Emergency egress assist means and escape routes.
Each non over-wing Type A, Type B or Type C exit, and any other non over-wing landplane emergency exit more than 6 feet from the ground with the airplane on the ground and the landing gear extended, must have an approved means to assist the occupants in descending to the ground.
The assisting means for each passenger emergency exit must be a self-supporting slide or equivalent; and, in the case of Type A or Type B exits, it must be capable of carrying simultaneously two parallel lines of evacuees. In addition, the assisting means must be designed to meet the following requirements—
It must be automatically deployed and deployment must begin during the interval between the time the exit opening means is actuated from inside the airplane and the time the exit is fully opened. However, each passenger emergency exit which is also a passenger entrance door or a service door must be provided with means to prevent deployment of the assisting means when it is opened from either the inside or the outside under nonemergency conditions for normal use.
Except for assisting means installed at Type C exits, it must be automatically erected within 6 seconds after deployment is begun. Assisting means installed at Type C exits must be automatically erected within 10 seconds from the time the opening means of the exit is actuated.
It must be of such length after full deployment that the lower end is self-supporting on the ground and provides safe evacuation of occupants to the ground after collapse of one or more legs of the landing gear.
It must have the capability, in 25-knot winds directed from the most critical angle, to deploy and, with the assistance of only one person, to remain usable after full deployment to evacuate occupants safely to the ground.
For each system installation (mockup or airplane installed), five consecutive deployment and inflation tests must be conducted (per exit) without failure, and at least three tests of each such five-test series must be conducted using a single representative sample of the device. The sample devices must be deployed and inflated by the system's primary means after being subjected to the inertia forces specified in § 25.561(b). If any part of the system fails or does not function properly during the required tests, the cause of the failure or malfunction must be corrected by positive means and after that, the full series of five consecutive deployment and inflation tests must be conducted without failure.
The assisting means for flightcrew emergency exits may be a rope or any other means demonstrated to be suitable for the purpose. If the assisting means is a rope, or an approved device equivalent to a rope, it must be—
Attached to the fuselage structure at or above the top of the emergency exit opening, or, for a device at a pilot's emergency exit window, at another approved location if the stowed device, or its attachment, would reduce the pilot's view in flight;
Able (with its attachment) to withstand a 400-pound static load.
Assist means from the cabin to the wing are required for each type A or Type B exit located above the wing and having a stepdown unless the exit without an assist-means can be shown to have a rate of passenger egress at least equal to that of the same type of non over-wing exit. If an assist means is required, it must be automatically deployed and automatically erected concurrent with the opening of the exit. In the case of assist means installed at Type C exits, it must be self-supporting within 10 seconds from the time the opening means of the exits is actuated. For all other exit types, it must be self-supporting 6 seconds after deployment is begun.
An escape route must be established from each overwing emergency exit, and (except for flap surfaces suitable as slides) covered with a slip resistant surface. Except where a means for channeling the flow of evacuees is provided—
The escape route from each Type A or Type B passenger emergency exit, or any common escape route from two Type III passenger emergency exits, must be at least 42 inches wide; that from any other passenger emergency exit must be at least 24 inches wide; and
The escape route surface must have a reflectance of at least 80 percent, and must be defined by markings with a surface-to-marking contrast ratio of at least 5:1.
Means must be provided to assist evacuees to reach the ground for all Type C exits located over the wing and, if the place on the airplane structure at which the escape route required in paragraph (c) of this section terminates is more than 6 feet from the ground with the airplane on the ground and the landing gear extended, for all other exit types.
If the escape route is over the flap, the height of the terminal edge must be measured with the flap in the takeoff or landing position, whichever is higher from the ground.
The assisting means must be usable and self-supporting with one or more landing gear legs collapsed and under a 25-knot wind directed from the most critical angle.
The assisting means provided for each escape route leading from a Type A or B emergency exit must be capable of carrying simultaneously two parallel lines of evacuees; and, the assisting means leading from any other exit type must be capable of carrying as many parallel lines of evacuees as there are required escape routes.
The assisting means provided for each escape route leading from a Type C exit must be automatically erected within 10 seconds from the time the opening means of the exit is actuated, and that provided for the escape route leading from any other exit type must be automatically erected within 10 seconds after actuation of the erection system.
If an integral stair is installed in a passenger entry door that is qualified as a passenger emergency exit, the stair must be designed so that, under the following conditions, the effectiveness of passenger emergency egress will not be impaired:
The door, integral stair, and operating mechanism have been subjected to the inertia forces specified in § 25.561(b)(3), acting separately relative to the surrounding structure.
The airplane is in the normal ground attitude and in each of the attitudes corresponding to collapse of one or more legs of the landing gear.
[Amdt. 25-72, 55 FR 29782, July 20, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 25-88, 61 FR 57958, Nov. 8, 1996; 62 FR 1817, Jan. 13, 1997; Amdt. 25-114, 69 FR 24502, May 3, 2004]