14 CFR 23.509 - Towing loads.
The towing loads of this section must be applied to the design of tow fittings and their immediate attaching structure.
(a) The towing loads specified in paragraph (d) of this section must be considered separately. These loads must be applied at the towing fittings and must act parallel to the ground. In addition:
(b) For towing points not on the landing gear but near the plane of symmetry of the airplane, the drag and side tow load components specified for the auxiliary gear apply. For towing points located outboard of the main gear, the drag and side tow load components specified for the main gear apply. Where the specified angle of swivel cannot be reached, the maximum obtainable angle must be used.
(1) The side component of the towing load at the main gear must be reacted by a side force at the static ground line of the wheel to which the load is applied.
(2) The towing loads at the auxiliary gear and the drag components of the towing loads at the main gear must be reacted as follows:
(i) A reaction with a maximum value equal to the vertical reaction must be applied at the axle of the wheel to which the load is applied. Enough airplane inertia to achieve equilibrium must be applied.
|Main gear||0.225W||12 3 4||Forward, parallel to drag axis.Forward, at 30° to drag axis. Aft, parallel to drag axis. Aft, at 30° to drag axis.|
|Auxiliary gear||Swiveled forward||0.3W||56||Forward.Aft.|
|Swiveled 45° from forward||0.15W||910||Forward, in plane of wheel.Aft, in plane of wheel.|
|Swiveled 45° from aft||0.15W||1112||Forward, in plane of wheel.Aft, in plane of wheel.|
[Amdt. 23-14, 38 FR 31821, Nov. 19, 1973]
Title 14 published on 2014-01-01
no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.