§ 100.134Internal communications by corporations, labor organizations, and membership organizations.
(a)General provision. Any cost incurred for any communication by a membership organization, including a labor organization, to its members, or any cost incurred for any communication by a corporation to its stockholders or executive or administrative personnel, is not an expenditure, except that the costs directly attributable to such a communication that expressly advocates the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate (other than a communication primarily devoted to subjects other than the express advocacy of the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate) shall, if those costs exceed $2,000 per election, be reported to the Commission on FEC Form 7 in accordance with 11 CFR 104.6.
(b)Definition of labor organization. For purposes of this section, labor organization means an organization of any kind (any local, national, or international union, or any local or State central body of a federation of unions is each considered a separate labor organization for purposes of this section) or any agency or employee representative committee or plan, in which employees participate and that exists for the purpose, in whole or in part, of dealing with employers concerning grievances, labor disputes, wages, rates of pay, hours of employment, or conditions of work.
(c)Definition of stockholder. For purposes of this section, stockholder means a person who has a vested beneficial interest in stock, has the power to direct how that stock shall be voted, if it is voting stock, and has the right to receive dividends.
(d)Definition of executive or administrative personnel. For purposes of this section, executive or administrative personnel means individuals employed by a corporation who are paid on a salary rather than hourly basis and who have policymaking, managerial, professional, or supervisory responsibilities.
(1) This definition includes—
(i) Individuals who run the corporation's business, such as officers, other executives, and plant, division, and section managers; and
(ii) Individuals following the recognized professions, such as lawyers and engineers.
(2) This definition does not include—
(i) Professionals who are represented by a labor organization;
(ii) Salaried foremen and other salaried lower level supervisors having direct supervision over hourly employees;
(iii) Former or retired personnel who are not stockholders; or
(iv) Individuals who may be paid by the corporation, such as consultants, but who are not employees, within the meaning of 26 CFR 31.3401(c)-(1), of the corporation for the purpose of the collection of, and liability for, employee tax under 26 CFR 1.3402(a)-(1).
(3) Individuals on commission may be considered executive or administrative personnel if they have policymaking, managerial, professional, or supervisory responsibility and if the individuals are employees, within the meaning of 26 CFR 31.3401(c)-(1), of the corporation for the purpose of the collection of, and liability for, employee tax under 26 CFR 31.3402(a)-(1).
(4) The Fair Labor Standards Act, 29 U.S.C. 201, et seq. and the regulations issued pursuant to such Act, 29 CFR part 541, may serve as a guideline in determining whether individuals have policymaking, managerial, professional, or supervisory responsibilities.
(e)Definition of membership organization. For purposes of this section membership organization means an unincorporated association, trade association, cooperative, corporation without capital stock, or a local, national, or international labor organization that:
(1) Is composed of members, some or all of whom are vested with the power and authority to operate or administer the organization, pursuant to the organization's articles, bylaws, constitution or other formal organizational documents;
(2) Expressly states the qualifications and requirements for membership in its articles, bylaws, constitution or other formal organizational documents;
(3) Makes its articles, bylaws, constitution or other formal organizational documents available to its members;
(4) Expressly solicits persons to become members;
(5) Expressly acknowledges the acceptance of membership, such as by sending a membership card or including the member's name on a membership newsletter list; and
(6) Is not organized primarily for the purpose of influencing the nomination for election, or election, of any individual for Federal office.
(f)Definition of members. For purposes of this section, the term members includes all persons who are currently satisfying the requirements for membership in a membership organization, affirmatively accept the membership organization's invitation to become a member, and either:
(1) Have some significant financial attachment to the membership organization, such as a significant investment or ownership stake; or
(2) Pay membership dues at least annually, of a specific amount predetermined by the organization; or
(3) Have a significant organizational attachment to the membership organization that includes: affirmation of membership on at least an annual basis and direct participatory rights in the governance of the organization. For example, such rights could include the right to vote directly or indirectly for at least one individual on the membership organization's highest governing board; the right to vote on policy questions where the highest governing body of the membership organization is obligated to abide by the results; the right to approve the organization's annual budget; or the right to participate directly in similar aspects of the organization's governance.
(g)Additional considerations in determining membership. Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (f) of this section, the Commission may determine, on a case-by-case basis, that persons who do not precisely meet the requirements of the general rule, but have a relatively enduring and independently significant financial or organizational attachment to the organization, may be considered members for purposes of this section. For example, student members who pay a lower amount of dues while in school, long term dues paying members who qualify for lifetime membership status with little or no dues obligation, and retired members may be considered members of the organization.
(h)Members of local unions. Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (f) of this section, members of a local union are considered to be members of any national or international union of which the local union is a part and of any federation with which the local, national, or international union is affiliated.
(i)National federation structures. In the case of a membership organization that has a national federation structure or has several levels, including, for example, national, state, regional and/or local affiliates, a person who qualifies as a member of any entity within the federation or of any affiliate by meeting the requirements of paragraphs (f)(1), (2), or (3) of this section shall also qualify as a member of all affiliates for purposes of paragraphs (d) through (i) of this section. The factors set forth at 11 CFR 100.5(g)(2), (3) and (4) shall be used to determine whether entities are affiliated for purposes of this paragraph.
(j)Non-applicability of state law in determining status of membership organizations. The status of a membership organization, and of members, for purposes of this section, shall be determined pursuant to paragraphs (d) through (i) of this section and not by provisions of state law governing unincorporated associations, trade associations, cooperatives, corporations without capital stock, or labor organizations.
(k)Definition of election. For purposes of this section, election means two separate processes in a calendar year, to each of which the $2,000 threshold described above applies separately. The first process is comprised of all primary elections for Federal office, whenever and wherever held; the second process is comprised of all general elections for Federal office, whenever and wherever held. The term election shall also include each special election held to fill a vacancy in a Federal office (11 CFR 100.2(f)) or each runoff election (11 CFR 100.2(d)).
(l)Definition of corporation. For purposes of this section, corporation means any separately incorporated entity, whether or not affiliated.
(m)Reporting. When the aggregate costs under this section exceed $2,000 per election, all costs of the communication(s) shall be reported on the filing dates specified in 11 CFR 104.6, and shall include the total amount expended for each candidate supported.
Title 11 published on 2014-01-01
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