(a) Each seat/restraint system for use in a normal, utility, or acrobatic category airplane, or in a commuter category jet airplane, must be designed to protect each occupant during an emergency landing when—
(1) Proper use is made of seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses provided for in the design; and
(2) The occupant is exposed to the loads resulting from the conditions prescribed in this section.
(b) Except for those seat/restraint systems that are required to meet paragraph (d) of this section, each seat/restraint system for crew or passenger occupancy in a normal, utility, or acrobatic category airplane, or in a commuter category jet airplane, must successfully complete dynamic tests or be demonstrated by rational analysis supported by dynamic tests, in accordance with each of the following conditions. These tests must be conducted with an occupant simulated by an anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD) defined by 49 CFR part 572, subpart B, or an FAA-approved equivalent, with a nominal weight of 170 pounds and seated in the normal upright position.
(1) For the first test, the change in velocity may not be less than 31 feet per second. The seat/restraint system must be oriented in its nominal position with respect to the airplane and with the horizontal plane of the airplane pitched up 60 degrees, with no yaw, relative to the impact vector. For seat/restraint systems to be installed in the first row of the airplane, peak deceleration must occur in not more than 0.05 seconds after impact and must reach a minimum of 19g. For all other seat/restraint systems, peak deceleration must occur in not more than 0.06 seconds after impact and must reach a minimum of 15g.
(2) For the second test, the change in velocity may not be less than 42 feet per second. The seat/restraint system must be oriented in its nominal position with respect to the airplane and with the vertical plane of the airplane yawed 10 degrees, with no pitch, relative to the impact vector in a direction that results in the greatest load on the shoulder harness. For seat/restraint systems to be installed in the first row of the airplane, peak deceleration must occur in not more than 0.05 seconds after impact and must reach a minimum of 26g. For all other seat/restraint systems, peak deceleration must occur in not more than 0.06 seconds after impact and must reach a minimum of 21g.
(3) To account for floor warpage, the floor rails or attachment devices used to attach the seat/restraint system to the airframe structure must be preloaded to misalign with respect to each other by at least 10 degrees vertically (i.e., pitch out of parallel) and one of the rails or attachment devices must be preloaded to misalign by 10 degrees in roll prior to conducting the test defined by paragraph (b)(2) of this section.
(c) Compliance with the following requirements must be shown during the dynamic tests conducted in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section:
(1) The seat/restraint system must restrain the ATD although seat/restraint system components may experience deformation, elongation, displacement, or crushing intended as part of the design.
(2) The attachment between the seat/restraint system and the test fixture must remain intact, although the seat structure may have deformed.
(3) Each shoulder harness strap must remain on the ATD's shoulder during the impact.
(4) The safety belt must remain on the ATD's pelvis during the impact.
(5) The results of the dynamic tests must show that the occupant is protected from serious head injury.
(i) When contact with adjacent seats, structure, or other items in the cabin can occur, protection must be provided so that the head impact does not exceed a head injury criteria (HIC) of 1,000.
(ii) The value of HIC is defined as—
t1 is the initial integration time, expressed in seconds, t2 is the final integration time, expressed in seconds, and a(t) is the total acceleration vs. time curve for the head strike expressed as a multiple of g (units of gravity).
(iii) Compliance with the HIC limit must be demonstrated by measuring the head impact during dynamic testing as prescribed in paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section or by a separate showing of compliance with the head injury criteria using test or analysis procedures.
(6) Loads in individual shoulder harness straps may not exceed 1,750 pounds. If dual straps are used for retaining the upper torso, the total strap loads may not exceed 2,000 pounds.
(7) The compression load measured between the pelvis and the lumbar spine of the ATD may not exceed 1,500 pounds.
(d) For all single-engine airplanes with a VSO of more than 61 knots at maximum weight, and those multiengine airplanes of 6,000 pounds or less maximum weight with a VSO of more than 61 knots at maximum weight that do not comply with § 23.67(a)(1);
(1) The ultimate load factors of § 23.561(b) must be increased by multiplying the load factors by the square of the ratio of the increased stall speed to 61 knots. The increased ultimate load factors need not exceed the values reached at a VS0 of 79 knots. The upward ultimate load factor for acrobatic category airplanes need not exceed 5.0g.
(2) The seat/restraint system test required by paragraph (b)(1) of this section must be conducted in accordance with the following criteria:
(i) The change in velocity may not be less than 31 feet per second.
(A) The peak deceleration (gp) of 19g and 15g must be increased and multiplied by the square of the ratio of the increased stall speed to 61 knots:
gp=19.0 (VS0/61)2 or gp=15.0 (VS0/61)2
(B) The peak deceleration need not exceed the value reached at a VS0 of 79 knots.
(iii) The peak deceleration must occur in not more than time (tr), which must be computed as follows:
gp=The peak deceleration calculated in accordance with paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section
tr=The rise time (in seconds) to the peak deceleration.
(e) An alternate approach that achieves an equivalent, or greater, level of occupant protection to that required by this section may be used if substantiated on a rational basis.
[Amdt. 23-36, 53 FR 30812, Aug. 15, 1988, as amended by Amdt. 23-44, 58 FR 38639, July 19, 1993; Amdt. 23-50, 61 FR 5192, Feb. 9, 1996; Amdt. 23-62, 76 FR 75756, Dec. 2, 2011]
Title 14 published on 2014-01-01
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