14 CFR 23.51 - Takeoff speeds.

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There is 1 rule appearing in the Federal Register for 14 CFR 23. View below or at eCFR (GPOAccess)
§ 23.51 Takeoff speeds.
(a) For normal, utility, and acrobatic category airplanes, rotation speed, VR, is the speed at which the pilot makes a control input, with the intention of lifting the airplane out of contact with the runway or water surface.
(1) For multiengine landplanes, VR, must not be less than the greater of 1.05 VMC; or 1.10 VS1;
(2) For single-engine landplanes, VR, must not be less than VS1; and
(3) For seaplanes and amphibians taking off from water, VR, may be any speed that is shown to be safe under all reasonably expected conditions, including turbulence and complete failure of the critical engine.
(b) For normal, utility, and acrobatic category airplanes, the speed at 50 feet above the takeoff surface level must not be less than:
(1) For multiengine airplanes, the highest of—
(i) A speed that is shown to be safe for continued flight (or emergency landing, if applicable) under all reasonably expected conditions, including turbulence and complete failure of the critical engine;
(ii) 1.10 VMC; or
(iii) 1.20 VS1.
(2) For single-engine airplanes, the higher of—
(i) A speed that is shown to be safe under all reasonably expected conditions, including turbulence and complete engine failure; or
(ii) 1.20 VS1.
(c) For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more than 6,000 pounds maximum weight and commuter category airplanes, the following apply:
(l) V1 must be established in relation to VEF as follows:
(i) VEF is the calibrated airspeed at which the critical engine is assumed to fail. VEF must be selected by the applicant but must not be less than 1.05 VMC determined under § 23.149(b) or, at the option of the applicant, not less than VMCG determined under § 23.149(f).
(ii) The takeoff decision speed, V1, is the calibrated airspeed on the ground at which, as a result of engine failure or other reasons, the pilot is assumed to have made a decision to continue or discontinue the takeoff. The takeoff decision speed, V1, must be selected by the applicant but must not be less than VEF plus the speed gained with the critical engine inoperative during the time interval between the instant at which the critical engine is failed and the instant at which the pilot recognizes and reacts to the engine failure, as indicated by the pilot's application of the first retarding means during the accelerate-stop determination of § 23.55.
(2) The rotation speed, VR, in terms of calibrated airspeed, must be selected by the applicant and must not be less than the greatest of the following:
(i) V1;
(ii) 1.05 VMC determined under § 23.149(b);
(iii) 1.10 VS1; or
(iv) The speed that allows attaining the initial climb-out speed, V2, before reaching a height of 35 feet above the takeoff surface in accordance with § 23.57(c)(2).
(3) For any given set of conditions, such as weight, altitude, temperature, and configuration, a single value of VR must be used to show compliance with both the one-engine-inoperative takeoff and all-engines-operating takeoff requirements.
(4) The takeoff safety speed, V2, in terms of calibrated airspeed, must be selected by the applicant so as to allow the gradient of climb required in § 23.67 (c)(1) and (c)(2) but mut not be less than 1.10 VMC or less than 1.20 VS1.
(5) The one-engine-inoperative takeoff distance, using a normal rotation rate at a speed 5 knots less than VR, established in accordance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section, must be shown not to exceed the corresponding one-engine-inoperative takeoff distance, determined in accordance with § 23.57 and § 23.59(a)(1), using the established VR. The takeoff, otherwise performed in accordance with § 23.57, must be continued safely from the point at which the airplane is 35 feet above the takeoff surface and at a speed not less than the established V2 minus 5 knots.
(6) The applicant must show, with all engines operating, that marked increases in the scheduled takeoff distances, determined in accordance with § 23.59(a)(2), do not result from over-rotation of the airplane or out-of-trim conditions.
[Doc. No. 27807, 61 FR 5184, Feb. 9, 1996, as amended by Amdt. 23-62, 76 FR 75753, Dec. 2, 2011]

Title 14 published on 2014-01-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 14.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2014-05-07; vol. 79 # 88 - Wednesday, May 7, 2014
    1. 79 FR 26111 - Special Conditions: Extra Flugzeugproduktions and Vertriebs [Extra] GmbH, EA-300/LC; Acrobatic Category Aerodynamic Stability
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, Federal Aviation Administration
      Final special conditions.
      These special conditions are May 7, 2014, and are applicable beginning April 25, 2014.
      14 CFR Part 23

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United States Code

Title 14 published on 2014-01-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 14 CFR 23 after this date.

  • 2014-05-07; vol. 79 # 88 - Wednesday, May 7, 2014
    1. 79 FR 26111 - Special Conditions: Extra Flugzeugproduktions and Vertriebs [Extra] GmbH, EA-300/LC; Acrobatic Category Aerodynamic Stability
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, Federal Aviation Administration
      Final special conditions.
      These special conditions are May 7, 2014, and are applicable beginning April 25, 2014.
      14 CFR Part 23