(a) For a level landing, the airplane is assumed to be in the following attitudes:
(1) For airplanes with tail wheels, a normal level flight attitude.
(2) For airplanes with nose wheels, attitudes in which—
(i) The nose and main wheels contact the ground simultaneously; and
(ii) The main wheels contact the ground and the nose wheel is just clear of the ground.
The attitude used in paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section may be used in the analysis required under paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section.
(b) When investigating landing conditions, the drag components simulating the forces required to accelerate the tires and wheels up to the landing speed (spin-up) must be properly combined with the corresponding instantaneous vertical ground reactions, and the forward-acting horizontal loads resulting from rapid reduction of the spin-up drag loads (spring-back) must be combined with vertical ground reactions at the instant of the peak forward load, assuming wing lift and a tire-sliding coefficient of friction of 0.8. However, the drag loads may not be less than 25 percent of the maximum vertical ground reactions (neglecting wing lift).
(c) In the absence of specific tests or a more rational analysis for determining the wheel spin-up and spring-back loads for landing conditions, the method set forth in appendix D of this part must be used. If appendix D of this part is used, the drag components used for design must not be less than those given by appendix C of this part.
(d) For airplanes with tip tanks or large overhung masses (such as turbo-propeller or jet engines) supported by the wing, the tip tanks and the structure supporting the tanks or overhung masses must be designed for the effects of dynamic responses under the level landing conditions of either paragraph (a)(1) or (a)(2)(ii) of this section. In evaluating the effects of dynamic response, an airplane lift equal to the weight of the airplane may be assumed.
[Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 23-17, 41 FR 55464, Dec. 20, 1976; Amdt. 23-45, 58 FR 42160, Aug. 6, 1993]
Title 14 published on 2014-01-01
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