10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I to Part 50 - Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet...Reasonably Achievable

View PDF at GPO Pt. 50, App. I
Appendix I to Part 50—Numerical Guides for Design Objectives and Limiting Conditions for Operation To Meet the Criterion “As Low as is Reasonably Achievable” for Radioactive Material in Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactor Effluents
SECTION I. Introduction.Section 50.34a provides that an application for a construction permit shall include a description of the preliminary design of equipment to be installed to maintain control over radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents produced during normal conditions, including expected occurrences. In the case of an application filed on or after January 2, 1971, the application must also identify the design objectives, and the means to be employed, for keeping levels of radioactive material in effluents to unrestricted areas as low as practicable. Sections 52.47, 52.79, 52.137, and 52.157 of this chapter provide that applications for design certification, combined license, design approval, or manufacturing license, respectively, shall include a description of the equipment and procedures for the control of gaseous and liquid effluents and for the maintenance and use of equipment installed in radioactive waste systems.
Section 50.36a contains provisions designed to assure that releases of radioactive material from nuclear power reactors to unrestricted areas during normal conditions, including expected occurrences, are kept as low as practicable.
SECTION II. Guides on design objectives for light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors licensed under 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The guides on design objectives set forth in this section may be used by an applicant for a construction permit as guidance in meeting the requirements of § 50.34a(a), or by an applicant for a combined license under part 52 of this chapter as guidance in meeting the requirements of § 50.34a(d), or by an applicant for a design approval, a design certification, or a manufacturing license as guidance in meeting the requirements of § 50.34a(e). The applicant shall provide reasonable assurance that the following design objectives will be met.
A. The calculated annual total quantity of all radioactive material above background 1 to be released from each light-water-cooled nuclear power reactor to unrestricted areas will not result in an estimated annual dose or dose commitment from liquid effluents for any individual in an unrestricted area from all pathways of exposure in excess of 3 millirems to the total body or 10 millirems to any organ.

Footnote(s):
1 Here and elsewhere in this appendix background means radioactive materials in the environment and in the effluents from light-water-cooled power reactors not generated in, or attributable to, the reactors of which specific account is required in determining design objectives.

B.1. The calculated annual total quantity of all radioactive material above background to be released from each light-water-cooled nuclear power reactor to the atmosphere will not result in an estimated annual air dose from gaseous effluents at any location near ground level which could be occupied by individuals in unrestricted areas in excess of 10 millirads for gamma radiation or 20 millirads for beta radiation.
2. Notwithstanding the guidance of paragraph B.1:
(a) The Commission may specify, as guidance on design objectives, a lower quantity of radioactive material above background to be released to the atmosphere if it appears that the use of the design objectives in paragraph B.1 is likely to result in an estimated annual external dose from gaseous effluents to any individual in an unrestricted area in excess of 5 millirems to the total body; and
(b) Design objectives based upon a higher quantity of radioactive material above background to be released to the atmosphere than the quantity specified in paragraph B.1 will be deemed to meet the requirements for keeping levels of radioactive material in gaseous effluents as low as is reasonably achievable if the applicant provides reasonable assurance that the proposed higher quantity will not result in an estimated annual external dose from gaseous effluents to any individual in unrestricted areas in excess of 5 millirems to the total body or 15 millirems to the skin.
C. The calculated annual total quantity of all radioactive iodine and radioactive material in particulate form above background to be released from each light-water-cooled nuclear power reactor in effluents to the atmosphere will not result in an estimated annual dose or dose commitment from such radioactive iodine and radioactive material in particulate form for any individual in an unrestricted area from all pathways of exposure in excess of 15 millirems to any organ.
D. In addition to the provisions of paragraphs A, B, and C above, the applicant shall include in the radwaste system all items of reasonably demonstrated technology that, when added to the system sequentially and in order of diminishing cost-benefit return, can for a favorable cost-benefit ratio effect reductions in dose to the population reasonably expected to be within 50 miles of the reactor. As an interim measure and until establishment and adoption of better values (or other appropriate criteria), the values $1000 per total body man-rem and $1000 per man-thyroid-rem (or such lesser values as may be demonstrated to be suitable in a particular case) shall be used in this cost-benefit analysis. The requirements of this paragraph D need not be complied with by persons who have filed applications for construction permits which were docketed on or after January 2, 1971, and prior to June 4, 1976, if the radwaste systems and equipment described in the preliminary or final safety analysis report and amendments thereto satisfy the Guides on Design Objectives for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Reactors proposed in the Concluding Statement of Position of the Regulatory Staff in Docket-RM-50-2 dated February 20, 1974, pp. 25-30, reproduced in the annex to this appendix I.
SECTION III. Implementation. A.1. Conformity with the guides on design objectives of Section II shall be demonstrated by calculational procedures based upon models and data such that the actual exposure of an individual through appropriate pathways is unlikely to be substantially underestimated, all uncertainties being considered together. Account shall be taken of the cumulative effect of all sources and pathways within the plant contributing to the particular type of effluent being considered. For determination of design objectives in accordance with the guides of Section II, the estimations of exposure shall be made with respect to such potential land and water usage and food pathways as could actually exist during the term of plant operation: Provided, That, if the requirements of paragraph B of Section III are fulfilled, the applicant shall be deemed to have complied with the requirements of paragraph C of Section II with respect to radioactive iodine if estimations of exposure are made on the basis of such food pathways and individual receptors as actually exist at the time the plant is licensed.
2. The characteristics attributed to a hypothetical receptor for the purpose of estimating internal dose commitment shall take into account reasonable deviations of individual habits from the average. The applicant may take account of any real phenomenon or factors actually affecting the estimate of radiation exposure, including the characteristics of the plant, modes of discharge of radioactive materials, physical processes tending to attenuate the quantity of radioactive material to which an individual would be exposed, and the effects of averaging exposures over times during which determining factors may fluctuate.
B. If the applicant determines design objectives with respect to radioactive iodine on the basis of existing conditions and if potential changes in land and water usage and food pathways could result in exposures in excess of the guideline values of paragraph C of Section II, the applicant shall provide reasonable assurance that a monitoring and surveillance program will be performed to determine:
1. The quantities of radioactive iodine actually released to the atmosphere and deposited relative to those estimated in the determination of design objectives;
2. Whether changes in land and water usage and food pathways which would result in individual exposures greater than originally estimated have occurred; and
3. The content of radioactive iodine and foods involved in the changes, if and when they occur.
SECTION IV. Guides on technical specifications for limiting conditions for operation for light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors licensed under 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter. The guides on limiting conditions for operation for light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors set forth below may be used by an applicant for an operating license under this part or a design certification or combined license under part 52 of this chapter, or a licensee who has submitted a certification of permanent cessation of operations under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110 of this chapter as guidance in developing technical specifications under § 50.36a(a) to keep levels of radioactive materials in effluents to unrestricted areas as low as is reasonably achievable.
Section 50.36a(b) provides that licensees shall be guided by certain considerations in establishing and implementing operating procedures specified in technical specifications that take into account the need for operating flexibility and at the same time assure that the licensee will exert his best effort to keep levels of radioactive material in effluents as low as is reasonably achievable. The guidance set forth below provides additional and more specific guidance to licensees in this respect.
Through the use of the guides set forth in this section it is expected that the annual release of radioactive material in effluents from light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors can generally be maintained within the levels set forth as numerical guides for design objectives in Section II.
At the same time, the licensee is permitted the flexibility of operations, compatible with considerations of health and safety, to assure that the public is provided a dependable source of power even under unusual conditions which may temporarily result in releases higher than numerical guides for design objectives but still within levels that assure that the average population exposure is equivalent to small fractions of doses from natural background radiation. It is expected that in using this operational flexibility under unusual conditions, the licensee will exert his best efforts to keep levels of radioactive material in effluents within the numerical guides for design objectives.
A. If the quantity of radioactive material actually released in effluents to unrestricted areas from a light-water-cooled nuclear power reactor during any calendar quarter is such that the resulting radiation exposure, calculated on the same basis as the respective design objective exposure, would exceed one-half the design objective annual exposure derived pursuant to Sections II and III, the licensee shall: 2

Footnote(s):
2Section 50.36a(a)(2) requires the licensee to submit certain reports to the Commission with regard to the quantities of the principal radionuclides released to unrestricted areas. It also provides that, on the basis of such reports and any additional information the Commission may obtain from the licensee and others, the Commission may from time to time require the license to take such action as the Commission deems appropriate.

1. Make an investigation to identify the causes for such release rates;
2. Define and initiate a program of corrective action; and
3. Report these actions as specified in § 50.4, within 30 days from the end of the quarter during which the release occurred.
B. The licensee shall establish an appropriate surveillance and monitoring program to:
1. Provide data on quantities of radioactive material released in liquid and gaseous effluents to assure that the provisions of paragraph A of this section are met;
2. Provide data on measurable levels of radiation and radioactive materials in the environment to evaluate the relationship between quantities of radioactive material released in effluents and resultant radiation doses to individuals from principal pathways of exposure; and
3. Identify changes in the use of unrestricted areas (e.g., for agricultural purposes) to permit modifications in monitoring programs for evaluating doses to individuals from principal pathways of exposure.
C. If the data developed in the surveillance and monitoring program described in paragraph B of Section III or from other monitoring programs show that the relationship between the quantities of radioactive material released in liquid and gaseous effluents and the dose to individuals in unrestricted areas is significantly different from that assumed in the calculations used to determine design objectives pursuant to Sections II and III, the Commission may modify the quantities in the technical specifications defining the limiting conditions in a license to operate a light-water-cooled nuclear power reactor or a license whose holder has submitted a certification of permanent cessation of operations under § 50.82(a)(1).
SECTION V. Effective dates. A. The guides for limiting conditions for operation set forth in this appendix shall be applicable in any case in which an application was filed on or after January 2, 1971, for a construction permit for a light-water-cooled nuclear power reactor under this part, or a design certification, a combined license, or a manufacturing license for a light-water-cooled nuclear power reactor under part 52 of this chapter.
B. For each light-water-cooled nuclear power reactor constructed pursuant to a permit for which application was filed prior to January 2, 1971, the holder of the permit or a license, authorizing operation of the reactor shall, within a period of twelve months from June 4, 1975, file with the Commission:
1. Such information as is necessary to evaluate the means employed for keeping levels of radioactivity in effluents to unrestricted areas as low as is reasonably achievable, including all such information as is required by § 50.34a (b) and (c) not already contained in his application; and
2. Plans and proposed technical specifications developed for the purpose of keeping releases of radioactive materials to unrestricted areas during normal reactor operations, including expected operational occurrences, as low as is reasonably achievable.
Concluding Statement of Position of the Regulatory Staff (Docket-RM-50-2)
guides on design objectives for light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors
A. For radioactive material above background 1 in liquid effluents to be released to unrestricted areas:

Footnote(s):
1 “Background,” means the quantity of radioactive material in the effluent from light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors at a site that did not originate in the reactors.

1. The calculated annual total quantity of all radioactive material from all light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors at a site should not result in an annual dose or dose commitment to the total body or to any organ of an individual in an unrestricted area from all pathways of exposure in excess of 5 millirems; and
2. The calculated annual total quantity of radioactive material, except tritium and dissolved gases, should not exceed 5 curies for each light-water-cooled reactor at a site.
3. Notwithstanding the guidance in paragraph A.2, for a particular site, if an applicant for a permit to construct a light-water-cooled nuclear power reactor has proposed baseline in-plant control measures 2 to reduce the possible sources of radioactive material in liquid effluent releases and the calculated quantity exceeds the quantity set forth in paragraph A.2, the requirements for design objectives for radioactive material in liquid effluents may be deemed to have been met provided:

Footnote(s):
2 Such measures may include treatment of clear liquid waste streams (normally tritiated, nonaerated, low conductivity equipment drains and pump seal leakoff), dirty liquid waste streams (normally nontritiated, aerated, high conductivity building sumps, floor and sample station drains), steam generator blowdown streams, chemical waste streams, low purity and high purity liquid streams (resin regenerate and laboratory wastes), as appropriate for the type of reactor.

a. The applicant submits, as specified in § 50.4, an evaluation of the potential for effects from long-term buildup on the environment in the vicinity of the site of radioactive material, with a radioactive half-life greater than one year, to be released; and
b. The provisions of paragraph A.1 are met.
B. For radioactive material above background in gaseous effluents the annual total quantity of radioactive material to be released to the atmosphere by all light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors at a site:
1. The calculated annual air dose due to gamma radiation at any location near ground level which could be occupied by individuals at or beyond the boundary of the site should not exceed 10 millirads; and
2. The calculated annual air dose due to beta radiation at any location near ground level which could be occupied by individuals at or beyond the boundary of the site should not exceed 20 millirads.
3. Notwithstanding the guidance in paragraphs B.1 and B.2, for a particular site:
a. The Commission may specify, as guidance on design objectives, a lower quantity of radioactive material above background in gaseous effluents to be released to the atmosphere if it appears that the use of the design objectives described in paragraphs B.1 and B.2 is likely to result in an annual dose to an individual in an unrestricted area in excess of 5 millirems to the total body or 15 millirems to the skin; or
b. Design objectives based on a higher quantity of radioactive material above background in gaseous effluents to be released to the atmosphere than the quantity specified in paragraphs B.1 and B.2 may be deemed to meet the requirements for keeping levels of radioactive material in gaseous effluents as low as practicable if the applicant provides reasonable assurance that the proposed higher quantity will not result in annual doses to an individual in an unrestricted area in excess of 5 millirems to the total body or 15 millirems to the skin.
C. For radioactive iodine and radioactive material in particulate form above background released to the atmosphere:
1. The calculated annual total quantity of all radioactive iodine and radioactive material in particulate form from all light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors at a site should not result in an annual dose or dose commitment to any organ of an individual in an unrestricted area from all pathways of exposure in excess of 15 millirems. In determining the dose or dose commitment the portion thereof due to intake of radioactive material via the food pathways may be evaluated at the locations where the food pathways actually exist; and
2. The calculated annual total quantity of iodine-131 in gaseous effluents should not exceed 1 curie for each light-water-cooled nuclear power reactor at a site.
3. Notwithstanding the guidance in paragraphs C.1 and C.2 for a particular site, if an applicant for a permit to construct a light-water-cooled nuclear power reactor has proposed baseline in-plant control measures 3 to reduce the possible sources of radioactive iodine releases, and the calculated annual quantities taking into account such control measures exceed the design objective quantities set forth in paragraphs C.1 and C.2, the requirements for design objectives for radioactive iodine and radioactive material in particulate form in gaseous effluents may be deemed to have been met provided the calculated annual total quantity of all radioactive iodine and radioactive material in particulate form that may be released in gaseous effluents does not exceed four times the quantity calculated pursuant to paragraph C.1.

Footnote(s):
3 Such in-plant control measures may include treatment of steam generator blowdown tank exhaust, clean steam supplies for turbine gland seals, condenser vacuum systems, containment purging exhaust and ventilation exhaust systems and special design features to reduce contaminated steam and liquid leakage from valves and other sources such as sumps and tanks, as appropriate for the type of reactor.

[40 FR 19442, May 5, 1975, as amended at 40 FR 40818, Sept. 4, 1975; 40 FR 58847, Dec. 19, 1975; 41 FR 16447, Apr. 19, 1976; 42 FR 20139, Apr. 18, 1977; 51 FR 40311, Nov. 6, 1986; 61 FR 39303, July 29, 1996; 72 FR 49507, Aug. 28, 2007]

Title 10 published on 2014-01-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.

Title 10 published on 2014-01-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 10 CFR 50 after this date.

  • 2014-04-22; vol. 79 # 77 - Tuesday, April 22, 2014
    1. 79 FR 22456 - Performance-Based Emergency Core Cooling Systems Cladding Acceptance Criteria
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      NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION
      Proposed rule; extension of comment period.
      The comment periods for the proposed rule, the associated draft guidance, and the information collection aspects (79 FR 16106; March 24, 2014) have been extended and now end on August 21, 2014.
      10 CFR Parts 50 and 52