As used in this part:
Additional tier 1 capital
is defined in § 217.20(c)
Advanced approaches total risk-weighted assets means:
Credit valuation adjustment (CVA) risk-weighted assets;
Risk-weighted assets for operational risk; and
Advanced market risk-weighted assets
means the advanced measure for market risk calculated under § 217.204
multiplied by 12.5.
Allocated transfer risk reserves
means reserves that have been established in accordance with section 905(a) of the International Lending Supervision Act
, against certain assets whose value U.S. supervisory authorities have found to be significantly impaired by protracted transfer risk problems.
Allowances for loan and lease losses (ALLL)
means valuation allowances that have been established through a charge against earnings to cover estimated credit losses on loans, lease financing receivables or other extensions of credit as determined in accordance with GAAP
. ALLL excludes “allocated transfer risk reserves.” For purposes of this part, ALLL includes allowances that have been established through a charge against earnings to cover estimated credit losses associated with off-balance sheet credit exposures as determined in accordance with GAAP
Asset-backed commercial paper (ABCP) program
means a program established primarily for the purpose of issuing commercial paper that is investment grade
and backed by underlying exposures
held in a bankruptcy-remote special purpose entity (SPE).
Establishes an ABCP program;
Approves the sellers permitted to participate in an ABCP program;
Approves the exposures to be purchased by an ABCP program; or
Administers the ABCP program by monitoring the underlying exposures, underwriting or otherwise arranging for the placement of debt or other obligations issued by the program, compiling monthly reports, or ensuring compliance with the program documents and with the program's credit and investment policy.
Bank Holding Company Act
means the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956
, as amended (12 U.S.C. 1841
Bankruptcy remote means, with respect to an entity or asset, that the entity or asset would be excluded from an insolvent entity's estate in receivership, insolvency, liquidation, or similar proceeding.
means the Board
of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
Call Report means Consolidated Reports of Condition and Income.
means, with respect to an asset, the value of the asset on the balance sheet of the Board-regulated institution
, determined in accordance with GAAP
Central counterparty (CCP) means a counterparty (for example, a clearing house) that facilitates trades between counterparties in one or more financial markets by either guaranteeing trades or novating contracts.
CFTC means the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission.
The following transactions are cleared transactions:
Clearing member means a member of, or direct participant in, a CCP that is entitled to enter into transactions with the CCP.
Clearing member client
means a party to a cleared transaction
associated with a CCP in which a clearing member
acts either as a financial intermediary with respect to the party or guarantees the performance of the party to the CCP.
means a legal contract that specifies the time when, and circumstances under which, a counterparty is required to pledge collateral to a Board-regulated institution
for a single financial contract or for all financial contracts in a netting set
and confers upon the Board-regulated institution
a perfected, first-priority security interest (notwithstanding the prior security interest of any custodial agent), or the legal equivalent thereof, in the collateral posted by the counterparty under the agreement. This security interest must provide the Board-regulated institution
with a right to close out the financial positions and liquidate the collateral upon an event of default of, or failure to perform by, the counterparty under the collateral agreement
. A contract would not satisfy this requirement if the Board-regulated institution
's exercise of rights under the agreement may be stayed or avoided under applicable law in the relevant jurisdictions, other than in receivership, conservatorship, resolution under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act
, Title II of the Dodd-Frank Act
, or under any similar insolvency law applicable to GSEs.
Commodity derivative contract means a commodity-linked swap, purchased commodity-linked option, forward commodity-linked contract, or any other instrument linked to commodities that gives rise to similar counterparty credit risks.
Commodity Exchange Act
means the Commodity Exchange Act
of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 1
Common equity tier 1 capital
is defined in § 217.20(b)
means a corporation, partnership, limited liability company
, depository institution
, business trust, special purpose entity, association, or similar organization.
Owns, controls, or holds with power to vote 25 percent or more of a class of voting securities of the company; or
Consolidates the company for financial reporting purposes.
means an exposure to a company
that is not:
An exposure to a GSE;
An unsettled transaction.
Country risk classification (CRC)
with respect to a sovereign
, means the most recent consensus CRC published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) as of December 31st of the prior calendar year that provides a view of the likelihood that the sovereign
will service its external debt.
As of June 30 of the previous calendar year, derived 50 percent or more of its total consolidated assets or 50 percent of its total revenues on an enterprise-wide basis (as calculated under GAAP) from activities that are not financial in nature under section 4(k) of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1842(k));
A top-tier savings and loan holding company that, as of June 30 of the previous calendar year, held 25 percent or more of its total consolidated assets in subsidiaries that are insurance underwriting companies (other than assets associated with insurance for credit risk); and
For purposes of paragraph (3)(i) of this definition, the company must calculate its total consolidated assets in accordance with GAAP, or if the company does not calculate its total consolidated assets under GAAP for any regulatory purpose (including compliance with applicable securities laws), the company may estimate its total consolidated assets, subject to review and adjustment by the Board.
means a financial contract executed under standard industry credit derivative
documentation that allows one party (the protection purchaser) to transfer the credit risk of one or more exposures (reference exposure(s)) to another party (the protection provider) for a certain period of time.
Credit-enhancing interest-only strip (CEIO) means an on-balance sheet asset that, in form or in substance:
Represents a contractual right to receive some or all of the interest and no more than a minimal amount of principal due on the underlying exposures of a securitization; and
Exposes the holder of the CEIO to credit risk directly or indirectly associated with the underlying exposures that exceeds a pro rata share of the holder's claim on the underlying exposures, whether through subordination provisions or other credit-enhancement techniques.
Early default clauses and similar warranties that permit the return of, or premium refund clauses covering, 1-4 family residential first mortgage loans that qualify for a 50 percent risk weight for a period not to exceed 120 days from the date of transfer. These warranties may cover only those loans that were originated within 1 year of the date of transfer;
Premium refund clauses that cover assets guaranteed, in whole or in part, by the U.S. Government, a U.S. Government agency or a GSE, provided the premium refund clauses are for a period not to exceed 120 days from the date of transfer; or
Warranties that permit the return of underlying exposures in instances of misrepresentation, fraud, or incomplete documentation.
Credit-risk-weighted assets means 1.06 multiplied by the sum of:
Total wholesale and retail risk-weighted assets as calculated under § 217.131;
Risk-weighted assets for securitization exposures as calculated under § 217.142; and
Risk-weighted assets for equity exposures as calculated under § 217.151.
means, with respect to a netting set
, the larger of zero or the fair value of a transaction or portfolio of transactions within the netting set
that would be lost upon default of the counterparty, assuming no recovery on the value of the transactions. Current exposure
is also called replacement cost.
Default fund contribution
means the funds contributed or commitments made by a clearing member
to a CCP's mutualized loss sharing arrangement.
means a depository institution
as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act
means a financial contract whose value is derived from the values of one or more underlying assets, reference rates, or indices of asset values or reference rates. Derivative contracts include interest rate derivative contracts, exchange rate derivative contracts, equity derivative contracts, commodity derivative contracts, credit derivative
contracts, and any other instrument that poses similar counterparty credit risks. Derivative contracts also include unsettled securities, commodities, and foreign exchange transactions with a contractual settlement or delivery lag that is longer than the lesser of the market standard for the particular instrument or five business days.
The executive officer has no contractual right, whether express or implied, to the bonus payment.
A reduction of tier 1 capital through the repurchase of a tier 1 capital instrument or by other means, except when a Board-regulated institution, within the same quarter when the repurchase is announced, fully replaces a tier 1 capital instrument it has repurchased by issuing another capital instrument that meets the eligibility criteria for:
A common equity tier 1 capital instrument if the instrument being repurchased was part of the Board-regulated institution's common equity tier 1 capital, or
A common equity tier 1 or additional tier 1 capital instrument if the instrument being repurchased was part of the Board-regulated institution's tier 1 capital;
A reduction of tier 2 capital through the repurchase, or redemption prior to maturity, of a tier 2 capital instrument or by other means, except when a Board-regulated institution, within the same quarter when the repurchase or redemption is announced, fully replaces a tier 2 capital instrument it has repurchased by issuing another capital instrument that meets the eligibility criteria for a tier 1 or tier 2 capital instrument;
A dividend declaration or payment on any tier 1 capital instrument;
A dividend declaration or interest payment on any tier 2 capital instrument if the Board-regulated institution has full discretion to permanently or temporarily suspend such payments without triggering an event of default; or
Any similar transaction that the Board determines to be in substance a distribution of capital.
Dodd-Frank Act means the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (Pub. L. 111-203, 124 Stat. 1376).
Early amortization provision means a provision in the documentation governing a securitization that, when triggered, causes investors in the securitization exposures to be repaid before the original stated maturity of the securitization exposures, unless the provision:
Leaves investors fully exposed to future draws by borrowers on the underlying exposures even after the provision is triggered.
Eligible ABCP liquidity facility
means a liquidity facility supporting ABCP, in form or in substance, that is subject to an asset quality test at the time of draw that precludes funding against assets that are 90 days or more past due or in default. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, a liquidity facility is an eligible ABCP liquidity facility
if the assets or exposures funded under the liquidity facility that do not meet the eligibility requirements are guaranteed by a sovereign
that qualifies for a 20 percent risk weight or lower.
Is not structured to avoid allocating losses to securitization exposures held by investors or otherwise structured to provide credit enhancement to the securitization; and
For a traditional securitization, is only exercisable when 10 percent or less of the principal amount of the underlying exposures or securitization exposures (determined as of the inception of the securitization) is outstanding; or
For a synthetic securitization, is only exercisable when 10 percent or less of the principal amount of the reference portfolio of underlying exposures (determined as of the inception of the securitization) is outstanding.
Eligible credit derivative
means a credit derivative
in the form of a credit default swap, nth
-to-default swap, total return swap, or any other form of credit derivative
approved by the Board
, provided that:
The contract meets the requirements of an eligible guarantee and has been confirmed by the protection purchaser and the protection provider;
Any assignment of the contract has been confirmed by all relevant parties;
If the credit derivative is a credit default swap or nth-to-default swap, the contract includes the following credit events:
Failure to pay any amount due under the terms of the reference exposure, subject to any applicable minimal payment threshold that is consistent with standard market practice and with a grace period that is closely in line with the grace period of the reference exposure; and
Receivership, insolvency, liquidation, conservatorship or inability of the reference exposure issuer to pay its debts, or its failure or admission in writing of its inability generally to pay its debts as they become due, and similar events;
The terms and conditions dictating the manner in which the contract is to be settled are incorporated into the contract;
If the contract allows for cash settlement, the contract incorporates a robust valuation process to estimate loss reliably and specifies a reasonable period for obtaining post-credit event valuations of the reference exposure;
If the contract requires the protection purchaser to transfer an exposure to the protection provider at settlement, the terms of at least one of the exposures that is permitted to be transferred under the contract provide that any required consent to transfer may not be unreasonably withheld;
If the credit derivative is a credit default swap or nth-to-default swap, the contract clearly identifies the parties responsible for determining whether a credit event has occurred, specifies that this determination is not the sole responsibility of the protection provider, and gives the protection purchaser the right to notify the protection provider of the occurrence of a credit event; and
Eligible credit reserves
means all general allowances that have been established through a charge against earnings to cover estimated credit losses associated with on- or off-balance sheet wholesale and retail exposures, including the ALLL associated with such exposures, but excluding allocated transfer risk reserves
established pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 3904
and other specific reserves created against recognized losses.
A contingent obligation of the U.S. government or its agencies, the enforceability of which is dependent upon some affirmative action on the part of the beneficiary of the guarantee or a third party (for example, meeting servicing requirements);
Covers all or a pro rata portion of all contractual payments of the obligated party on the reference exposure;
Gives the beneficiary a direct claim against the protection provider;
Is not unilaterally cancelable by the protection provider for reasons other than the breach of the contract by the beneficiary;
Except for a guarantee by a sovereign, is legally enforceable against the protection provider in a jurisdiction where the protection provider has sufficient assets against which a judgment may be attached and enforced;
Requires the protection provider to make payment to the beneficiary on the occurrence of a default (as defined in the guarantee) of the obligated party on the reference exposure in a timely manner without the beneficiary first having to take legal actions to pursue the obligor for payment;
Does not increase the beneficiary's cost of credit protection on the guarantee in response to deterioration in the credit quality of the reference exposure; and
Is subject to consolidated supervision and regulation comparable to that imposed on depository institutions, U.S. securities broker-dealers, or U.S. insurance companies (as the case may be).
Eligible guarantor means:
A sovereign, the Bank for International Settlements, the International Monetary Fund, the European Central Bank, the European Commission, a Federal Home Loan Bank, Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation (Farmer Mac), a multilateral development bank (MDB), a depository institution, a bank holding company, a savings and loan holding company, a credit union, a foreign bank, or a qualifying central counterparty; or
An entity (other than a special purpose entity):
That at the time the guarantee is issued or anytime thereafter, has issued and outstanding an unsecured debt security without credit enhancement that is investment grade;
Whose creditworthiness is not positively correlated with the credit risk of the exposures for which it has provided guarantees; and
That is not an insurance company engaged predominately in the business of providing credit protection (such as a monoline bond insurer or re-insurer).
Eligible margin loan means:
An extension of credit where:
The extension of credit is collateralized exclusively by liquid and readily marketable debt or equity securities, or gold;
The collateral is marked-to-fair value daily, and the transaction is subject to daily margin maintenance requirements; and
The extension of credit is conducted under an agreement that provides the Board-regulated institution the right to accelerate and terminate the extension of credit and to liquidate or set-off collateral promptly upon an event of default, including upon an event of receivership, insolvency, liquidation, conservatorship, or similar proceeding, of the counterparty, provided that, in any such case, any exercise of rights under the agreement will not be stayed or avoided under applicable law in the relevant jurisdictions, other than in receivership, conservatorship, resolution under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, Title II of the Dodd-Frank Act, or under any similar insolvency law applicable to GSEs.4
This requirement is met where all transactions under the agreement are (i) executed under U.S. law and (ii) constitute “securities contracts” under section 555 of the Bankruptcy Code (11 U.S.C. 555
), qualified financial contracts under section 11(e)(8) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act
, or netting contracts between or among financial institutions under sections 401-407 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Improvement Act or the Federal Reserve Board
's Regulation EE (12 CFR part 231
The servicer is entitled to full reimbursement of advances, except that a servicer may be obligated to make non-reimbursable advances for a particular underlying exposure if any such advance is contractually limited to an insignificant amount of the outstanding principal balance of that exposure;
The servicer's right to reimbursement is senior in right of payment to all other claims on the cash flows from the underlying exposures of the securitization; and
The servicer has no legal obligation to, and does not make advances to the securitization if the servicer concludes the advances are unlikely to be repaid.
Employee stock ownership plan
has the same meaning as in 29 CFR 2550.407d-6
Equity derivative contract means an equity-linked swap, purchased equity-linked option, forward equity-linked contract, or any other instrument linked to equities that gives rise to similar counterparty credit risks.
Equity exposure means:
A security or instrument (whether voting or non-voting) that represents a direct or an indirect ownership interest in, and is a residual claim on, the assets and income of a company, unless:
The ownership interest incorporates a payment or other similar obligation on the part of the issuing company (such as an obligation to make periodic payments); or
A security or instrument that is mandatorily convertible into a security or instrument described in paragraph (1) of this definition;
An option or warrant that is exercisable for a security or instrument described in paragraph (1) of this definition; or
Any other security or instrument (other than a securitization exposure) to the extent the return on the security or instrument is based on the performance of a security or instrument described in paragraph (1) of this definition.
means the Employee Retirement Income and Security Act of 1974 (29 U.S.C. 1001
Exchange rate derivative contract means a cross-currency interest rate swap, forward foreign-exchange contract, currency option purchased, or any other instrument linked to exchange rates that gives rise to similar counterparty credit risks.
means a person who holds the title or, without regard to title, salary, or compensation, performs the function of one or more of the following positions: President, chief executive officer
, executive chairman, chief operating officer, chief financial officer
, chief investment officer, chief legal officer, chief lending officer, chief risk officer, or head of a major business line, and other staff that the board
of directors of the Board-regulated institution
deems to have equivalent responsibility.
Expected credit loss (ECL) means:
For a wholesale exposure to a non-defaulted obligor or segment of non-defaulted retail exposures that is carried at fair value with gains and losses flowing through earnings or that is classified as held-for-sale and is carried at the lower of cost or fair value with losses flowing through earnings, zero.
For all other wholesale exposures to non-defaulted obligors or segments of non-defaulted retail exposures, the product of the probability of default (PD) times the loss given default (LGD) times the exposure at default (EAD) for the exposure or segment.
For a wholesale exposure to a defaulted obligor or segment of defaulted retail exposures, the Board-regulated institution's impairment estimate for allowance purposes for the exposure or segment.
Total ECL is the sum of expected credit losses for all wholesale and retail exposures other than exposures for which the Board-regulated institution has applied the double default treatment in § 217.135.
Exposure amount means:
Federal Deposit Insurance Act
means the Federal Deposit Insurance Act
(12 U.S.C. 1813
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act
means the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991
(12 U.S.C. 4401
Financial collateral means collateral:
Equity securities that are publicly traded;
Convertible bonds that are publicly traded; or
Money market fund shares and other mutual fund shares if a price for the shares is publicly quoted daily; and
In which the Board-regulated institution has a perfected, first-priority security interest or, outside of the United States, the legal equivalent thereof (with the exception of cash on deposit and notwithstanding the prior security interest of any custodial agent).
Financial institution means:
Any designated financial market utility, as defined in section 803 of the Dodd-Frank Act;
Any entity not domiciled in the United States (or a political subdivision thereof) that is supervised and regulated in a manner similar to entities described in paragraphs (1) or (2) of this definition; or
An investment in GAAP equity instruments of the company with an adjusted carrying value or exposure amount equal to or greater than $10 million; or
More than 10 percent of the company's issued and outstanding common shares (or similar equity interest), and
Which is predominantly engaged in the following activities:
Lending money, securities or other financial instruments, including servicing loans;
Insuring, guaranteeing, indemnifying against loss, harm, damage, illness, disability, or death, or issuing annuities;
Underwriting, dealing in, making a market in, or investing as principal in securities or other financial instruments; or
Asset management activities (not including investment or financial advisory activities).
For the purposes of this definition, a company is “predominantly engaged” in an activity or activities if:
85 percent or more of the total consolidated annual gross revenues (as determined in accordance with applicable accounting standards) of the company is either of the two most recent calendar years were derived, directly or indirectly, by the company on a consolidated basis from the activities; or
85 percent or more of the company's consolidated total assets (as determined in accordance with applicable accounting standards) as of the end of either of the two most recent calendar years were related to the activities.
Any other company that the Board may determine is a financial institution based on activities similar in scope, nature, or operation to those of the entities included in paragraphs (1) through (4) of this definition.
For purposes of this part, “financial institution” does not include the following entities:
Small business investment companies, as defined in section 102 of the Small Business Investment Act of 1958 (15 U.S.C. 662);
Entities designated as Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs) under 12 U.S.C. 4701
et seq. and 12 CFR part 1805;
Entities registered with the SEC under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-1) or foreign equivalents thereof;
Entities to the extent that the Board-regulated institution's investment in such entities would qualify as a community development investment under section 24 (Eleventh) of the National Bank Act; and
An employee benefit plan as defined in paragraphs (3) and (32) of section 3 ofERISA, a “governmental plan” (as defined in 29 U.S.C. 1002(32)) that complies with the tax deferral qualification requirements provided in the Internal Revenue Code, or any similar employee benefit plan established under the laws of a foreign jurisdiction.
means a foreign bank
as defined in § 211.2 of the Federal Reserve Board
's Regulation K (12 CFR 211.2
) (other than a depository institution).
Forward agreement means a legally binding contractual obligation to purchase assets with certain drawdown at a specified future date, not including commitments to make residential mortgage loans or forward foreign exchange contracts.
GAAP means generally accepted accounting principles as used in the United States.
means a bond or similar obligation that is backed by the full faith and credit of a public sector entity (PSE)
Government-sponsored enterprise (GSE) means an entity established or chartered by the U.S. government to serve public purposes specified by the U.S. Congress but whose debt obligations are not explicitly guaranteed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government.
means a financial guarantee
, letter of credit, insurance, or other similar financial instrument (other than a credit derivative) that allows one party (beneficiary) to transfer the credit risk of one or more specific exposures (reference exposure) to another party (protection provider).
High volatility commercial real estate (HVCRE) exposure means a credit facility that, prior to conversion to permanent financing, finances or has financed the acquisition, development, or construction (ADC) of real property, unless the facility finances:
One- to four-family residential properties;
Would qualify as an investment in community development under 12 U.S.C. 338a or 12 U.S.C. 24 (Eleventh), as applicable, or as a “qualified investment” under 12 CFR part 228, and
Is not an ADC loan to any entity described in 12 CFR 208.22(a)(3) or 228.12(g)(3), unless it is otherwise described in paragraph (1), (2)(i), (3) or (4) of this definition;
The purchase or development of agricultural land, which includes all land known to be used or usable for agricultural purposes (such as crop and livestock production), provided that the valuation of the agricultural land is based on its value for agricultural purposes and the valuation does not take into consideration any potential use of the land for non-agricultural commercial development or residential development; or
Commercial real estate projects in which:
The loan-to-value ratio is less than or equal to the applicable maximum supervisory loan-to-value ratio in the Board's real estate lending standards at 12 CFR part 208, appendix C;
The borrower has contributed capital to the project in the form of cash or unencumbered readily marketable assets (or has paid development expenses out-of-pocket) of at least 15 percent of the real estate's appraised “as completed” value; and
The borrower contributed the amount of capital required by paragraph (4)(ii) of this definition before the Board-regulated institution advances funds under the credit facility, and the capital contributed by the borrower, or internally generated by the project, is contractually required to remain in the project throughout the life of the project. The life of a project concludes only when the credit facility is converted to permanent financing or is sold or paid in full. Permanent financing may be provided by the Board-regulated institution that provided the ADC facility as long as the permanent financing is subject to the Board-regulated institution's underwriting criteria for long-term mortgage loans.
Home country means the country where an entity is incorporated, chartered, or similarly established.
Interest rate derivative contract means a single-currency interest rate swap, basis swap, forward rate agreement, purchased interest rate option, when-issued securities, or any other instrument linked to interest rates that gives rise to similar counterparty credit risks.
International Lending Supervision Act
means the International Lending Supervision Act of 1983
(12 U.S.C. 3907
Investment fund means a company:
Where all or substantially all of the assets of the company are financial assets; and
That has no material liabilities.
means that the entity to which the Board-regulated institution
is exposed through a loan or security, or the reference entity with respect to a credit derivative
, has adequate capacity to meet financial commitments for the projected life of the asset or exposure. Such an entity or reference entity has adequate capacity to meet financial commitments if the risk of its default is low and the full and timely repayment of principal and interest is expected.
Investment in the capital of an unconsolidated financial institution
means a net long position calculated in accordance with § 217.22(h)
in an instrument that is recognized as capital for regulatory purposes by the primary supervisor of an unconsolidated regulated financial institution
and is an instrument that is part of the GAAP
equity of an unconsolidated unregulated financial institution
, including direct, indirect, and synthetic exposures to capital instruments, excluding underwriting positions held by the Board-regulated institution
for five or fewer business days.
Investment in the Board-regulated institution's own capital instrument
means a net long position calculated in accordance with § 217.22(h)
in the Board-regulated institution
's own common stock instrument, own additional tier 1 capital instrument or own tier 2 capital instrument, including direct, indirect, or synthetic exposures to such capital instruments. An investment in the Board-regulated institution's own capital instrument includes any contractual obligation to purchase such capital instrument.
means the Standard & Poor's 500 Index, the FTSE All-World Index, and any other index for which the Board-regulated institution
can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Board
that the equities represented in the index have comparable liquidity, depth of market, and size of bid-ask spreads as equities in the Standard & Poor's 500 Index and FTSE All-World Index.
Mortgage servicing assets (MSAs)
means the contractual rights owned by a Board-regulated institution
to service for a fee mortgage loans that are owned by others.
Multilateral development bank (MDB)
means the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
, the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
, the International Finance Corporation
, the Inter-American Development Bank
, the Asian Development Bank
, the African Development Bank
, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
, the European Investment Bank, the European Investment Fund
, the Nordic Investment Bank, the Caribbean Development Bank, the Islamic Development Bank, the Council of Europe Development Bank, and any other multilateral lending institution or regional development bank in which the U.S. government is a shareholder or contributing member or which the Board
determines poses comparable credit risk.
National Bank Act
means the National Bank Act
(12 U.S.C. 24
That is not subject to such a master netting agreement; or
Non-guaranteed separate account
means a separate account
where the insurance company:
Does not contractually guarantee either a minimum return or account value to the contract holder; and
Is not required to hold reserves (in the general account) pursuant to its contractual obligations to a policyholder.
-to-default credit derivative
means a credit derivative
that provides credit protection only for the nth
-defaulting reference exposure in a group of reference exposures.
means a company
established to conduct business with clients with the intention of earning a profit in its own right.
with respect to an off-balance sheet commitment
means the length of time between the date a commitment
is issued and:
For a commitment that is not subject to extension or renewal, the stated expiration date of the commitment; or
Directly or indirectly originated or securitized the underlying exposures included in the securitization; or
Serves as an ABCP program sponsor to the securitization.
Performance standby letter of credit (or performance bond)
means an irrevocable obligation of a Board-regulated institution
to pay a third-party beneficiary when a customer (account party) fails to perform on any contractual nonfinancial or commercial obligation. To the extent permitted by law or regulation, performance standby letters of credit include arrangements backing, among other things, subcontractors' and suppliers' performance, labor and materials contracts, and construction bids.
means a loan by an insurance company
to a policy holder pursuant to the provisions of an insurance contract that is secured by the cash surrender value or collateral assignment of the related policy or contract. A policy loan
A cash loan, including a loan resulting from early payment benefits or accelerated payment benefits, on an insurance contract when the terms of contract specify that the payment is a policy loan secured by the policy; and
An automatic premium loan, which is a loan that is made in accordance with policy provisions which provide that delinquent premium payments are automatically paid from the cash value at the end of the established grace period for premium payments.
Pre-sold construction loan
means any one-to-four family residential construction loan to a builder that meets the requirements of section 618(a)(1) or (2) of the Resolution Trust Corporation Refinancing, Restructuring, and Improvement Act of 1991 (12 U.S.C. 1831n note)
and the following criteria:
The loan is made in accordance with prudent underwriting standards, meaning that the Board-regulated institution has obtained sufficient documentation that the buyer of the home has a legally binding written sales contract and has a firm written commitment for permanent financing of the home upon completion;
The purchaser is an individual(s) that intends to occupy the residence and is not a partnership, joint venture, trust, corporation, or any other entity (including an entity acting as a sole proprietorship) that is purchasing one or more of the residences for speculative purposes;
The purchaser has entered into a legally binding written sales contract for the residence;
The purchaser has not terminated the contract; however, if the purchaser terminates the sales contract, the Board must immediately apply a 100 percent risk weight to the loan and report the revised risk weight in the next quarterly Call Report, for a state member bank, or the FR Y-9C, for a bank holding company or savings and loan holding company, as applicable,
The purchaser has made a substantial earnest money deposit of no less than 3 percent of the sales price, which is subject to forfeiture if the purchaser terminates the sales contract; provided that, the earnest money deposit shall not be subject to forfeiture by reason of breach or termination of the sales contract on the part of the builder;
The earnest money deposit must be held in escrow by the Board-regulated institution or an independent party in a fiduciary capacity, and the escrow agreement must provide that in an event of default arising from the cancellation of the sales contract by the purchaser of the residence, the escrow funds shall be used to defray any cost incurred by the Board-regulated institution;
The builder must incur at least the first 10 percent of the direct costs of construction of the residence (that is, actual costs of the land, labor, and material) before any drawdown is made under the loan;
The loan may not exceed 80 percent of the sales price of the presold residence; and
The loan is not more than 90 days past due, or on nonaccrual.
Publicly-traded means traded on:
Any exchange registered with the SEC as a national securities exchange under section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act; or
Any non-U.S.-based securities exchange that:
Is registered with, or approved by, a national securities regulatory authority; and
Provides a liquid, two-way market for the instrument in question.
Public sector entity (PSE)
means a state, local authority, or other governmental subdivision below the sovereign
Qualifying central counterparty (QCCP) means a central counterparty that:
Is a designated financial market utility (FMU) under Title VIII of the Dodd-Frank Act;
If not located in the United States, is regulated and supervised in a manner equivalent to a designated FMU; or
Meets the following standards:
The central counterparty requires all parties to contracts cleared by the counterparty to be fully collateralized on a daily basis;
Is in sound financial condition;
Is subject to supervision by the Board, the CFTC, or the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC), or, if the central counterparty is not located in the United States, is subject to effective oversight by a national supervisory authority in its home country; and
Meets or exceeds the risk-management standards for central counterparties set forth in regulations established by the Board, the CFTC, or the SEC under Title VII or Title VIII of the Dodd-Frank Act; or if the central counterparty is not located in the United States, meets or exceeds similar risk-management standards established under the law of its home country that are consistent with international standards for central counterparty risk management as established by the relevant standard setting body of the Bank of International Settlements; and
Makes available to the Board and the CCP's regulator the information described in paragraph (2)(i) of this definition; and
Has not otherwise been determined by the Board to not be a QCCP due to its financial condition, risk profile, failure to meet supervisory risk management standards, or other weaknesses or supervisory concerns that are inconsistent with the risk weight assigned to qualifying central counterparties under §§ 217.35 and 217.133.
Exception. A QCCP that fails to meet the requirements of a QCCP in the future may still be treated as a QCCP under the conditions specified in § 217.3(f).
Qualifying master netting agreement means a written, legally enforceable agreement provided that:
The agreement creates a single legal obligation for all individual transactions covered by the agreement upon an event of default, including upon an event of receivership, insolvency, liquidation, or similar proceeding, of the counterparty;
The agreement provides the Board-regulated institution the right to accelerate, terminate, and close-out on a net basis all transactions under the agreement and to liquidate or set-off collateral promptly upon an event of default, including upon an event of receivership, insolvency, liquidation, or similar proceeding, of the counterparty, provided that, in any such case, any exercise of rights under the agreement will not be stayed or avoided under applicable law in the relevant jurisdictions, other than in receivership, conservatorship, resolution under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, Title II of the Dodd-Frank Act, or under any similar insolvency law applicable to GSEs;
The agreement does not contain a walkaway clause (that is, a provision that permits a non-defaulting counterparty to make a lower payment than it otherwise would make under the agreement, or no payment at all, to a defaulter or the estate of a defaulter, even if the defaulter or the estate of the defaulter is a net creditor under the agreement); and
Regulated financial institution
means a financial institution
subject to consolidated supervision and regulation comparable to that imposed on the following U.S. financial institutions: Depository institutions, depository institution
holding companies, nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board
, designated financial market utilities, securities broker-dealers, credit unions, or insurance companies.
means a repurchase or reverse repurchase transaction, or a securities borrowing or securities lending transaction, including a transaction in which the Board-regulated institution
acts as agent for a customer and indemnifies the customer against loss, provided that:
The transaction is based solely on liquid and readily marketable securities, cash, or gold;
The transaction is marked-to-fair value daily and subject to daily margin maintenance requirements;
The transaction is a “securities contract” or “repurchase agreement” under section 555 or 559, respectively, of the Bankruptcy Code (11 U.S.C. 555 or 559), a qualified financial contract under section 11(e)(8) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, or a netting contract between or among financial institutions under sections 401-407 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act or the Federal Reserve Board's Regulation EE (12 CFR part 231); or
If the transaction does not meet the criteria set forth in paragraph (3)(i) of this definition, then either:
The transaction is executed under an agreement that provides the Board-regulated institution the right to accelerate, terminate, and close-out the transaction on a net basis and to liquidate or set-off collateral promptly upon an event of default, including upon an event of receivership, insolvency, liquidation, or similar proceeding, of the counterparty, provided that, in any such case, any exercise of rights under the agreement will not be stayed or avoided under applicable law in the relevant jurisdictions, other than in receivership, conservatorship, resolution under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, Title II of the Dodd-Frank Act, or under any similar insolvency law applicable to GSEs; or
Executed under an agreement that provides the Board-regulated institution the right to accelerate, terminate, and close-out the transaction on a net basis and to liquidate or set-off collateral promptly upon an event of counterparty default; and
Resecuritization exposure means:
The entity sponsoring the program fully supports the commercial paper through the provision of liquidity so that the commercial paper holders effectively are exposed to the default risk of the sponsor instead of the underlying exposures.
An exposure that is primarily secured by a first or subsequent lien on one-to-four family residential property; or
An exposure with an original and outstanding amount of $1 million or less that is primarily secured by a first or subsequent lien on residential property that is not one-to-four family; and
For purposes of calculating capital requirements under subpart E of this part, is managed as part of a segment of exposures with homogeneous risk characteristics and not on an individual-exposure basis.
Revenue obligation means a bond or similar obligation that is an obligation of a PSE, but which the PSE is committed to repay with revenues from the specific project financed rather than general tax funds.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
Securities Exchange Act
means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
(15 U.S.C. 78
Securitization exposure means:
An exposure that directly or indirectly references a securitization exposure described in paragraph (1) of this definition.
Securitization special purpose entity (securitization SPE)
means a corporation, trust, or other entity organized for the specific purpose of holding underlying exposures
of a securitization, the activities of which are limited to those appropriate to accomplish this purpose, and the structure of which is intended to isolate the underlying exposures
held by the entity from the credit risk of the seller of the underlying exposures
to the entity.
means a legally segregated pool of assets owned and held by an insurance company
and maintained separately from the insurance company
's general account assets for the benefit of an individual contract holder. To be a separate account:
The account must be legally recognized as a separate account under applicable law;
The assets in the account must be insulated from general liabilities of the insurance company under applicable law in the event of the insurance company's insolvency;
The insurance company must invest the funds within the account as directed by the contract holder in designated investment alternatives or in accordance with specific investment objectives or policies; and
All investment gains and losses, net of contract fees and assessments, must be passed through to the contract holder, provided that the contract may specify conditions under which there may be a minimum guarantee but must not include contract terms that limit the maximum investment return available to the policyholder.
Servicer cash advance facility
means a facility under which the servicer of the underlying exposures
of a securitization may advance cash to ensure an uninterrupted flow of payments to investors in the securitization, including advances made to cover foreclosure costs or other expenses to facilitate the timely collection of the underlying exposures
Small Business Investment Act
means the Small Business Investment Act of 1958
(15 U.S.C. 682
Sovereign means a central government (including the U.S. government) or an agency, department, ministry, or central bank of a central government.
means noncompliance by a sovereign
with its external debt service obligations or the inability or unwillingness of a sovereign
government to service an existing loan according to its original terms, as evidenced by failure to pay principal and interest timely and fully, arrearages, or restructuring.
Sovereign exposure means:
An exposure directly and unconditionally backed by the full faith and credit of a sovereign.
The counterparty and issuer of the collateral supporting the transaction; or
The counterparty and the reference asset of the transaction, are affiliates or are the same entity.
Standardized market risk-weighted assets
means the standardized measure for market risk calculated under § 217.204
multiplied by 12.5.
Standardized total risk-weighted assets means:
Total risk-weighted assets for general credit risk as calculated under § 217.31;
Total risk-weighted assets for cleared transactions and default fund contributions as calculated under § 217.35;
Total risk-weighted assets for unsettled transactions as calculated under § 217.38;
Total risk-weighted assets for securitization exposures as calculated under § 217.42;
Total risk-weighted assets for equity exposures as calculated under §§ 217.52 and 217.53; and
State bank means any bank incorporated by special law of any State, or organized under the general laws of any State, or of the United States, including a Morris Plan bank, or other incorporated banking institution engaged in a similar business.
State member bank or member bank
means a state bank
that is a member of the Federal Reserve System
Statutory multifamily mortgage means a loan secured by a multifamily residential property that meets the requirements under section 618(b)(1) of the Resolution Trust Corporation Refinancing, Restructuring, and Improvement Act of 1991, and that meets the following criteria: 5
The loan is made in accordance with prudent underwriting standards;
The principal amount of the loan at origination does not exceed 80 percent of the value of the property (or 75 percent of the value of the property if the loan is based on an interest rate that changes over the term of the loan) where the value of the property is the lower of the acquisition cost of the property or the appraised (or, if appropriate, evaluated) value of the property;
All principal and interest payments on the loan must have been made on a timely basis in accordance with the terms of the loan for at least one year prior to applying a 50 percent risk weight to the loan, or in the case where an existing owner is refinancing a loan on the property, all principal and interest payments on the loan being refinanced must have been made on a timely basis in accordance with the terms of the loan for at least one year prior to applying a 50 percent risk weight to the loan;
Amortization of principal and interest on the loan must occur over a period of not more than 30 years and the minimum original maturity for repayment of principal must not be less than 7 years;
Annual net operating income (before making any payment on the loan) generated by the property securing the loan during its most recent fiscal year must not be less than 120 percent of the loan's current annual debt service (or 115 percent of current annual debt service if the loan is based on an interest rate that changes over the term of the loan) or, in the case of a cooperative or other not-for-profit housing project, the property must generate sufficient cash flow to provide comparable protection to the Board-regulated institution; and
The loan is not more than 90 days past due, or on nonaccrual.
Synthetic securitization means a transaction in which:
All or a portion of the credit risk of one or more underlying exposures is retained or transferred to one or more third parties through the use of one or more credit derivatives or guarantees (other than a guarantee that transfers only the credit risk of an individual retail exposure);
The credit risk associated with the underlying exposures has been separated into at least two tranches reflecting different levels of seniority;
Performance of the securitization exposures depends upon the performance of the underlying exposures; and
All or substantially all of the underlying exposures are financial exposures (such as loans, commitments, credit derivatives, guarantees, receivables, asset-backed securities, mortgage-backed securities, other debt securities, or equity securities).
Tier 1 capital means the sum of common equity tier 1 capital and additional tier 1 capital.
Total capital means the sum of tier 1 capital and tier 2 capital.
Total leverage exposure means the sum of the following:
The notional amount of all other off-balance sheet exposures of the Board-regulated institution (excluding securities lending, securities borrowing, reverse repurchase transactions, derivatives and unconditionally cancellable commitments).
Traditional securitization means a transaction in which:
All or a portion of the credit risk of one or more underlying exposures is transferred to one or more third parties other than through the use of credit derivatives or guarantees;
The credit risk associated with the underlying exposures has been separated into at least two tranches reflecting different levels of seniority;
Performance of the securitization exposures depends upon the performance of the underlying exposures;
All or substantially all of the underlying exposures are financial exposures (such as loans, commitments, credit derivatives, guarantees, receivables, asset-backed securities, mortgage-backed securities, other debt securities, or equity securities);
The underlying exposures are not owned by a firm an investment in which qualifies as a community development investment under section 24(Eleventh) of the National Bank Act;
The Board may determine that a transaction in which the underlying exposures are owned by an investment firm that exercises substantially unfettered control over the size and composition of its assets, liabilities, and off-balance sheet exposures is not a traditional securitization based on the transaction's leverage, risk profile, or economic substance;
The transaction is not:
An employee benefit plan (as defined in paragraphs (3) and (32) of section 3 of ERISA), a “governmental plan” (as defined in 29 U.S.C. 1002(32)) that complies with the tax deferral qualification requirements provided in the Internal Revenue Code, or any similar employee benefit plan established under the laws of a foreign jurisdiction;
Registered with the SEC under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-1) or foreign equivalents thereof.
Tranche means all securitization exposures associated with a securitization that have the same seniority level.
Two-way market means a market where there are independent bona fide offers to buy and sell so that a price reasonably related to the last sales price or current bona fide competitive bid and offer quotations can be determined within one day and settled at that price within a relatively short time frame conforming to trade custom.
Underlying exposures means one or more exposures that have been securitized in a securitization transaction.
U.S. Government agency means an instrumentality of the U.S. Government whose obligations are fully and explicitly guaranteed as to the timely payment of principal and interest by the full faith and credit of the U.S. Government.
Value-at-Risk (VaR) means the estimate of the maximum amount that the value of one or more exposures could decline due to market price or rate movements during a fixed holding period within a stated confidence interval.
Wrong-way risk means the risk that arises when an exposure to a particular counterparty is positively correlated with the probability of default of such counterparty itself.