standing

Lexmark International, Inc. v. Static Control Components, Inc.

Issues: 

What is the appropriate framework to determine standing in a false advertising action under the Lanham Act?

Petitioner Lexmark International, Inc., a major producer of laser printers, developed a microchip for its toner cartridges to restrict third-party businesses from replacing Lexmark cartridges. Respondent Static Control Components, Inc. replicated that microchip, thereby allowing third parties to refill and resell used Lexmark cartridges. Lexmark responded by telling businesses that the use of Static’s replicated microchips would infringe Lexmark’s patent. In a 2004 lawsuit, Static brought false advertisement claims against Lexmark under the Lanham Act. The district court dismissed those charges, concluding that Static lacked standing. The Sixth Circuit reversed that dismissal, reasoning that Static had a cognizable business interest that was harmed by Lexmark’s remarks; therefore, Static had standing and qualified for protection under the Lanham Act. The Supreme Court’s ruling in this case will resolve a circuit split over the proper framework for determining prudential standing in false advertising claims under the Lanham Act. Accordingly, this case will determine who can assert false advertising claims under the Lanham Act.

Questions as Framed for the Court by the Parties: 

Whether the appropriate framework for determining a party’s appropriate standing for a cause of action for false advertising under the Lanham Act is (1) the test established in Associated General Contractors of California, Inc. v. California State Council of Carpenters as used by the Third, Fifth, Eighth, and Eleventh Circuits; (2) the categorical test, allowing suits only by an actual competitor, used by the Seventh, Ninth, and Tenth Circuits; or (3) a more expansive “reasonable interest” test, applied by both the Sixth Circuit lower decision below, and also the Second Circuit?

top

Facts

Edited by: 
Acknowledgments: 
Additional Resources: 

top

Submit for publication: 
0

Clapper v. Amnesty International USA (11-1025)

In 2008, Congress passed the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 (FAA), which revised the procedures for authorizing certain foreign intelligence collection, including expanded authority to collect information on persons outside of the United States using electronic surveillance.  Additionally, the new procedures allow the government to disclose less information before targeting people reasonably believed to be abroad. Shortly after Congress passed the FAA, several organizations, including Amnesty International and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), filed a lawsuit in federal court challenging the act’s constitutionality.  The district court dismissed the lawsuit because it found the organizations lacked standing.  The Second Circuit Court of Appeals reversed, and now the Supreme Court must decide if Amnesty International and other organizations have a sufficient stake to allow them to move forward with their constitutional challenges to the FAA. Amnesty International and other organizations argue that they have standing based on a reasonable fear that the government will monitor some of their communications and based on the costly methods used to prevent that monitoring. Director of National Intelligence James Clapper argues that the groups do not have standing because their injuries are not imminent, they do not have ongoing or present injuries, and self-inflicted harms are not recognizable injuries. The decision in this case will likely result in a rebalancing of the competing interest in government transparency and safeguarding national security. Further, the decision will likely cause one side to incur greater costs either in litigating more cases based on alleged, unproven surveillance or in protecting confidential communications against unknowable surveillance.

Questions as Framed for the Court by the Parties: 

Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978, 50 U.S.C. 1881a (Supp. II 2008)- referred to here as Section 1881a- allows the Attorney General and Director of National Intelligence to authorize jointly the "targeting of [non-United States] persons reasonably believed to be located outside the United States" to acquire "foreign intelligence information," normally with the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court's prior approval of targeting and other procedures. 50 U.S.C. 1881a(a), (b), (g)(2) and (i)(3); cf. 50 U.S.C. 1881a(c)(2). Respondents are United States persons who may not be targeted for surveillance under Section 1881a. Respondents filed this action on the day that Section 1881a was enacted, seeking both a declaration that Section 1881a is unconstitutional and an injunction permanently enjoining any foreign-intelligence surveillance from being conducted under Section 1881a. The question presented is:

Whether respondents lack Article III standing to seek prospective relief because they proffered no evidence that the United States would imminently acquire their international communications using Section 1881a-authorized surveillance and did not show that an injunction prohibiting Section 1881a-authorized surveillance would likely redress their purported injuries.

Issue

Does a group of international organizations, lawyers, and media personnel have standing to sue for prospective relief based on their allegation that the United States would imminently acquire their international communications using surveillance authorized under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978?

Additional Resources: 
Submit for publication: 
Submit for publication
Subscribe to RSS - standing