For the purposes of this part, the following definitions shall apply:
(a)Accrual basis of accounting means the accounting method in which expenses are recorded when incurred, whether paid or unpaid, and income is reported when earned, whether received or not received.
(b)Borrowing entity means the individual(s), partnership, joint venture, trust, corporation, or other business entity, or any combination thereof, that is primarily obligated on the loan instrument.
(c)Generally accepted accounting principles means that body of conventions, rules, and procedures necessary to define accepted accounting practices at a particular time, as promulgated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and other authoritative sources recognized as setting standards for the accounting profession in the United States. Generally accepted accounting principles include not only broad guidelines of general application but also detailed practices and procedures that constitute standards by which financial presentations are evaluated.
(d)Generally accepted auditing standards means the standards and guidelines that are generally accepted in the United States of America and that are adopted by the authoritative body that governs the overall quality of audit performance.
(e)Institution means any bank, association, or service organization chartered under the Act; the Federal Farm Credit Banks Funding Corporation, and where specifically noted, the Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation.
(f)Loan means any extension of credit or lease that is recorded as an asset of a reporting institution, whether made directly or purchased from another lender. The term “loan” includes, but is not limited to:
(1) Loans originated through direct negotiations between the reporting institution and a borrower;
(2) Purchased loans or interests in loans, including participation interests, retained subordinated participation interests in loans sold, and interests in pools of subordinated participation interests that are held in lieu of retaining a subordinated participation interest in loans sold;
(3) Contracts of sale; notes receivable; and
(4) Other similar obligations and lease financing.
(g)Material means the magnitude of an omission or misstatement of accounting information that, in light of surrounding circumstances, makes it probable that the judgment of a reasonable person relying on the information would have been changed or influenced by the omission or misstatement.
(h)Net realizable value means the net amount the lender would expect to be realized from the acquisition and subsequent sale or disposition of a loan's underlying collateral. Generally, net realizable value is equal to the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs of acquisition, completion, and disposal.
(i)Recorded investment means the face amount of the loan increased or decreased by applicable accrued interest and unamortized premium, discount, finance charges, or acquisition costs, and may also reflect a previous direct write-down of the investment.