14 CFR 25.149 - Minimum control speed.

Status message

There are 53 Updates appearing in the Federal Register for 14 CFR 25. View below or at eCFR (GPOAccess)
prev | next
§ 25.149 Minimum control speed.
(a) In establishing the minimum control speeds required by this section, the method used to simulate critical engine failure must represent the most critical mode of powerplant failure with respect to controllability expected in service.
(b) VMC is the calibrated airspeed at which, when the critical engine is suddenly made inoperative, it is possible to maintain control of the airplane with that engine still inoperative and maintain straight flight with an angle of bank of not more than 5 degrees.
(c) V MC may not exceed 1.13 V SR with—
(1) Maximum available takeoff power or thrust on the engines;
(2) The most unfavorable center of gravity;
(3) The airplane trimmed for takeoff;
(4) The maximum sea level takeoff weight (or any lesser weight necessary to show V MC);
(5) The airplane in the most critical takeoff configuration existing along the flight path after the airplane becomes airborne, except with the landing gear retracted;
(6) The airplane airborne and the ground effect negligible; and
(7) If applicable, the propeller of the inoperative engine—
(i) Windmilling;
(ii) In the most probable position for the specific design of the propeller control; or
(iii) Feathered, if the airplane has an automatic feathering device acceptable for showing compliance with the climb requirements of § 25.121.
(d) The rudder forces required to maintain control at V MC may not exceed 150 pounds nor may it be necessary to reduce power or thrust of the operative engines. During recovery, the airplane may not assume any dangerous attitude or require exceptional piloting skill, alertness, or strength to prevent a heading change of more than 20 degrees.
(e) VMCG, the minimum control speed on the ground, is the calibrated airspeed during the takeoff run at which, when the critical engine is suddenly made inoperative, it is possible to maintain control of the airplane using the rudder control alone (without the use of nosewheel steering), as limited by 150 pounds of force, and the lateral control to the extent of keeping the wings level to enable the takeoff to be safely continued using normal piloting skill. In the determination of VMCG, assuming that the path of the airplane accelerating with all engines operating is along the centerline of the runway, its path from the point at which the critical engine is made inoperative to the point at which recovery to a direction parallel to the centerline is completed may not deviate more than 30 feet laterally from the centerline at any point. VMCG must be established with—
(1) The airplane in each takeoff configuration or, at the option of the applicant, in the most critical takeoff configuration;
(2) Maximum available takeoff power or thrust on the operating engines;
(3) The most unfavorable center of gravity;
(4) The airplane trimmed for takeoff; and
(5) The most unfavorable weight in the range of takeoff weights.
(f) VMCL, the minimum control speed during approach and landing with all engines operating, is the calibrated airspeed at which, when the critical engine is suddenly made inoperative, it is possible to maintain control of the airplane with that engine still inoperative, and maintain straight flight with an angle of bank of not more than 5 degrees. VMCL must be established with—
(1) The airplane in the most critical configuration (or, at the option of the applicant, each configuration) for approach and landing with all engines operating;
(2) The most unfavorable center of gravity;
(3) The airplane trimmed for approach with all engines operating;
(4) The most favorable weight, or, at the option of the applicant, as a function of weight;
(5) For propeller airplanes, the propeller of the inoperative engine in the position it achieves without pilot action, assuming the engine fails while at the power or thrust necessary to maintain a three degree approach path angle; and
(6) Go-around power or thrust setting on the operating engine(s).
(g) For airplanes with three or more engines, VMCL-2, the minimum control speed during approach and landing with one critical engine inoperative, is the calibrated airspeed at which, when a second critical engine is suddenly made inoperative, it is possible to maintain control of the airplane with both engines still inoperative, and maintain straight flight with an angle of bank of not more than 5 degrees. VMCL-2 must be established with—
(1) The airplane in the most critical configuration (or, at the option of the applicant, each configuration) for approach and landing with one critical engine inoperative;
(2) The most unfavorable center of gravity;
(3) The airplane trimmed for approach with one critical engine inoperative;
(4) The most unfavorable weight, or, at the option of the applicant, as a function of weight;
(5) For propeller airplanes, the propeller of the more critical inoperative engine in the position it achieves without pilot action, assuming the engine fails while at the power or thrust necessary to maintain a three degree approach path angle, and the propeller of the other inoperative engine feathered;
(6) The power or thrust on the operating engine(s) necessary to maintain an approach path angle of three degrees when one critical engine is inoperative; and
(7) The power or thrust on the operating engine(s) rapidly changed, immediately after the second critical engine is made inoperative, from the power or thrust prescribed in paragraph (g)(6) of this section to—
(i) Minimum power or thrust; and
(ii) Go-around power or thrust setting.
(h) In demonstrations of VMCL and VMCL-2
(1) The rudder force may not exceed 150 pounds;
(2) The airplane may not exhibit hazardous flight characteristics or require exceptional piloting skill, alertness, or strength;
(3) Lateral control must be sufficient to roll the airplane, from an initial condition of steady flight, through an angle of 20 degrees in the direction necessary to initiate a turn away from the inoperative engine(s), in not more than 5 seconds; and
(4) For propeller airplanes, hazardous flight characteristics must not be exhibited due to any propeller position achieved when the engine fails or during any likely subsequent movements of the engine or propeller controls.
[Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as amended by Amdt. 25-42, 43 FR 2321, Jan. 16, 1978; Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29774, July 20, 1990; 55 FR 37607, Sept. 12, 1990; Amdt. 25-84, 60 FR 30749, June 9, 1995; Amdt. 25-108, 67 FR 70827, Nov. 26, 2002]

Title 14 published on 2014-01-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 14.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2014-09-12; vol. 79 # 177 - Friday, September 12, 2014
    1. 79 FR 54571 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Aerospace, Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Series Airplanes; Automatic Speed Protection for Design Dive Speed
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, Federal Aviation Administration
      Final special conditions.
      Effective Date: October 14, 2014.
      14 CFR Part 25

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code

Title 14 published on 2014-01-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 14 CFR 25 after this date.

  • 2014-09-12; vol. 79 # 177 - Friday, September 12, 2014
    1. 79 FR 54571 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Aerospace, Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Series Airplanes; Automatic Speed Protection for Design Dive Speed
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, Federal Aviation Administration
      Final special conditions.
      Effective Date: October 14, 2014.
      14 CFR Part 25