§ 226.36Prohibited acts or practices in connection with credit secured by a dwelling.
(a)Loan originator and mortgage broker defined.
(1)Loan originator. For purposes of this section, the term “loan originator” means with respect to a particular transaction, a person who for compensation or other monetary gain, or in expectation of compensation or other monetary gain, arranges, negotiates, or otherwise obtains an extension of consumer credit for another person. The term “loan originator” includes an employee of the creditor if the employee meets this definition. The term “loan originator” includes the creditor only if the creditor does not provide the funds for the transaction at consummation out of the creditor's own resources, including drawing on a bona fide warehouse line of credit, or out of deposits held by the creditor.
(2)Mortgage broker. For purposes of this section, a mortgage broker with respect to a particular transaction is any loan originator that is not an employee of the creditor.
(1) In connection with a consumer credit transaction secured by a consumer's principal dwelling, no servicer shall—
(i) Fail to credit a payment to the consumer's loan account as of the date of receipt, except when a delay in crediting does not result in any charge to the consumer or in the reporting of negative information to a consumer reporting agency, or except as provided in paragraph (c)(2) of this section;
(ii) Impose on the consumer any late fee or delinquency charge in connection with a payment, when the only delinquency is attributable to late fees or delinquency charges assessed on an earlier payment, and the payment is otherwise a full payment for the applicable period and is paid on its due date or within any applicable grace period; or
(iii) Fail to provide, within a reasonable time after receiving a request from the consumer or any person acting on behalf of the consumer, an accurate statement of the total outstanding balance that would be required to satisfy the consumer's obligation in full as of a specified date.
(2) If a servicer specifies in writing requirements for the consumer to follow in making payments, but accepts a payment that does not conform to the requirements, the servicer shall credit the payment as of 5 days after receipt.
(3) For purposes of this paragraph (c), the terms “servicer” and “servicing” have the same meanings as provided in 24 CFR 3500.2(b), as amended.
(d)Prohibited payments to loan originators.
(1)Payments based on transaction terms or conditions.
(i) In connection with a consumer credit transaction secured by a dwelling, no loan originator shall receive and no person shall pay to a loan originator, directly or indirectly, compensation in an amount that is based on any of the transaction's terms or conditions.
(ii) For purposes of this paragraph (d)(1), the amount of credit extended is not deemed to be a transaction term or condition, provided compensation received by or paid to a loan originator, directly or indirectly, is based on a fixed percentage of the amount of credit extended; however, such compensation may be subject to a minimum or maximum dollar amount.
(iii) This paragraph (d)(1) shall not apply to any transaction in which paragraph (d)(2) of this section applies.
(2)Payments by persons other than consumer. If any loan originator receives compensation directly from a consumer in a consumer credit transaction secured by a dwelling:
(i) No loan originator shall receive compensation, directly or indirectly, from any person other than the consumer in connection with the transaction; and
(ii) No person who knows or has reason to know of the consumer-paid compensation to the loan originator (other than the consumer) shall pay any compensation to a loan originator, directly or indirectly, in connection with the transaction.
(3)Affiliates. For purposes of this paragraph (d), affiliates shall be treated as a single “person.”
(e)Prohibition on steering.
(1)General. In connection with a consumer credit transaction secured by a dwelling, a loan originator shall not direct or “steer” a consumer to consummate a transaction based on the fact that the originator will receive greater compensation from the creditor in that transaction than in other transactions the originator offered or could have offered to the consumer, unless the consummated transaction is in the consumer's interest.
(2)Permissible transactions. A transaction does not violate paragraph (e)(1) of this section if the consumer is presented with loan options that meet the conditions in paragraph (e)(3) of this section for each type of transaction in which the consumer expressed an interest. For purposes of paragraph (e) of this section, the term “type of transaction” refers to whether:
(i) A loan has an annual percentage rate that cannot increase after consummation;
(ii) A loan has an annual percentage rate that may increase after consummation; or
(iii) A loan is a reverse mortgage.
(3)Loan options presented. A transaction satisfies paragraph (e)(2) of this section only if the loan originator presents the loan options required by that paragraph and all of the following conditions are met:
(i) The loan originator must obtain loan options from a significant number of the creditors with which the originator regularly does business and, for each type of transaction in which the consumer expressed an interest, must present the consumer with loan options that include:
(A) The loan with the lowest interest rate;
(B) The loan with the lowest interest rate without negative amortization, a prepayment penalty, interest-only payments, a balloon payment in the first 7 years of the life of the loan, a demand feature, shared equity, or shared appreciation; or, in the case of a reverse mortgage, a loan without a prepayment penalty, or shared equity or shared appreciation; and
(C) The loan with the lowest total dollar amount for origination points or fees and discount points.
(ii) The loan originator must have a good faith belief that the options presented to the consumer pursuant to paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section are loans for which the consumer likely qualifies.
(iii) For each type of transaction, if the originator presents to the consumer more than three loans, the originator must highlight the loans that satisfy the criteria specified in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section.
(4)Number of loan options presented. The loan originator can present fewer than three loans and satisfy paragraphs (e)(2) and (e)(3)(i) of this section if the loan(s) presented to the consumer satisfy the criteria of the options in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section and the provisions of paragraph (e)(3) of this section are otherwise met.
(f) This section does not apply to a home-equity line of credit subject to § 226.5b. Section 226.36(d) and (e) do not apply to a loan that is secured by a consumer's interest in a timeshare plan described in 11 U.S.C. 101(53D).