Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.
(a) The objective of this section is to implement NASA's responsibility to flow down the cross-waiver of liability in Article 16 of the IGA to its related entities in the interest of encouraging participation in the exploration, exploitation, and use of outer space through the International Space Station (ISS). The IGA declares the Partner States' intention that the cross-waiver of liability be broadly construed to achieve this objective.
(b) For the purposes of this section:
(1) The term “Party” means a party to a NASA agreement involving activities in connection with the ISS.
(2) (i) The term “related entity” means:
(A) A contractor or subcontractor of a Party or a Partner State at any tier;
(B) A user or customer of a Party or a Partner State at any tier; or
(C) A contractor or subcontractor of a user or customer of a Party or a Partner State at any tier.
(ii) The terms “contractor” and “subcontractor” include suppliers of any kind.
(iii) The term “related entity” may also apply to a State, or an agency or institution of a State, having the same relationship to a Partner State as described in paragraphs (b)(2)(i)(A) through (b)(2)(i)(C) of this section or otherwise engaged in the implementation of Protected Space Operations as defined in paragraph (b)(6) of this section.
(3) The term “damage” means:
(i) Bodily injury to, or other impairment of health of, or death of, any person;
(ii) Damage to, loss of, or loss of use of any property;
(iii) Loss of revenue or profits; or
(iv) Other direct, indirect, or consequential damage.
(4) The term “launch vehicle” means an object, or any part thereof, intended for launch, launched from Earth, or returning to Earth which carries payloads or persons, or both.
(5) The term “payload” means all property to be flown or used on or in a launch vehicle or the ISS.
(6) The term “Protected Space Operations” means all launch or transfer vehicle activities, ISS activities, and payload activities on Earth, in outer space, or in transit between Earth and outer space in implementation of the IGA, MOUs concluded pursuant to the IGA, and implementing arrangements. It includes, but is not limited to:
(i) Research, design, development, test, manufacture, assembly, integration, operation, or use of launch or transfer vehicles, the ISS, payloads, or instruments, as well as related support equipment and facilities and services; and
(ii) All activities related to ground support, test, training, simulation, or guidance and control equipment and related facilities or services. “Protected Space Operations” also includes all activities related to evolution of the ISS, as provided for in Article 14 of the IGA. “Protected Space Operations” excludes activities on Earth which are conducted on return from the ISS to develop further a payload's product or process for use other than for ISS-related activities in implementation of the IGA.
(7) The term “transfer vehicle” means any vehicle that operates in space and transfers payloads or persons or both between two different space objects, between two different locations on the same space object, or between a space object and the surface of a celestial body. A transfer vehicle also includes a vehicle that departs from and returns to the same location on a space object.
(8) The term “Partner State” includes each Contracting Party for which the IGA has entered into force, pursuant to Article 25 of the IGA or pursuant to any successor agreement. A Partner State includes its Cooperating Agency. It also includes any entity specified in the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between NASA and the Government of Japan to assist the Government of Japan's Cooperating Agency in the implementation of that MOU.
(c) (1) Cross-waiver of liability: Each Party agrees to a cross-waiver of liability pursuant to which each Party waives all claims against any of the entities or persons listed in paragraphs (c)(1)(i) through (c)(1)(iv) of this section based on damage arising out of Protected Space Operations. This cross-waiver shall apply only if the person, entity, or property causing the damage is involved in Protected Space Operations and the person, entity, or property damaged is damaged by virtue of its involvement in Protected Space Operations. The cross-waiver shall apply to any claims for damage, whatever the legal basis for such claims, against:
(i) Another Party;
(ii) A Partner State other than the United States of America;
(iii) A related entity of any entity identified in paragraph (c)(1)(i) or (c)(1)(ii) of this section; or
(iv) The employees of any of the entities identified in paragraphs (c)(1)(i) through (c)(1)(iii) of this section.
(2) In addition, each Party shall, by contract or otherwise, extend the cross-waiver of liability, as set forth in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, to its related entities by requiring them, by contract or otherwise, to:
(i) Waive all claims against the entities or persons identified in paragraphs (c)(1)(i) through (c)(1)(iv) of this section; and
(ii) Require that their related entities waive all claims against the entities or persons identified in paragraphs (c)(1)(i) through (c)(1)(iv) of this section.
(3) For avoidance of doubt, this cross-waiver of liability includes a cross-waiver of claims arising from the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, which entered into force on September 1, 1972, where the person, entity, or property causing the damage is involved in Protected Space Operations and the person, entity, or property damaged is damaged by virtue of its involvement in Protected Space Operations.
(4) Notwithstanding the other provisions of this section, this cross-waiver of liability shall not be applicable to:
(i) Claims between a Party and its own related entity or between its own related entities;
(ii) Claims made by a natural person, his/her estate, survivors or subrogees (except when a subrogee is a Party to the agreement or is otherwise bound by the terms of this cross-waiver) for bodily injury to, or other impairment of health of, or death of, such person;
(iii) Claims for damage caused by willful misconduct;
(iv) Intellectual property claims;
(v) Claims for damage resulting from a failure of a Party to extend the cross-waiver of liability to its related entities, pursuant to paragraph (c)(2) of this section; or
(vi) Claims by a Party arising out of or relating to another Party's failure to perform its obligations under the agreement.
(5) Nothing in this section shall be construed to create the basis for a claim or suit where none would otherwise exist.
(6) This cross-waiver shall not be applicable when 49 U.S.C. Subtitle IX, Chapter. 701 is applicable.
Title 14 published on 2012-01-01
no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.
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