14 CFR Part 141, Appendix B to Part 141 - Private Pilot Certification Course

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View PDF at GPO Pt. 141, App. B
Appendix B to Part 141—Private Pilot Certification Course
1. Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for a private pilot certification course required under this part, for the following ratings:
(a) Airplane single-engine.
(b) Airplane multiengine.
(c) Rotorcraft helicopter.
(d) Rotorcraft gyroplane.
(e) Powered-lift.
(f) Glider.
(g) Lighter-than-air airship.
(h) Lighter-than-air balloon.
2. Eligibility for enrollment. A person must hold either a recreational pilot certificate, sport pilot certificate, or student pilot certificate before enrolling in the solo flight phase of the private pilot certification course.
3. Aeronautical knowledge training.
(a) Each approved course must include at least the following ground training on the aeronautical knowledge areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section, appropriate to the aircraft category and class rating:
(1) 35 hours of training if the course is for an airplane, rotorcraft, or powered-lift category rating.
(2) 15 hours of training if the course is for a glider category rating.
(3) 10 hours of training if the course is for a lighter-than-air category with a balloon class rating.
(4) 35 hours of training if the course is for a lighter-than-air category with an airship class rating.
(b) Ground training must include the following aeronautical knowledge areas:
(1) Applicable Federal Aviation Regulations for private pilot privileges, limitations, and flight operations;
(2) Accident reporting requirements of the National Transportation Safety Board;
(3) Applicable subjects of the “Aeronautical Information Manual” and the appropriate FAA advisory circulars;
(4) Aeronautical charts for VFR navigation using pilotage, dead reckoning, and navigation systems;
(5) Radio communication procedures;
(6) Recognition of critical weather situations from the ground and in flight, windshear avoidance, and the procurement and use of aeronautical weather reports and forecasts;
(7) Safe and efficient operation of aircraft, including collision avoidance, and recognition and avoidance of wake turbulence;
(8) Effects of density altitude on takeoff and climb performance;
(9) Weight and balance computations;
(10) Principles of aerodynamics, powerplants, and aircraft systems;
(11) If the course of training is for an airplane category or glider category rating, stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin recovery techniques;
(12) Aeronautical decision making and judgment; and
(13) Preflight action that includes—
(i) How to obtain information on runway lengths at airports of intended use, data on takeoff and landing distances, weather reports and forecasts, and fuel requirements; and
(ii) How to plan for alternatives if the planned flight cannot be completed or delays are encountered.
4. Flight training. (a) Each approved course must include at least the following flight training, as provided in this section and section No. 5 of this appendix, on the approved areas of operation listed in paragraph (d) of this section, appropriate to the aircraft category and class rating:
(1) 35 hours of training if the course is for an airplane, rotorcraft, powered-lift, or airship rating.
(2) 6 hours of training if the course is for a glider rating.
(3) 8 hours of training if the course is for a balloon rating.
(b) Each approved course must include at least the following flight training:
(1) For an airplane single-engine course: 20 hours of flight training from a certificated flight instructor on the approved areas of operation in paragraph (d)(1) of this section that includes at least—
(i) Except as provided in § 61.111 of this chapter, 3 hours of cross-country flight training in a single-engine airplane;
(ii) 3 hours of night flight training in a single-engine airplane that includes—
(A) One cross-country flight of more than 100-nautical-miles total distance; and
(B) 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport.
(iii) Three hours of flight training in a single engine airplane on the control and maneuvering of a single engine airplane solely by reference to instruments, including straight and level flight, constant airspeed climbs and descents, turns to a heading, recovery from unusual flight attitudes, radio communications, and the use of navigation systems/facilities and radar services appropriate to instrument flight; and
(iv) 3 hours of flight training in a single-engine airplane in preparation for the practical test within 60 days preceding the date of the test.
(2) For an airplane multiengine course: 20 hours of flight training from a certificated flight instructor on the approved areas of operation in paragraph (d)(2) of this section that includes at least—
(i) Except as provided in § 61.111 of this chapter, 3 hours of cross-country flight training in a multiengine airplane;
(ii) 3 hours of night flight training in a multiengine airplane that includes—
(A) One cross-country flight of more than 100-nautical-miles total distance; and
(B) 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport.
(iii) Three hours of flight training in a multiengine airplane on the control and maneuvering of a multiengine airplane solely by reference to instruments, including straight and level flight, constant airspeed climbs and descents, turns to a heading, recovery from unusual flight attitudes, radio communications, and the use of navigation systems/facilities and radar services appropriate to instrument flight; and
(iv) 3 hours of flight training in a multiengine airplane in preparation for the practical test within 60 days preceding the date of the test.
(3) For a rotorcraft helicopter course: 20 hours of flight training from a certificated flight instructor on the approved areas of operation in paragraph (d)(3) of this section that includes at least—
(i) Except as provided in § 61.111 of this chapter, 3 hours of cross-country flight training in a helicopter.
(ii) 3 hours of night flight training in a helicopter that includes—
(A) One cross-country flight of more than 50-nautical-miles total distance; and
(B) 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport.
(iii) 3 hours of flight training in a helicopter in preparation for the practical test within 60 days preceding the date of the test.
(4) For a rotorcraft gyroplane course: 20 hours of flight training from a certificated flight instructor on the approved areas of operation in paragraph (d)(4) of this section that includes at least—
(i) Except as provided in § 61.111 of this chapter, 3 hours of cross-country flight training in a gyroplane.
(ii) 3 hours of night flight training in a gyroplane that includes—
(A) One cross-country flight over 50-nautical-miles total distance; and
(B) 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport.
(iii) 3 hours of flight training in a gyroplane in preparation for the practical test within 60 days preceding the date of the test.
(5) For a powered-lift course: 20 hours of flight training from a certificated flight instructor on the approved areas of operation in paragraph (d)(5) of this section that includes at least—
(i) Except as provided in § 61.111 of this chapter, 3 hours of cross-country flight training in a powered-lift;
(ii) 3 hours of night flight training in a powered-lift that includes—
(A) One cross-country flight of more than 100-nautical-miles total distance; and
(B) 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport.
(iii) Three hours of flight training in a powered-lift on the control and maneuvering of a powered-lift solely by reference to instruments, including straight and level flight, constant airspeed climbs and descents, turns to a heading, recovery from unusual flight attitudes, radio communications, and the use of navigation systems/facilities and radar services appropriate to instrument flight; and
(iv) 3 hours of flight training in a powered-lift in preparation for the practical test, within 60 days preceding the date of the test.
(6) For a glider course: 4 hours of flight training from a certificated flight instructor on the approved areas of operation in paragraph (d)(6) of this section that includes at least—
(i) Five training flights in a glider with a certificated flight instructor on the launch/tow procedures approved for the course and on the appropriate approved areas of operation listed in paragraph (d)(6) of this section; and
(ii) Three training flights in a glider with a certificated flight instructor in preparation for the practical test within 60 days preceding the date of the test.
(7) For a lighter-than-air airship course: 20 hours of flight training from a commercial pilot with an airship rating on the approved areas of operation in paragraph (d)(7) of this section that includes at least—
(i) Except as provided in § 61.111 of this chapter, 3 hours of cross-country flight training in an airship;
(ii) 3 hours of night flight training in an airship that includes—
(A) One cross-country flight over 25-nautical-miles total distance; and
(B) Five takeoffs and five landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport.
(iii) 3 hours of instrument training in an airship; and
(iv) 3 hours of flight training in an airship in preparation for the practical test within 60 days preceding the date of the test.
(8) For a lighter-than-air balloon course: 8 hours of flight training, including at least five training flights, from a commercial pilot with a balloon rating on the approved areas of operation in paragraph (d)(8) of this section, that includes—
(i) If the training is being performed in a gas balloon—
(A) Two flights of 1 hour each;
(B) One flight involving a controlled ascent to 3,000 feet above the launch site; and
(C) Two flights in preparation for the practical test within 60 days preceding the date of the test.
(ii) If the training is being performed in a balloon with an airborne heater—
(A) Two flights of 30 minutes each;
(B) One flight involving a controlled ascent to 2,000 feet above the launch site; and
(C) Two flights in preparation for the practical test within 60 days preceding the date of the test.
(c) For use of flight simulators or flight training devices:
(1) The course may include training in a flight simulator or flight training device, provided it is representative of the aircraft for which the course is approved, meets the requirements of this paragraph, and the training is given by an authorized instructor.
(2) Training in a flight simulator that meets the requirements of § 141.41(a) of this part may be credited for a maximum of 20 percent of the total flight training hour requirements of the approved course, or of this section, whichever is less.
(3) Training in a flight training device that meets the requirements of § 141.41(b) of this part may be credited for a maximum of 15 percent of the total flight training hour requirements of the approved course, or of this section, whichever is less.
(4) Training in flight simulators or flight training devices described in paragraphs (c)(2) and (c)(3) of this section, if used in combination, may be credited for a maximum of 20 percent of the total flight training hour requirements of the approved course, or of this section, whichever is less. However, credit for training in a flight training device that meets the requirements of § 141.41(b) cannot exceed the limitation provided for in paragraph (c)(3) of this section.
(d) Each approved course must include the flight training on the approved areas of operation listed in this paragraph that are appropriate to the aircraft category and class rating—
(1) For a single-engine airplane course: (i) Preflight preparation;
(ii) Preflight procedures;
(iii) Airport and seaplane base operations;
(iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
(v) Performance maneuvers;
(vi) Ground reference maneuvers;
(vii) Navigation;
(viii) Slow flight and stalls;
(ix) Basic instrument maneuvers;
(x) Emergency operations;
(xi) Night operations, and
(xii) Postflight procedures.
(2) For a multiengine airplane course: (i) Preflight preparation;
(ii) Preflight procedures;
(iii) Airport and seaplane base operations;
(iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
(v) Performance maneuvers;
(vi) Ground reference maneuvers;
(vii) Navigation;
(viii) Slow flight and stalls;
(ix) Basic instrument maneuvers;
(x) Emergency operations;
(xi) Multiengine operations;
(xii) Night operations; and
(xiii) Postflight procedures.
(3) For a rotorcraft helicopter course: (i) Preflight preparation;
(ii) Preflight procedures;
(iii) Airport and heliport operations;
(iv) Hovering maneuvers;
(v) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
(vi) Performance maneuvers;
(vii) Navigation;
(viii) Emergency operations;
(ix) Night operations; and
(x) Postflight procedures.
(4) For a rotorcraft gyroplane course:
(i) Preflight preparation;
(ii) Preflight procedures;
(iii) Airport operations;
(iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
(v) Performance maneuvers;
(vi) Ground reference maneuvers;
(vii) Navigation;
(viii) Flight at slow airspeeds;
(ix) Emergency operations;
(x) Night operations; and
(xi) Postflight procedures.
(5) For a powered-lift course: (i) Preflight preparation;
(ii) Preflight procedures;
(iii) Airport and heliport operations;
(iv) Hovering maneuvers;
(v) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
(vi) Performance maneuvers;
(vii) Ground reference maneuvers;
(viii) Navigation;
(ix) Slow flight and stalls;
(x) Basic instrument maneuvers;
(xi) Emergency operations;
(xii) Night operations; and
(xiii) Postflight procedures.
(6) For a glider course: (i) Preflight preparation;
(ii) Preflight procedures;
(iii) Airport and gliderport operations;
(iv) Launches/tows, as appropriate, and landings;
(v) Performance speeds;
(vi) Soaring techniques;
(vii) Performance maneuvers;
(viii) Navigation;
(ix) Slow flight and stalls;
(x) Emergency operations; and
(xi) Postflight procedures.
(7) For a lighter-than-air airship course: (i) Preflight preparation;
(ii) Preflight procedures;
(iii) Airport operations;
(iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
(v) Performance maneuvers;
(vi) Ground reference maneuvers;
(vii) Navigation;
(viii) Emergency operations; and
(ix) Postflight procedures.
(8) For a lighter-than-air balloon course: (i) Preflight preparation;
(ii) Preflight procedures;
(iii) Airport operations;
(iv) Launches and landings;
(v) Performance maneuvers;
(vi) Navigation;
(vii) Emergency operations; and
(viii) Postflight procedures.
5. Solo flight training. Each approved course must include at least the following solo flight training:
(a) For an airplane single-engine course: 5 hours of solo flight training in a single-engine airplane on the approved areas of operation in paragraph (d)(1) of section No. 4 of this appendix that includes at least—
(1) One solo 100 nautical miles cross country flight with landings at a minimum of three points and one segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line distance of more than 50 nautical miles between the takeoff and landing locations; and
(2) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport with an operating control tower.
(b) For an airplane multiengine course: 5 hours of flight training in a multiengine airplane performing the duties of a pilot in command while under the supervision of a certificated flight instructor. The training must consist of the approved areas of operation in paragraph (d)(2) of section No. 4 of this appendix, and include at least—
(1) One 100 nautical miles cross country flight with landings at a minimum of three points and one segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line distance of more than 50 nautical miles between the takeoff and landing locations; and
(2) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport with an operating control tower.
(c) For a rotorcraft helicopter course: 5 hours of solo flight training in a helicopter on the approved areas of operation in paragraph (d)(3) of section No. 4 of this appendix that includes at least—
(1) One solo 100 nautical miles cross country flight with landings at a minimum of three points and one segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line distance of more than 25 nautical miles between the takeoff and landing locations; and
(2) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport with an operating control tower.
(d) For a rotorcraft gyroplane course: 5 hours of solo flight training in gyroplanes on the approved areas of operation in paragraph (d)(4) of section No. 4 of this appendix that includes at least—
(1) One solo 100 nautical miles cross country flight with landings at a minimum of three points and one segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line distance of more than 25 nautical miles between the takeoff and landing locations; and
(2) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport with an operating control tower.
(e) For a powered-lift course: 5 hours of solo flight training in a powered-lift on the approved areas of operation in paragraph (d)(5) of section No. 4 of this appendix that includes at least—
(1) One solo 100 nautical miles cross country flight with landings at a minimum of three points and one segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line distance of more than 50 nautical miles between the takeoff and landing locations; and
(2) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport with an operating control tower.
(f) For a glider course: Two solo flights in a glider on the approved areas of operation in paragraph (d)(6) of section No. 4 of this appendix, and the launch and tow procedures appropriate for the approved course.
(g) For a lighter-than-air airship course: 5 hours of flight training in an airship performing the duties of pilot in command while under the supervision of a commercial pilot with an airship rating. The training must consist of the approved areas of operation in paragraph (d)(7) of section No. 4 of this appendix.
(h) For a lighter-than-air balloon course: Two solo flights in a balloon with an airborne heater if the course involves a balloon with an airborne heater or, if the course involves a gas balloon, at least two flights in a gas balloon performing the duties of pilot in command while under the supervision of a commercial pilot with a balloon rating. The training must consist of the approved areas of operation in paragraph (d)(8) of section No. 4 of this appendix, in the kind of balloon for which the course applies.
6. Stage checks and end-of-course tests.
(a) Each student enrolled in a private pilot course must satisfactorily accomplish the stage checks and end-of-course tests in accordance with the school's approved training course, consisting of the approved areas of operation listed in paragraph (d) of section No. 4 of this appendix that are appropriate to the aircraft category and class rating for which the course applies.
(b) Each student must demonstrate satisfactory proficiency prior to receiving an endorsement to operate an aircraft in solo flight.
[Doc. No. 25910, 62 FR 16347, Apr. 4, 1997; Amdt. 141-9, 62 FR 40908, July 30, 1997; as amended by Amdt. 141-10, 63 FR 20289, Apr. 23, 1998; Amdt. 141-12, 74 FR 42564, Aug. 21, 2009]

Title 14 published on 2014-01-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 14.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2014-12-03; vol. 79 # 232 - Wednesday, December 3, 2014
    1. 79 FR 71634 - Aviation Training Device Credit for Pilot Certification
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, Federal Aviation Administration
      Direct final rule.
      Effective January 20, 2015. Send comments on or before January 2, 2015. If the FAA receives an adverse comment or notice of intent to file an adverse comment, the FAA will advise the public by publishing a document in the Federal Register before the effective date of the final rule, which may withdraw this direct final rule in whole or in part.
      14 CFR Parts 61 and 141

Title 14 published on 2014-01-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 14 CFR 141 after this date.

  • 2014-12-03; vol. 79 # 232 - Wednesday, December 3, 2014
    1. 79 FR 71634 - Aviation Training Device Credit for Pilot Certification
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, Federal Aviation Administration
      Direct final rule.
      Effective January 20, 2015. Send comments on or before January 2, 2015. If the FAA receives an adverse comment or notice of intent to file an adverse comment, the FAA will advise the public by publishing a document in the Federal Register before the effective date of the final rule, which may withdraw this direct final rule in whole or in part.
      14 CFR Parts 61 and 141