(a) General. The ability of the fuel system to provide fuel at the rates specified in this section and at a pressure sufficient for proper engine operation must be shown in the attitude that is most critical with respect to fuel feed and quantity of unusable fuel. These conditions may be simulated in a suitable mockup. In addition—
(1) The quantity of fuel in the tank may not exceed the amount established as the unusable fuel supply for that tank under § 23.959(a) plus that quantity necessary to show compliance with this section.
(2) If there is a fuel flowmeter, it must be blocked during the flow test and the fuel must flow through the meter or its bypass.
(3) If there is a flowmeter without a bypass, it must not have any probable failure mode that would restrict fuel flow below the level required for this fuel demonstration.
(4) The fuel flow must include that flow necessary for vapor return flow, jet pump drive flow, and for all other purposes for which fuel is used.
(b) Gravity systems. The fuel flow rate for gravity systems (main and reserve supply) must be 150 percent of the takeoff fuel consumption of the engine.
(c) Pump systems. The fuel flow rate for each pump system (main and reserve supply) for each reciprocating engine must be 125 percent of the fuel flow required by the engine at the maximum takeoff power approved under this part.
(1) This flow rate is required for each main pump and each emergency pump, and must be available when the pump is operating as it would during takeoff;
(2) For each hand-operated pump, this rate must occur at not more than 60 complete cycles (120 single strokes) per minute.
(3) The fuel pressure, with main and emergency pumps operating simultaneously, must not exceed the fuel inlet pressure limits of the engine unless it can be shown that no adverse effect occurs.
(d) Auxiliary fuel systems and fuel transfer systems. Paragraphs (b), (c), and (f) of this section apply to each auxiliary and transfer system, except that—
(1) The required fuel flow rate must be established upon the basis of maximum continuous power and engine rotational speed, instead of takeoff power and fuel consumption; and
(2) If there is a placard providing operating instructions, a lesser flow rate may be used for transferring fuel from any auxiliary tank into a larger main tank. This lesser flow rate must be adequate to maintain engine maximum continuous power but the flow rate must not overfill the main tank at lower engine powers.
(e) Multiple fuel tanks. For reciprocating engines that are supplied with fuel from more than one tank, if engine power loss becomes apparent due to fuel depletion from the tank selected, it must be possible after switching to any full tank, in level flight, to obtain 75 percent maximum continuous power on that engine in not more than—
(1) 10 seconds for naturally aspirated single-engine airplanes;
(2) 20 seconds for turbocharged single-engine airplanes, provided that 75 percent maximum continuous naturally aspirated power is regained within 10 seconds; or
(3) 20 seconds for multiengine airplanes.
(f) Turbine engine fuel systems. Each turbine engine fuel system must provide at least 100 percent of the fuel flow required by the engine under each intended operation condition and maneuver. The conditions may be simulated in a suitable mockup. This flow must—
(1) Be shown with the airplane in the most adverse fuel feed condition (with respect to altitudes, attitudes, and other conditions) that is expected in operation; and
(2) For multiengine airplanes, notwithstanding the lower flow rate allowed by paragraph (d) of this section, be automatically uninterrupted with respect to any engine until all the fuel scheduled for use by that engine has been consumed. In addition—
(i) For the purposes of this section, “fuel scheduled for use by that engine” means all fuel in any tank intended for use by a specific engine.
(ii) The fuel system design must clearly indicate the engine for which fuel in any tank is scheduled.
(iii) Compliance with this paragraph must require no pilot action after completion of the engine starting phase of operations.
(3) For single-engine airplanes, require no pilot action after completion of the engine starting phase of operations unless means are provided that unmistakenly alert the pilot to take any needed action at least five minutes prior to the needed action; such pilot action must not cause any change in engine operation; and such pilot action must not distract pilot attention from essential flight duties during any phase of operations for which the airplane is approved.