILITIES OF MEMBERS126
Congressional Pay126
Privilege From Arrest127
Privilege of Speech or Debate127
Members127
Congressional Employees132
Appointment to Executive Office134
Incompatible Offices135
ARTICLE I135
LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT135
Section 7.Legislative Process135
Clause 1.Revenue Bills135
Clause 2.Approval by the President135
Legislative Process136
Clause 3.Presentation of Resolutions136
THE LEGISLATIVE PROCESS136
Revenue Bills136
Approval by the President137
The Veto Power138
Presentation of Resolutions141
The Legislative Veto141
ARTICLE I144
LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT144
Section 8.Powers of Congress144
Clause 1.Power to Tax and Spend144
POWER TO TAX AND SPEND144
Kinds of Taxes Permitted144
Decline of the Forbidden Subject Matter Test144
Federal Taxation of State Interests145
Scope of State Immunity From Federal Taxation147
Uniformity Requirement149
PURPOSES OF TAXATION150
Regulation by Taxation150
Extermination by Taxation151
Promotion of Business: Protective Tariff152
SPENDING FOR THE GENERAL WELFARE153
Scope of the Power153
Social Security Act Cases155
An Unrestrained Federal Spending Power156
Conditional Grants–in–Aid156
Earmarked Funds158
Debts of the United States158
Clause 2.Borrowing Power159
BORROWING POWER159
Clause 3.Commerce Power160
POWER TO REGULATE COMMERCE160
Purposes Served by the Grant160
Definition of Terms160
Commerce160
Among the Several States163
Regulate164
Necessary and Proper Clause165
Federalism Limits on Exercise of Commerce Power166
Illegal Commerce167
Interstate Versus Foreign Commerce167
Instruments of Commerce169
Congressional Regulation of Waterways170
Navigation170
Hydroelectric Power; Flood Control173
Congressional Regulation of Land Transportation175
Federal Stimulation of Land Transportation175
Federal Regulation of Land Transportation176
Federal Regulation of Intrastate Rates (The Shreveport Doctrine)178
Federal Protection of Labor in Interstate Rail Transportation179
Regulation of Other Agents of Carriage and Communications180
Congressional Regulation of Commerce as Traffic181
The Sherman Act: Sugar Trust Case181
Sherman Act Revived183
The “Current of Commerce” Concept: The Swift Case183
The Danbury Hatters Case184
Stockyards and Grain Futures Acts185
Securities and Exchange Commission186
Congressional Regulation of Production and Industrial Relations: Antidepression Legislation187
National Industrial Recovery Act187
Agricultural Adjustment Act188
Bituminous Coal Conservation Act188
Railroad Retirement Act189
National Labor Relations Act190
Fair Labor Standards Act192
Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act194
Acts of Congress Prohibiting Commerce196
Foreign Commerce: Jefferson’s Embargo196
Foreign Commerce: Protective Tariffs198
Foreign Commerce: Banned Articles198
Interstate Commerce: Power to Prohibit Questioned199
Interstate Commerce: National Prohibitions and State Police Power200
The Lottery Case200
The Darby Case202
The Commerce Clause as a Source of National Police Power203
Civil Rights207
Criminal Law208
THE COMMERCE CLAUSE AS A RESTRAINT ON STATE POWERS209
Doctrinal Background209
The State Proprietary Activity Exception216
Congressional Authorization of Impermissible State Action216
State Taxation and Regulation: The Old Law220
General Considerations220
Taxation221
Regulation224
State Taxation and Regulation: The Modern Law227
General Considerations227
Taxation228
Nexus229
Apportionment231
Discrimination232
Benefit Relationship233
Regulation233
Foreign Commerce and State Powers240
CONCURRENT FEDERAL AND STATE JURISDICTION243
The General Issue: Preemption243
Preemption Standards245
The Standards Applied246
Federal Versus State Labor Laws254
COMMERCE WITH INDIAN TRIBES260
Clause 4.Naturalization and Bankruptcies265
NATURALIZATION AND CITIZENSHIP265
Nature and Scope of Congress’ Power265
Categories of Citizens: Birth and Naturalization267
The Naturalization of Aliens268
Rights of Naturalized Persons270
Expatriation: Loss of Citizenship272
ALIENS276
The Power of Congress to Exclude Aliens276
Deportation280
BANKRUPTCY281
Persons Who May Be Released From Debt281
Liberalization of Relief Granted and Expansion of the Rights of the Trustee282
Constitutional Limitations on the Bankruptcy Power283
Constitutional Status of State Insolvency Laws: Preemption284
Cls. 5 and 6—Fiscal and Monetary Powers286
Clauses 5 and 6.Money286
FISCAL AND MONETARY POWERS OF CONGRESS287
Coinage, Weights, and Measures287
Punishment of Counterfeiting287
Borrowing Power Versus Fiscal Power288
Clause 7.Post Office289
POSTAL POWER289
“Establish”289
Power To Protect the Mails290
Power To Prevent Harmful Use of the Postal Facilities290
Exclusive Power as an Adjunct to Other Powers292
State Regulations Affecting the Mails292
Clause 8.Copyrights and Patents293
COPYRIGHTS AND PATENTS294
Scope of the Power294
Patentable Discoveries295
Procedure in Issuing Patents297
Nature and Scope of the Right Secured298
Power of Congress Over Patent Rights299
State Power Affecting Patents and Copyrights300
Trade–Marks and Advertisements302
Cls. 9 and 10—Piracies and Felonies302
Clause 9.Creation of Courts302
Clause 10.Maritime Crimes302
PIRACIES, FELONIES, AND OFFENSES AGAINST THE LAW OF NATIONS303
Origin of the Clause303
Definition of Offenses303
Extraterritorial Reach of the Power304
Cls. 11, 12, 13, and 14—The War Power305
Clauses 11, 12, 13, and 14.War; Military Establishment305
THE WAR POWER305
Source and Scope305
Three Theories305
An Inherent Power306
A Complexus of Granted Powers307
Declaration of War307
THE POWER TO RAISE AND MAINTAIN ARMED FORCES311
Purpose of Specific Grants311
Time Limit on Appropriations for the Army312
Conscription312
Care of the Armed Forces314
Trial and Punishment of Offenses: Servicemen, Civilian Employees, and Dependents316
Servicemen316
Civilians and Dependents319
WAR LEGISLATION319
War Powers in Peacetime319
Delegation of Legislative Power in Wartime322
CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS IN WARTIME324
Constitution and the Advance of the Flag324
Theater of Military Operations324
Enemy Country324
Enemy Property325
Prizes of War326
The Constitution at Home in Wartime326
Personal Liberty326
Enemy Aliens328
Eminent Domain329
Rent and Price Controls330
Cls. 15 and 16—Power over the Militia331
Clauses 15 and 16.The Militia331
THE MILITIA CLAUSE331
Calling Out the Militia331
Regulation of the Militia332
Clause 17.District of Columbia; Federal Property333
SEAT OF THE GOVERNMENT333
AUTHORITY OVER PLACES PURCHASED337
“Places”337
Duration of Federal Jurisdiction338
Reservation of Jurisdiction by States339
Clause 18.Necessary and Proper Clause339
COEFFICIENT OR ELASTIC CLAUSE339
Scope of Incidental Powers339
Operation of Coefficient Clause340
Definition of Punishment and Crimes341
Chartering of Banks341
Currency Regulations342
Power to Charter Corporations342
Courts and Judicial Proceedings343
Special Acts Concerning Claims343
Maritime Law344
ARTICLE I344
LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT344
Section 9.Powers Denied to Congress344
Clause 1.Importation of Slaves344
POWERS DENIED TO CONGRESS344
General Purpose of Section 9344
Clause 2.Habeas Corpus Suspension345
Clause 3.Bills of Attainder and Ex Post Facto Laws346
Bills of Attainder347
Ex Post Facto Laws350
Definition350
What Constitutes Punishment351
Change in Place or Mode of Trial352
Clause 4.Taxes352
Direct Taxes352
The Hylton Case352
From the Hylton to the Pollock Case353
Restriction of the Pollock Decision354
Miscellaneous355
Clause 5.Duties on Exports from States356
Taxes on Exports356
Stamp Taxes356
Clause 6.Preference to Ports357
The “No Preference” Clause357
Clause 7.Appropriations and Accounting of Public Money358
Appropriations358
Payment of Claims358
Clause 8.Titles of Nobility; Presents359
ARTICLE I359
LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT359
Section 10.Powers Denied to the States359
POWERS DENIED TO THE STATES360
Clause 1.Not to Make Treaties, Coin Money, Pass Ex Post Facto Laws, Impair Contracts359
Treaties, Alliances, or Confederations360
Bills of Credit360
Legal Tender361
Bills of Attainder361
Ex Post Facto Laws362
Scope of the Provision362
Denial of Future Privileges to Past Offenders363
Changes in Punishment363
Changes in Procedure365
Obligation of Contracts366
“Law” Defined366
Status of Judicial Decision366
“Obligation” Defined369
“Impair” Defined369
Vested Rights Not Included370
Public Grants That Are Not “Contracts”370
Tax Exemptions: When Not “Contracts”372
“Contracts” Include Public Contracts and Corporate Charters374
Corporate Charters: Different Ways of Regarding377
Reservation of Right to Alter or Repeal Corporate Charters379
Corporation Subject to the Law and Police Power380
Strict Construction of Charters, Tax Exemptions381
Strict Construction and the Police Power384
Doctrine of Inalienability as Applied to Eminent Domain, Taxing, and Police Powers385
Private Contracts388
Remedy a Part of the Private Obligation389
Private Contracts and the Police Power392
Evaluation of the Clause Today395
Clause 2.Not to Levy Duties on Exports and Imports398
Duties on Exports or Imports399
Scope399
Privilege Taxes400
Property Taxes400
Inspection Laws401
Clause 3.Not to Lay Tonnage Duties, Keep Troops, Make Compacts, or Engage in War402
Tonnage Duties402
Keeping Troops403
Interstate Compacts403
Background of Clause403
Subject Matter of Interstate Compacts404
Consent of Congress405
Grants of Franchise to Corporations by Two States406
Legal Effect of Interstate Compacts406