§ 73.51Requirements for the physical protection of stored spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste.
(a)Applicability. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 73.20, 73.50, or 73.67, the physical protection requirements of this section apply to each licensee that stores spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste pursuant to paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (ii), and (2) of this section. This includes—
(1) Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste stored under a specific license issued pursuant to part 72 of this chapter:
(i) At an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or
(ii) At a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) installation; or
(2) Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at a geologic repository operations area (GROA) licensed pursuant to part 60 or 63 of this chapter;
(b)General performance objectives.
(1) Each licensee subject to this section shall establish and maintain a physical protection system with the objective of providing high assurance that activities involving spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste do not constitute an unreasonable risk to public health and safety.
(2) To meet the general objective of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, each licensee subject to this section shall meet the following performance capabilities.
(i) Store spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste only within a protected area;
(ii) Grant access to the protected area only to individuals who are authorized to enter the protected area;
(iii) Detect and assess unauthorized penetration of, or activities within, the protected area;
(iv) Provide timely communication to a designated response force whenever necessary; and
(v) Manage the physical protection organization in a manner that maintains its effectiveness.
(3) The physical protection system must be designed to protect against loss of control of the facility that could be sufficient to cause a radiation exposure exceeding the dose as described in § 72.106 of this chapter.
(c)Plan retention. Each licensee subject to this section shall retain a copy of the effective physical protection plan as a record for 3 years or until termination of the license for which procedures were developed.
(d)Physical protection systems, components, and procedures. A licensee shall comply with the following provisions as methods acceptable to NRC for meeting the performance capabilities of § 73.51(b)(2). The Commission may, on a specific basis and upon request or on its own initiative, authorize other alternative measures for the protection of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste subject to the requirements of this section, if after evaluation of the specific alternative measures, it finds reasonable assurance of compliance with the performance capabilities of paragraph (b)(2) of this section.
(1) Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste must be stored only within a protected area so that access to this material requires passage through or penetration of two physical barriers, one barrier at the perimeter of the protected area and one barrier offering substantial penetration resistance. The physical barrier at the perimeter of the protected area must be as defined in § 73.2. Isolation zones, typically 20 feet wide each, on both sides of this barrier, must be provided to facilitate assessment. The barrier offering substantial resistance to penetration may be provided by an approved storage cask or building walls such as those of a reactor or fuel storage building.
(2) Illumination must be sufficient to permit adequate assessment of unauthorized penetrations of or activities within the protected area.
(3) The perimeter of the protected area must be subject to continual surveillance and be protected by an active intrusion alarm system which is capable of detecting penetrations through the isolation zone and that is monitored in a continually staffed primary alarm station and in one additional continually staffed location. The primary alarm station must be located within the protected area; have bullet-resisting walls, doors, ceiling, and floor; and the interior of the station must not be visible from outside the protected area. A timely means for assessment of alarms must also be provided. Regarding alarm monitoring, the redundant location need only provide a summary indication that an alarm has been generated.
(4) The protected area must be monitored by daily random patrols.
(5) A security organization with written procedures must be established. The security organization must include sufficient personnel per shift to provide for monitoring of detection systems and the conduct of surveillance, assessment, access control, and communications to assure adequate response. Members of the security organization must be trained, equipped, qualified, and requalified to perform assigned job duties in accordance with appendix B to part 73, sections I.A, (1) (a) and (b), B(1)(a), and the applicable portions of II.
(6) Documented liaison with a designated response force or local law enforcement agency (LLEA) must be established to permit timely response to unauthorized penetration or activities.
(7) A personnel identification system and a controlled lock system must be established and maintained to limit access to authorized individuals.
(8) Redundant communications capability must be provided between onsite security force members and designated response force or LLEA.
(9) All individuals, vehicles, and hand-carried packages entering the protected area must be checked for proper authorization and visually searched for explosives before entry.
(10) Written response procedures must be established and maintained for addressing unauthorized penetration of, or activities within, the protected area including Category 5, “Procedures,” of appendix C to part 73. The licensee shall retain a copy of response procedures as a record for 3 years or until termination of the license for which the procedures were developed. Copies of superseded material must be retained for 3 years after each change or until termination of the license.
(11) All detection systems and supporting subsystems must be tamper indicating with line supervision. These systems, as well as surveillance/assessment and illumination systems, must be maintained in operable condition. Timely compensatory measures must be taken after discovery of inoperability, to assure that the effectiveness of the of the security system is not reduced.
(12) The physical protection program must be reviewed once every 24 months by individuals independent of both physical protection program management and personnel who have direct responsibility for implementation of the physical protection program. The physical protection program review must include an evaluation of the effectiveness of the physical protection system and a verification of the liaison established with the designated response force or LLEA.
(13) The following documentation must be retained as a record for 3 years after the record is made or until termination of the license. Duplicate records to those required under § 72.180 ofpart 72 and § 73.71 of this part need not be retained under the requirements of this section:
(i) A log of individuals granted access to the protected area;
(ii) Screening records of members of the security organization;
(iii) A log of all patrols;
(iv) A record of each alarm received, identifying the type of alarm, location, date and time when received, and disposition of the alarm; and
(v) The physical protection program review reports.
(e) A licensee that operates a GROA is exempt from the requirements of this section for that GROA after permanent closure of the GROA.