14 CFR 25.735 - Brakes and braking systems.

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§ 25.735 Brakes and braking systems.
(a) Approval. Each assembly consisting of a wheel(s) and brake(s) must be approved.
(b) Brake system capability. The brake system, associated systems and components must be designed and constructed so that:
(1) If any electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, or mechanical connecting or transmitting element fails, or if any single source of hydraulic or other brake operating energy supply is lost, it is possible to bring the airplane to rest with a braked roll stopping distance of not more than two times that obtained in determining the landing distance as prescribed in § 25.125.
(2) Fluid lost from a brake hydraulic system following a failure in, or in the vicinity of, the brakes is insufficient to cause or support a hazardous fire on the ground or in flight.
(c) Brake controls. The brake controls must be designed and constructed so that:
(1) Excessive control force is not required for their operation.
(2) If an automatic braking system is installed, means are provided to:
(i) Arm and disarm the system, and
(ii) Allow the pilot(s) to override the system by use of manual braking.
(d) Parking brake. The airplane must have a parking brake control that, when selected on, will, without further attention, prevent the airplane from rolling on a dry and level paved runway when the most adverse combination of maximum thrust on one engine and up to maximum ground idle thrust on any, or all, other engine(s) is applied. The control must be suitably located or be adequately protected to prevent inadvertent operation. There must be indication in the cockpit when the parking brake is not fully released.
(e) Antiskid system. If an antiskid system is installed:
(1) It must operate satisfactorily over the range of expected runway conditions, without external adjustment.
(2) It must, at all times, have priority over the automatic braking system, if installed.
(f) Kinetic energy capacity—
(1) Design landing stop. The design landing stop is an operational landing stop at maximum landing weight. The design landing stop brake kinetic energy absorption requirement of each wheel, brake, and tire assembly must be determined. It must be substantiated by dynamometer testing that the wheel, brake and tire assembly is capable of absorbing not less than this level of kinetic energy throughout the defined wear range of the brake. The energy absorption rate derived from the airplane manufacturer's braking requirements must be achieved. The mean deceleration must not be less than 10 fps 2.
(2) Maximum kinetic energy accelerate-stop. The maximum kinetic energy accelerate-stop is a rejected takeoff for the most critical combination of airplane takeoff weight and speed. The accelerate-stop brake kinetic energy absorption requirement of each wheel, brake, and tire assembly must be determined. It must be substantiated by dynamometer testing that the wheel, brake, and tire assembly is capable of absorbing not less than this level of kinetic energy throughout the defined wear range of the brake. The energy absorption rate derived from the airplane manufacturer's braking requirements must be achieved. The mean deceleration must not be less than 6 fps2.
(3) Most severe landing stop. The most severe landing stop is a stop at the most critical combination of airplane landing weight and speed. The most severe landing stop brake kinetic energy absorption requirement of each wheel, brake, and tire assembly must be determined. It must be substantiated by dynamometer testing that, at the declared fully worn limit(s) of the brake heat sink, the wheel, brake and tire assembly is capable of absorbing not less than this level of kinetic energy. The most severe landing stop need not be considered for extremely improbable failure conditions or if the maximum kinetic energy accelerate-stop energy is more severe.
(g) Brake condition after high kinetic energy dynamometer stop(s). Following the high kinetic energy stop demonstration(s) required by paragraph (f) of this section, with the parking brake promptly and fully applied for at least 3 minutes, it must be demonstrated that for at least 5 minutes from application of the parking brake, no condition occurs (or has occurred during the stop), including fire associated with the tire or wheel and brake assembly, that could prejudice the safe and complete evacuation of the airplane.
(h) Stored energy systems. An indication to the flightcrew of the usable stored energy must be provided if a stored energy system is used to show compliance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section. The available stored energy must be sufficient for:
(1) At least 6 full applications of the brakes when an antiskid system is not operating; and
(2) Bringing the airplane to a complete stop when an antiskid system is operating, under all runway surface conditions for which the airplane is certificated.
(i) Brake wear indicators. Means must be provided for each brake assembly to indicate when the heat sink is worn to the permissible limit. The means must be reliable and readily visible.
(j) Overtemperature burst prevention. Means must be provided in each braked wheel to prevent a wheel failure, a tire burst, or both, that may result from elevated brake temperatures. Additionally, all wheels must meet the requirements of § 25.731(d).
(k) Compatibility. Compatibility of the wheel and brake assemblies with the airplane and its systems must be substantiated.
[Doc. No. FAA-1999-6063, 67 FR 20420, Apr. 24, 2002, as amended by Amdt. 25-108, 67 FR 70827, Nov. 26, 2002; 68 FR 1955, Jan. 15, 2003]

Title 14 published on 2014-01-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 14.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2014-11-14; vol. 79 # 220 - Friday, November 14, 2014
    1. 79 FR 68107 - Special Conditions: Dassault Model Falcon 900EX Airplane; Electronic System-Security Protection From Unauthorized External Access
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, Federal Aviation Administration
      Final special conditions, request for comments.
      Effective December 15, 2014.
      14 CFR Part 25

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United States Code

Title 14 published on 2014-01-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 14 CFR 25 after this date.

  • 2014-11-14; vol. 79 # 220 - Friday, November 14, 2014
    1. 79 FR 68107 - Special Conditions: Dassault Model Falcon 900EX Airplane; Electronic System-Security Protection From Unauthorized External Access
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, Federal Aviation Administration
      Final special conditions, request for comments.
      Effective December 15, 2014.
      14 CFR Part 25