14 CFR 27.497 - Ground loading conditions: landing gear with tail wheels.

§ 27.497 Ground loading conditions: landing gear with tail wheels.
(a) General. Rotorcraft with landing gear with two wheels forward, and one wheel aft, of the center of gravity must be designed for loading conditions as prescribed in this section.
(b) Level landing attitude with only the forward wheels contacting the ground. In this attitude—
(1) The vertical loads must be applied under §§ 27.471 through 27.475;
(2) The vertical load at each axle must be combined with a drag load at that axle of not less than 25 percent of that vertical load; and
(3) Unbalanced pitching moments are assumed to be resisted by angular inertia forces.
(c) Level landing attitude with all wheels contacting the ground simultaneously. In this attitude, the rotorcraft must be designed for landing loading conditions as prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section.
(d) Maximum nose-up attitude with only the rear wheel contacting the ground. The attitude for this condition must be the maximum nose-up attitude expected in normal operation, including autorotative landings. In this attitude—
(1) The appropriate ground loads specified in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section must be determined and applied, using a rational method to account for the moment arm between the rear wheel ground reaction and the rotorcraft center of gravity; or
(2) The probability of landing with initial contact on the rear wheel must be shown to be extremely remote.
(e) Level landing attitude with only one forward wheel contacting the ground. In this attitude, the rotorcraft must be designed for ground loads as specified in paragraphs (b)(1) and (3) of this section.
(f) Side loads in the level landing attitude. In the attitudes specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, the following apply:
(1) The side loads must be combined at each wheel with one-half of the maximum vertical ground reactions obtained for that wheel under paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. In this condition, the side loads must be—
(i) For the forward wheels, 0.8 times the vertical reaction (on one side) acting inward, and 0.6 times the vertical reaction (on the other side) acting outward; and
(ii) For the rear wheel, 0.8 times the vertical reaction.
(2) The loads specified in paragraph (f)(1) of this section must be applied—
(i) At the ground contact point with the wheel in the trailing position (for non-full swiveling landing gear or for full swiveling landing gear with a lock, steering device, or shimmy damper to keep the wheel in the trailing position); or
(ii) At the center of the axle (for full swiveling landing gear without a lock, steering device, or shimmy damper).
(g) Braked roll conditions in the level landing attitude. In the attitudes specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, and with the shock absorbers in their static positions, the rotorcraft must be designed for braked roll loads as follows:
(1) The limit vertical load must be based on a limit vertical load factor of not less than—
(i) 1.0, for the attitude specified in paragraph (b) of this section; and
(ii) 1.33, for the attitude specified in paragraph (c) of this section.
(2) For each wheel with brakes, a drag load must be applied, at the ground contact point, of not less than the lesser of—
(i) 0.8 times the vertical load; and
(ii) The maximum based on limiting brake torque.
(h) Rear wheel turning loads in the static ground attitude. In the static ground attitude, and with the shock absorbers and tires in their static positions, the rotorcraft must be designed for rear wheel turning loads as follows:
(1) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the rear wheel must be combined with an equal sideload.
(2) The load specified in paragraph (h)(1) of this section must be applied to the rear landing gear—
(i) Through the axle, if there is a swivel (the rear wheel being assumed to be swiveled 90 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the rotorcraft); or
(ii) At the ground contact point, if there is a lock, steering device or shimmy damper (the rear wheel being assumed to be in the trailing position).
(i) Taxiing condition. The rotorcraft and its landing gear must be designed for loads that would occur when the rotorcraft is taxied over the roughest ground that may reasonably be expected in normal operation.

Title 14 published on 2014-01-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.

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United States Code

Title 14 published on 2014-01-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 14 CFR 27 after this date.

  • 2014-07-31; vol. 79 # 147 - Thursday, July 31, 2014
    1. 79 FR 44320 - Interest in Restructure of Rotorcraft Airworthiness Standards
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, Federal Aviation Administration
      Notice of Disposition of Comments.
      The docket is terminated as of July 31, 2014.
      14 CFR Parts 27 and 29