12 CFR Part 210, Subpart B, Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 210 - Commentary

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Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 210—Commentary
The Commentary provides background material to explain the intent of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board) in adopting a particular provision in the subpart and to help readers interpret that provision. In some comments, examples are offered. The Commentary constitutes an official Board interpretation of subpart B of this part. Commentary is not provided for every provision of subpart B of this part, as some provisions are self-explanatory.
Section 210.25—Authority, Purpose, and Scope
(a) Authority and purpose.Section 210.25(a) states that the purpose of subpart B of this part is to provide rules to govern funds transfers through Fedwire and recites the Board's rulemaking authority for this subpart. Subpart B of this part is federal law and is not a “funds-transfer system rule,” as defined in section 4A-501(b) of Article 4A, Funds Transfers, of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), as set forth in appendix B of this subpart. Certain provisions of Article 4A may not be varied by a funds-transfer system rule, but under section 4A-107, regulations of the Board and Operating Circulars of the Federal Reserve Banks supersede inconsistent provisions of Article 4A to the extent of the inconsistency. In addition, regulations of the Board may preempt inconsistent provisions of state law. Accordingly, subpart B of this part supersedes or preempts inconsistent provisions of state law. It does not affect state law governing funds transfers that does not conflict with the provisions of subpart B of this part, such as Article 4A, as enacted in any state, as it applies to parties to funds transfers through Fedwire whose rights are not governed by subpart B of this part.
(b) Scope. (1) Subpart B of this part incorporates the provisions of article 4A set forth in appendix B of this part. The provisions set forth expressly in the sections of subpart B of this part supersede or preempt any inconsistent provisions of article 4A as set forth in appendix B of this part or as enacted in any state. The official comments to article 4A are not incorporated in subpart B of this part or this commentary to subpart B of this part, but the official comments may be useful in interpreting article 4A. Because section 4A-105 refers to other provisions of the Uniform Commercial Code, e.g., definitions in article 1 of the UCC, these other provisions of the UCC, as approved by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws and the American Law Institute, from time to time, are also incorporated in subpart B of this part. Subpart B of this part applies to any party to a Fedwire funds transfer that is in privity with a Federal Reserve Bank. These parties include a sender (bank or nonbank) that sends a payment order directly to a Federal Reserve Bank, a receiving bank that receives a payment order directly from a Federal Reserve Bank, and a beneficiary that receives credit to an account that it uses or maintains at a Federal Reserve Bank for a payment order sent to a Federal Reserve Bank. Other parties to a funds transfer are covered by this subpart to the same extent that this subpart would apply to them if this subpart were a “funds-transfer system rule” under article 4A that selected subpart B of this part as the governing law.
(2) The scope of the applicability of a funds-transfer system rule under article 4A is specified in section 4A-501(b), and the scope of the choice of law provision is specified in section 4A-507(c). Under section 4A-507(c), a choice of law provision is binding on the participants in a funds-transfer system and certain other parties having notice that the funds-transfer system might be used for the funds transfer and of the choice of law provision. The Uniform Commercial Code provides that a person has notice when the person has actual knowledge, receives notification, or has reason to know from all the facts and circumstances known to the person at the time in question. (See UCC § 1-201(25).) However, under sections 4A-507(b) and 4A-507(d), a choice of law by agreement of the parties takes precedence over a choice of law made by funds-transfer system rule.
(3) If originators, receiving banks, and beneficiaries that are not in privity with a Federal Reserve Bank have the notice contemplated by Section 4A-507(c) or if those parties agree to be bound by subpart B of this part, subpart B of this part generally would apply to payment orders between those remote parties, including participants in other funds-transfer systems. For example, a funds transfer may be sent from an originator's bank through a funds-transfer system other than Fedwire to a receiving bank which, in turn, sends a payment order through Fedwire to execute the funds transfer. Similarly, a Federal Reserve Bank may execute a payment order through Fedwire to a receiving bank that sends it through a funds-transfer system other than Fedwire to a beneficiary's bank. In the first example, if the originator's bank has notice that Fedwire may be used to effect part of the funds transfer, the sending of the payment order through the other funds-transfer system to the receiving bank will be governed by subpart B of this part unless the parties to the payment order have agreed otherwise. In the second example, if the beneficiary's bank has notice that Fedwire may be used to effect part of the funds transfer, the sending of the payment order to the beneficiary's bank through the other funds-transfer system will be governed by subpart B of this part unless the parties have agreed otherwise. In both cases, the other funds-transfer system's rules would also apply to, at a minimum, the portion of these funds transfers going through that funds transfer system. Because subpart B of this part is federal law, to the extent of any inconsistency, subpart B of this part will take precedence over any funds-transfer system rule applicable to the remote sender or receiving bank or to a Federal Reserve Bank. If remote parties to a funds transfer, a portion of which is sent through Fedwire, have expressly selected by agreement a law other than subpart B of this part under section 4A-507(b), subpart B of this part would not take precedence over the choice of law made by the agreement even though the remote parties had notice that Fedwire may be used and of the governing law. (See 4A-507(d).) In addition, subpart B of this part would not apply to a funds transfer sent through another funds-transfer system where no Federal Reserve Bank handles the funds transfer, even though settlement for the funds transfer is made by means of a separate net settlement or funds transfer through Fedwire.
(4) Under section 4A-108, article 4A does not apply to a funds transfer, any part of which is governed by the Electronic Fund Transfer Act (EFTA) (15 U.S.C. 1693 et seq.). In general, Fedwire funds transfers to or from consumer accounts are exempt from the EFTA and Regulation E (12 CFR part 205). A funds transfer from a consumer originator or a funds transfer to a consumer beneficiary could be carried out in part through Fedwire and in part through an automated clearinghouse or other means that is subject to the EFTA or Regulation E. In these cases, subpart B would not govern the portion of the funds transfer that is governed by the EFTA or Regulation E. (See the commentary to section 210.26(i) in this appendix, “Payment Order”.)
(5) Section 919 of the EFTA, however, governs “remittance transfers,” which may include Fedwire funds transfers. Section 919 of the EFTA sets out the obligations of remittance transfer providers with respect to consumer senders of remittance transfers. Section 919 of the EFTA generally does not affect the rights and obligations of financial institutions involved in a remittance transfer. To the extent that a Fedwire funds transfer is a “remittance transfer” governed by section 919 of the EFTA, it continues to be governed by subpart B, except that, in the event of an inconsistency between the provisions of subpart B and section 919 of the EFTA, section 919 of the EFTA shall prevail. For example, a consumer may initiate a remittance transfer governed by EFTA section 919 from the consumer's account at a depository institution, and the depository institution may initiate that transfer by sending a payment order to a Reserve Bank through the Fedwire funds system. If the consumer subsequently exercised the right to cancel the remittance transfer and obtain a refund under the terms of EFTA section 919, the depository institution would be required to comply with section 919 even if the institution does not have a right to reverse the payment order sent to the Reserve Bank under subpart B.
(6) Finally, section 4A-404(a) provides that a beneficiary's bank is obliged to pay the amount of a payment order to the beneficiary on the payment date unless acceptance of the payment order occurs on the payment date after the close of the funds-transfer business day of the bank. The Expedited Funds Availability Act provides that funds received by a bank by wire transfer shall be available for withdrawal not later than the banking day after the business day on which such funds are received (12 U.S.C. 4002(a)). That act also preempts any provision of state law that was not effective on September 1, 1989, that is inconsistent with that act or its implementing Regulation CC (12 CFR 229). Accordingly, the Expedited Funds Availability Act and Regulation CC may preempt section 4A-404(a) as enacted in any state. In order to ensure that section 4A-404(a), or other provisions of article 4A, as incorporated in subpart B of this part, do not take precedence over provisions of the Expedited Funds Availability Act, this section provides that where subpart B of this part establishes rights or obligations that are also governed by the Expedited Funds Availability Act or Regulation CC, the Expedited Funds Availability Act or Regulation CC provision shall apply and subpart B of this part shall not apply.
(c) Operating Circulars. The Federal Reserve Banks issue Operating Circulars consistent with this subpart that contain additional provisions applicable to payment orders sent through Fedwire. Under section 4A-107, these Operating Circulars supersede inconsistent provisions of Article 4A, as set forth in appendix B and as enacted in any state. These Operating Circulars are not funds-transfer system rules, but, by their terms, they are binding on all parties covered by this subpart.
(d) Government senders, receiving banks, and beneficiaries. This section clarifies that unless a statute of the United States provides otherwise, subpart B of this part applies to governmental entities, domestic or foreign, including foreign central banks as specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
Section 210.26—Definitions
Article 4A defines many terms (e.g., beneficiary, intermediary bank, receiving bank, security procedure) used in this subpart. These terms are defined or listed in sections 4A-103 through 4A-105. These terms, such as the term bank (defined in section 4A-105(d)(2)), may differ from comparable terms in subpart A of this part. As subpart B of this part incorporates consistent provisions of Article 4A, it incorporates these definitions unless these terms are expressly defined otherwise in subpart B of this part. This subpart modifies the definitions of two Article 4A terms, beneficiary's bank and payment order. This subpart also defines terms not defined in Article 4A.
(a) Article 4A. Article 4A means the version of that article of the Uniform Commercial Code set forth in appendix B of this subpart. It does not refer to the law of any particular state unless the context indicates otherwise. Subject to the express provisions of this subpart, this version of Article 4A is incorporated into this subpart and made federal law for transactions covered by this subpart.
(b) As of adjustments. As of adjustments are memorandum items that affect a bank's reserve or clearing balance for the purpose of meeting the required balance, but do not represent funds that can be used for other purposes. As discussed in the Commentary to § 210.32(b), the Federal Reserve Banks generally provide as of adjustments as a means of effecting interest payments or charges.
(d) Beneficiary's bank. The definition of beneficiary's bank in subpart B of this part differs from the section 4A-103(a)(3) definition. The subpart B definition clarifies that where a Federal Reserve Bank functions as the beneficiary's bank, it need not be identified in the payment order as the beneficiary's bank and that a Federal Reserve Bank that receives a payment order as beneficiary is also the beneficiary's bank with respect to that payment order.
(e) Fedwire. Fedwire refers to the funds-transfer system owned and operated by the Federal Reserve Banks that is governed by this subpart. The term does not refer to any particular computer, telecommunications facility, or funds transfer, but to the system as a whole, which may include transfers by telephone or by written instrument in particular circumstances. Fedwire does not include the system used for automated clearing house transfers.
(h) Off-line bank. Most Fedwire payment orders are transmitted electronically from a sender to a Federal Reserve Bank or from a Federal Reserve Bank to a receiving bank. Banks transmitting payment orders to Federal Reserve Banks electronically are often referred to as on-line banks. Some Fedwire participants, however, transmit payment orders to a Federal Reserve Bank or receive payment orders from a Federal Reserve Bank orally by telephone, or, in unusual circumstances, in writing. A bank that does not use either a terminal or a computer that links it electronically to a terminal or computer at its Federal Reserve Bank to send payment orders through Fedwire is an off-line bank.
(i) Payment Order. (1) The definition of “payment order” in subpart B of this part differs from the section 4A-103(a)(1) definition. The subpart B definition clarifies that, for the purposes of subpart B of this part, automated clearinghouse transfers and certain messages that are transmitted through Fedwire are not payment orders. Federal Reserve Banks and banks participating in Fedwire send various types of messages relating to payment orders or to other matters, through Fedwire, that are not intended to be payment orders. Under the subpart B definition, these messages, and messages involved with automated clearinghouse transfers, are not “payment orders” and therefore are not governed by this subpart. The operating circulars of the Federal Reserve Banks specify those messages that may be transmitted through Fedwire but that are not payment orders.
(2) In some cases, messages sent through Fedwire, such as certain requests for credit transfer, may be payment orders under article 4A, but are not treated as payment orders under subpart B because they are not an instruction to a Federal Reserve Bank to pay money.
(3) This subpart and article 4A govern a payment order even though the originator's or beneficiary's account may be a consumer account established primarily for personal, family, or household purposes. Under section 4A-108, article 4A does not apply to a funds transfer any part of which is governed by the Electronic Fund Transfer Act. That act, and Regulation E (12 CFR part 205) implementing it, do not apply to funds transfers through Fedwire (see 15 U.S.C. 1693a(6)(B) and 12 CFR 205.3(b)), except that section 919 of the Electronic Fund Transfer Act may govern a Fedwire funds transfer that is a “remittance transfer.” Such remittance transfers that are Fedwire funds transfers continue to be governed by this subpart. Thus, this subpart applies to all funds transfers through Fedwire even though some such transfers involve originators or beneficiaries that are consumers. (See also § 210.25(b) and accompanying commentary.)
Section 210.27—Reliance on Identifying Number
(a) Reliance by a Federal Reserve Bank on number to identify intermediary bank or beneficiary's bank.Section 4A-208 provides that a receiving bank, such as a Federal Reserve Bank, may rely on the routing number of an intermediary bank or the beneficiary's bank specified in a payment order as identifying the appropriate intermediary bank or beneficiary's bank, even if the payment order identifies another bank by name, provided that the receiving bank does not know of the inconsistency. Under section 4A-208(b)(2), if the sender of the payment order is not a bank, a receiving bank may rely on the number only if the sender had notice before the receiving bank accepted the sender's order that the receiving bank might rely on the number. This section provides this notice to entities that are not banks, such as the Department of the Treasury, that send payment orders directly to a Federal Reserve Bank.
(b) Reliance by a Federal Reserve Bank on number to identify beneficiary.Section 4A-207 provides that a beneficiary's bank, such as a Federal Reserve Bank, may rely on the number identifying a beneficiary, such as the beneficiary's account number, specified in a payment order as identifying the appropriate beneficiary, even if the payment order identifies another beneficiary by name, provided that the beneficiary's bank does not know of the inconsistency. Under section 4A-207(c)(2), if the originator is not a bank, an originator is not obliged to pay for a payment order if the originator did not have notice that the beneficiary's bank might rely on the identifying number and the person paid on the basis of the identifying number was not entitled to receive payment. This section of subpart B provides this notice to entities that are not banks, such as the Department of the Treasury, that are originators of payment orders sent directly by the originators to a Federal Reserve Bank, where that Federal Reserve Bank or another Federal Reserve Bank is the beneficiary's bank (see alsosection 4A-402(b), providing that a sender must pay a beneficiary's bank for a payment order accepted by the beneficiary's bank).
Section 210.28—Agreement of Sender
(a) Payment of sender's obligation to a Federal Reserve Bank. When a sender issues a payment order to a Federal Reserve Bank and the Federal Reserve Bank issues a conforming order implementing the sender's payment order, under section 4A-403, the sender is indebted to the Federal Reserve Bank for the amount of the payment order. A sender, other than a Federal Reserve Bank, that maintains or uses an account at a Federal Reserve Bank authorizes the Federal Reserve Bank to debit that account so that the Federal Reserve Bank can obtain payment for the payment order.
(b) Overdrafts. (1) In some cases, debits to a sender's account will create an overdraft in the sender's account. The Board and the Federal Reserve Banks have established policies concerning when a Federal Reserve Bank will permit a bank to incur an overdraft in its account at a Federal Reserve Bank. These policies do not give a bank or other sender a right to an overdraft in its account. Subpart B clarifies that a sender does not have a right to such an overdraft. If an overdraft arises, it becomes immediately due and payable at the earliest of: The end of the funds-transfer business day of the Federal Reserve Bank; the time the Federal Reserve Bank in its sole discretion, deems itself insecure and gives notice to the sender; or the time that the sender suspends payments or is closed by governmental action, such as the appointment of a receiver. In some cases, a Federal Reserve Bank extends its Fedwire operations beyond its cut-off hour for that funds-transfer business day. For the purposes of this section, unless otherwise specified by the Federal Reserve Bank making such an extension, an overdraft becomes due and payable at the end of the extended operating hours. An overdraft becomes due and payable prior to a Federal Reserve Bank's cut-off hour if the Federal Reserve Bank deems itself insecure and gives notice to the sender. Notice that the Federal Reserve Bank deems itself insecure may be given in accordance with the provisions on notice in section 1-201(27) of the UCC, in accordance with any other applicable law or agreement, or by any other reasonable means. An overdraft also becomes due and payable at the time that a bank is closed or suspends payments. For example, an overdraft becomes due and payable if a receiver is appointed for the bank or the bank is prevented from making payments by governmental order. The Federal Reserve Bank need not make demand on the sender for the overdraft to become due and payable.
(2) A sender must cover any overdraft and any other obligation of the sender to the Federal Reserve Bank by the time the overdraft becomes due and payable. By sending a payment order to a Federal Reserve Bank, the sender grants a security interest to the Federal Reserve Bank in any assets of the sender held by, or for the account of, the Federal Reserve Bank in order to secure all obligations due or to become due to the Federal Reserve Bank. The security interest attaches when the overdraft, or other obligation of the sender to the Federal Reserve Bank, becomes due and payable. The security interest does not apply to assets held by the sender as custodian or trustee for the sender's customers or third parties. Once an overdraft is due and payable, a Federal Reserve Bank may exercise its right of set off, liquidate collateral, or take other similar action to satisfy the overdrafting bank's obligation owed to the Federal Reserve Bank.
(c) Review of payment orders. (1) Under section 4A-204, a receiving bank is required to refund the principal amount of an unauthorized payment order that the sender was not obliged to pay, together with interest on the refundable amount calculated from the date that the receiving bank received payment to the date of the refund. The sender is not entitled to compensation in the form of interest if the sender fails to exercise ordinary care to determine that the order was not authorized and to notify the receiving bank within a reasonable period of time after the sender receives a notice that the payment order was accepted or that the sender's account was debited with respect to the order. Similarly, under section 4A-304, if a sender of a payment order that was erroneously executed does not notify the bank receiving the payment order within a reasonable time, the bank is not liable to the sender for compensation in the form of interest on any amount refundable to the sender. Section 210.28(c) establishes 30 calendar days as the reasonable period of time for the purposes of these provisions of Article 4A.
(2) Section 4A-505 provides that a customer must object to a debit to its account by a receiving bank within one year after the customer received notification reasonably identifying the payment order. Subpart B of this part does not vary this one-year period.
Section 210.29—Agreement of Receiving Bank
(b) Off-line banks. (1) Generally, an on-line bank receiving payment orders or advices of credit for payment orders from a Federal Reserve Bank receives the payment orders or advices electronically a short time after the corresponding payment orders are received by the on-line bank's Federal Reserve Bank. An off-line bank receiving payment orders or advices of credit from a Federal Reserve Bank does not have an electronic connection with the Federal Reserve Bank; therefore, payment orders or advices are transmitted either by telephone on the day the payment order is received by the receiving bank's Federal Reserve Bank, or sent by courier or mail along with the off-line bank's daily account statement, on the funds-transfer business day following the day the payment order is received by the off-line bank's Federal Reserve Bank.
(2) Under section 4A-302(a)(2), a Federal Reserve Bank must transmit payment orders at a time and by means reasonably necessary to allow payment to the beneficiary on the payment date, or as soon thereafter as is feasible. Therefore, where an off-line receiving bank is an intermediary bank or beneficiary's bank in a payment order, its Federal Reserve Bank attempts to transmit the payment order to the off-line bank by telephone on the day the payment order is received by the Federal Reserve Bank. A Federal Reserve Bank can generally identify these payment orders from the type code designated in the payment order.
(3) Under section 4A-404(b), if a payment order instructs payment to the account of the beneficiary, the beneficiary's bank must notify the beneficiary of the receipt of a payment order before midnight of the next funds-transfer business day following the payment date. Where an off-line bank is the beneficiary of a payment order, telephone notice by a Federal Reserve Bank to the off-line bank of the receipt of the order is not required by Article 4A because the Federal Reserve Bank sends notice to the off-line bank by courier or mail, along with its daily account statement, on the day after the payment order is received by its Federal Reserve Bank. Payment orders for which an off-line bank is the beneficiary of the order are generally designated as settlement transactions.
(4) If an off-line receiving bank maintains an account for another bank, the off-line bank may receive payment orders designated as settlement transactions in its capacity as beneficiary's bank or intermediary bank. A Federal Reserve Bank cannot readily distinguish these payment orders from settlement transactions for which the off-line bank is the beneficiary of the order. If an off-line bank notifies its Federal Reserve Bank that it maintains an account for another bank, the Federal Reserve Bank will attempt to telephone the off-line bank with respect to all settlement transactions received by such bank, whether the off-line bank is the beneficiary, the beneficiary's bank, or an intermediary bank in the payment order. Under this section, an off-line bank that does not expressly notify its Federal Reserve Bank in writing that it maintains an account for another bank warrants to that Federal Reserve Bank that it does not act as an intermediary bank or a beneficiary's bank for a bank beneficiary with respect to payment orders received through Fedwire.
Section 210.30—Payment Orders
(a) Rejection. (1) A sender must make arrangements with its Federal Reserve Bank before it can send payment orders to the Federal Reserve Bank. Federal Reserve Banks reserve the right to reject or impose conditions on the acceptance of payment orders for any reason. For example, a Federal Reserve Bank might reject or impose conditions on accepting a payment order where a sender does not have sufficient funds in its account with the Federal Reserve Bank to cover the amount of the sender's payment order and other obligations of the sender due or to become due to the Federal Reserve Bank. A Federal Reserve Bank may require a sender to execute a written agreement concerning security procedures or other matters before the sender may send payment orders to the Federal Reserve Bank.
(b) Selection of an intermediary bank. (1) Under section 4A-302, if a receiving bank (other than a beneficiary's bank), such as a Federal Reserve Bank, accepts a payment order, it must issue a payment order that complies with the sender's order. The sender's order may include instructions concerning an intermediary bank to be used that must be followed by a receiving bank (seesection 4A-302(a)(1)). If the sender does not designate any intermediary bank in its payment order, the receiving bank may select an intermediary bank through which the sender's payment order can be expeditiously issued to the beneficiary's bank so long as the receiving bank exercises ordinary care in selecting the intermediary bank (seesection 4A-302(b)).
(2) This section provides that in an interdistrict transfer, a Federal Reserve Bank is authorized and directed to select another Federal Reserve Bank as an intermediary bank. A sender may, however, instruct a Federal Reserve Bank to use a particular intermediary bank by designating that bank as the bank to be credited by that Federal Reserve Bank (or the second Federal Reserve Bank in the case of an interdistrict transfer) in its payment order, in which case the Federal Reserve Bank will send the payment order to that bank if that bank receives payment orders through Fedwire. A sender may not instruct a Federal Reserve Bank to use its discretion to select an intermediary bank other than a Federal Reserve Bank or an intermediary bank designated by the sender. In addition, a sender may not instruct a Federal Reserve Bank to use a funds-transfer system or means of transmission other than Fedwire unless the sender and the Federal Reserve Bank agree in writing to the use of the funds-transfer system or means of transmission.
(c) Same-day execution. Generally, Fedwire is a same-day value transfer system through which funds may be transferred from the originator to the beneficiary on the same funds-transfer business day. A sender may not send a payment order to a Federal Reserve Bank that specifies an execution date or payment date later than the day on which the payment order is issued, unless the sender of the order and the Federal Reserve Bank agree in writing to the arrangement.
Section 210.31—Payment by a Federal Reserve Bank to a Receiving Bank or Beneficiary
(a) Payment to a receiving bank. (1) Under section 4A-402, when a Federal Reserve Bank executes a sender's payment order by issuing a conforming order to a receiving bank that accepts the payment order, the Federal Reserve Bank must pay the receiving bank the amount of the payment order. Section 210.29(a) authorizes a Federal Reserve Bank to make the payment by crediting the account at the Federal Reserve Bank maintained or used by the receiving bank. Section 210.31(a) provides that the payment occurs when the receiving bank's account is credited or when the payment order is sent by the Federal Reserve Bank to the receiving bank, whichever is earlier. Ordinarily, payment will occur during the funds-transfer business day a short time after the payment order is received, even if the receiving bank is an off-line bank. This credit is final and irrevocable when made and constitutes final settlement under section 4A-403. Payment does not waive a Federal Reserve Bank's right of recovery under the applicable law of mistake and restitution (see§ 210.32(c)), affect a Federal Reserve Bank's right to apply the funds to any obligation due or to become due to the Federal Reserve Bank, or affect legal process or claims by third parties on the funds.
(2) This section on final payment does not apply to settlement for payment orders between Federal Reserve Banks. These payment orders are settled by other means.
(b) Payment to a beneficiary.Section 210.31(b) specifies when a Federal Reserve Bank makes payment to a beneficiary for which it is the beneficiary's bank. As in the case of payment to a receiving bank, this payment occurs at the earlier of the time that the Federal Reserve Bank credits the beneficiary's account or sends notice of the credit to the beneficiary, and is final and irrevocable when made.
Section 210.32—Federal Reserve Bank Liability; Payment of Interest
(a) Damages. (1) Under section 4A-305(d), damages for failure of a receiving bank to execute a payment order that it was obligated to execute by express agreement are limited to expenses in the transaction and incidental expenses and interest and do not include additional damages, including consequential damages, unless they are provided for in an express written agreement of the receiving bank. This section clarifies that in connection with the handling of payment orders, Federal Reserve Banks may not agree to be liable for consequential damages under this provision and shall not be liable for damages other than those that may be due under Article 4A to parties governed by this subpart. Any agreement in conflict with these provisions would not be effective, because it would be in violation of subpart B.
(2) This section does not affect the ability of other parties to a funds transfer to agree to be liable for consequential damages, the liability of a Federal Reserve Bank under section 4A-404, or the liability to parties governed by subpart B for claims not based on the handling of a payment order under this subpart.
(b) Payment of interest. (1) Under article 4A, a Federal Reserve Bank may be required to pay compensation in the form of interest to another party in connection with its handling of a funds transfer. For example, payment of compensation in the form of interest is required in certain situations pursuant to sections 4A-204 (relating to refund of payment and duty of customer to report with respect to unauthorized payment order), 4A-209 (relating to acceptance of payment order), 4A-210 (relating to rejection of payment order), 4A-304 (relating to duty of sender to report erroneously executed payment order), 4A-305 (relating to liability for late or improper execution or failure to execute a payment order), 4A-402 (relating to obligation of sender to pay receiving bank), and 4A-404 (relating to obligation of beneficiary's bank to pay and give notice to beneficiary). Under section 4A-506(a), the amount of such interest may be determined by agreement between the sender and receiving bank or by funds-transfer system rule. If there is no such agreement, under section 4A-506(b), the amount of interest is based on the federal funds rate. Section 210.32(b) requires Federal Reserve Banks to provide compensation through an explicit interest payment.
(2) Interest would be calculated in accordance with the procedures specified in section 4A-506(b). Similarly, compensation in the form of explicit interest will be paid to government senders, receiving banks, or beneficiaries described in § 210.25(d) if they are entitled to interest under this subpart. A Federal Reserve Bank may also, in its discretion, pay explicit interest directly to a remote party to a Fedwire funds transfer that is entitled to interest, rather than providing compensation to its direct sender or receiving bank.
(3) If a bank that received an explicit interest payment is not the party entitled to interest compensation under article 4A, the bank must pass the benefit of the explicit interest payment made to it to the party that is entitled to compensation in the form of interest from a Federal Reserve Bank. The benefit may be passed on either in the form of a direct payment of interest or in the form of a compensating balance, if the party entitled to interest agrees to accept the other form of compensation, and the value of the compensating balance is at least equivalent to the value of the explicit interest that otherwise would have been provided.
(c) Nonwaiver of right of recovery. Several sections of Article 4A allow for a party to a funds transfer to make a claim pursuant to the applicable law of mistake and restitution. Nothing in subpart B of this part or any Operating Circular issued under subpart B of this part waives any such claim. A Federal Reserve Bank, however, may waive such a claim by express written agreement in order to settle litigation or for other purposes.
[55 FR 40801, Oct. 5, 1990; 55 FR 47428, Nov. 13, 1990, as amended by Reg. J, 77 FR 21859, Apr. 12, 2012]

Title 12 published on 2014-01-01

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  • 2014-12-05; vol. 79 # 234 - Friday, December 5, 2014
    1. 79 FR 72107 - Collection of Checks and Other Items by Federal Reserve Banks and Funds Transfers Through Fedwire: Time of Settlement by a Paying Bank for an Item Received From a Reserve Bank
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      FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
      Final rule.
      Effective Date: The technical amendment to § 210.2(c) is effective on December 5, 2014. All other amendments are effective on July 23, 2015. Applicability Date: All items scheduled to settle on July 23, 2015, and after will post according to the new posting rule procedures for these transactions, regardless of date of deposit.
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Title 12 published on 2014-01-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 12 CFR 210 after this date.

  • 2014-12-05; vol. 79 # 234 - Friday, December 5, 2014
    1. 79 FR 72107 - Collection of Checks and Other Items by Federal Reserve Banks and Funds Transfers Through Fedwire: Time of Settlement by a Paying Bank for an Item Received From a Reserve Bank
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      FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
      Final rule.
      Effective Date: The technical amendment to § 210.2(c) is effective on December 5, 2014. All other amendments are effective on July 23, 2015. Applicability Date: All items scheduled to settle on July 23, 2015, and after will post according to the new posting rule procedures for these transactions, regardless of date of deposit.
      12 CFR Part 210