(a) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads (the maximum loads to be expected in service) and ultimate loads (limit loads multiplied by prescribed factors of safety). Unless otherwise provided, prescribed loads are limit loads.
(b) Unless otherwise provided, the air, ground, and water loads must be placed in equilibrium with inertia forces, considering each item of mass in the airplane. These loads must be distributed to conservatively approximate or closely represent actual conditions. Methods used to determine load intensities and distribution on canard and tandem wing configurations must be validated by flight test measurement unless the methods used for determining those loading conditions are shown to be reliable or conservative on the configuration under consideration.
(c) If deflections under load would significantly change the distribution of external or internal loads, this redistribution must be taken into account.
(d) Simplified structural design criteria may be used if they result in design loads not less than those prescribed in §§ 23.331 through 23.521. For airplane configurations described in appendix A, § 23.1, the design criteria of appendix A of this part are an approved equivalent of §§ 23.321 through 23.459. If appendix A of this part is used, the entire appendix must be substituted for the corresponding sections of this part.