15 CFR 760.3 - Exceptions to prohibitions.

§ 760.3 Exceptions to prohibitions.
(a) Import requirements of a boycotting country.
Compliance With Import Requirements of a Boycotting Country
(1) A United States person, in supplying goods or services to a boycotting country, or to a national or resident of a boycotting country, may comply or agree to comply with requirements of such boycotting country which prohibit the import of:
(i) Goods or services from the boycotted country;
(ii) Goods produced or services provided by any business concern organized under the laws of the boycotted country; or
(iii) Goods produced or services provided by nationals or residents of the boycotted country.
(2) A United States person may comply or agree to comply with such import requirements whether or not he has received a specific request to comply. By its terms, this exception applies only to transactions involving imports into a boycotting country. A United States person may not, under this exception, refuse on an across-the-board basis to do business with a boycotted country or a national or resident of a boycotted country.
(3) In taking action within the scope of this exception, a United States person is limited in the types of boycott-related information he can supply. (See § 760.2(d) of this part on “Furnishing Information About Business Relationships with Boycotted Countries or Blacklisted Persons” and paragraph (c) of this section on “Import and Shipping Document Requirements.”)
Examples of Compliance With Import Requirements of a Boycotting Country
The following examples are intended to give guidance in determining the circumstances in which compliance with the import requirements of a boycotting country is permissible. They are illustrative, not comprehensive.
(i) A, a U.S. manufacturer, receives an order from boycotting country Y for its products. Country X is boycotted by country Y, and the import laws of Y prohibit the importation of goods produced or manufactured in X. In filling this type of order, A would usually include some component parts produced in X.
For the purpose of filling this order, A may substitute comparable component parts in place of parts produced in X, because the import laws of Y prohibit the importation of goods manufactured in X.
(ii) Same as (i), except that A's contract with Y expressly provides that in fulfilling the contract A “may not include parts or components produced or manufactured in boycotted country X.”
A may agree to and comply with this contract provision, because Y prohibits the importation of goods from X. However, A may not furnish negative certifications regarding the origin of components in response to import and shipping document requirements.
(iii) A, a U.S. building contractor, is awarded a contract to construct a plant in boycotting country Y. A accepts bids on goods required under the contract, and the lowest bid is made by B, a business concern organized under the laws of X, a country boycotted by Y. Y prohibits the import of goods produced by companies organized under the laws of X.
For purposes of this contract, A may reject B's bid and accept another, because B's goods would be refused entry into Y because of Y's boycott against X.
(iv) Same as (iii), except that A also rejects the low bid by B for work on a construction project in country M, a country not boycotted by Y.
This exception does not apply, because A's action is not taken in order to comply with Y's requirements prohibiting the import of products from boycotted country X.
(v) A, a U.S. management consulting firm, contracts to provide services to boycotting country Y. Y requests that A not employ residents or nationals of boycotted country X to provide those services.
A may agree, as a condition of the contract, not to have services furnished by nationals or residents of X, because importation of such services is prohibited by Y.
(vi) A, a U.S. company, is negotiating a contract to supply machine tools to boycotting country Y. Y insists that the contract contain a provision whereby A agrees that none of the machine tools will be produced by any business concern owned by nationals of boycotted country X, even if the business concern is organized under the laws of a non-boycotted country.
A may not agree to this provision, because it is a restriction on the import of goods produced by business concerns owned by nationals of a boycotted country even if the business concerns themselves are organized under the laws of a non-boycotted country.
(b) Shipment of goods to a boycotting country.
Compliance With Requirements Regarding the Shipment of Goods to a Boycotting Country
(1) A United States person, in shipping goods to a boycotting country, may comply or agree to comply with requirements of that country which prohibit the shipment of goods:
(i) On a carrier of the boycotted country; or
(ii) By a route other than that prescribed by the boycotting country or the recipient of the shipment.
(2) A specific request that a United States person comply or agree to comply with requirements concerning the use of carriers of a boycotted country is not necessary if the United States person knows, or has reason to know, that the use of such carriers for shipping goods to the boycotting country is prohibited by requirements of the boycotting country. This exception applies whether a boycotting country or the purchaser of the shipment:
(i) Explicitly states that the shipment should not pass through a port of the boycotted country; or
(ii) Affirmatively describes a route of shipment that does not include a port in the boycotted country.
(3) For purposes of this exception, the term carrier of a boycotted country means a carrier which flies the flag of a boycotted country or which is owned, chartered, leased, or operated by a boycotted country or by nationals or residents of a boycotted country.
Examples of Compliance With the Shipping Requirements of a Boycotting Country
The following examples are intended to give guidance in determining the circumstances in which compliance with import and shipping document requirements of a boycotting country is permissible. They are illustrative, not comprehensive.
(i) A is a U.S. exporter from whom boycotting country Y is importing goods. Y directs that the goods not pass through a port of boycotted country X.
A may comply with Y's shipping instructions, because they pertain to the route of shipment of goods being shipped to Y.
(ii) A, a U.S. fertilizer manufacturer, receives an order from boycotting country Y for fertilizer. Y specifies in the order that A may not ship the fertilizer on a carrier of boycotted country X.
A may comply with this request, because it pertains to the carrier of a boycotted country.
(iii) B, a resident of boycotting country Y, orders textile goods from A, a U.S. distributor, specifying that the shipment must not be made on a carrier owned or leased by nationals of boycotted country X and that the carrier must not pass through a port of country X enroute to Y.
A may comply or agree to comply with these requests, because they pertain to the shipment of goods to Y on a carrier of a boycotted country and the route such shipment will take.
(iv) Boycotting country Y orders goods from A, a U.S. retail merchant. The order specifies that the goods shipped by A “may not be shipped on a carrier registered in or owned by boycotted country X.”
A may agree to this contract provision, because it pertains to the carrier of a boycotted country.
(v) Boycotting country Y orders goods from A, a U.S. pharmaceutical company, and requests that the shipment not pass through a port of country P, which is not a country boycotted by Y.
This exception does not apply in a non-boycotting situation. A may comply with the shipping instructions of Y, because in doing so he would not violate any prohibition of this part.
(vi) Boycotting country Y orders goods from A, a U.S. manufacturer. The order specifies that goods shipped by A “must not be shipped on vessels blacklisted by country Y”.
A may not agree to comply with this condition because it is not a restriction limited to the use of carriers of the boycotted country.
(c) Import and shipping document requirements.
Compliance With Import and Shipping Document Requirements of a Boycotting Country
(1) A United States person, in shipping goods to a boycotting country, may comply or agree to comply with import and shipping document requirements of that country, with respect to:
(i) The country or origin of the goods;
(ii) The name and nationality of the carrier;
(iii) The route of the shipment;
(iv) The name, residence, or address of the supplier of the shipment;
(v) The name, residence, or address of the provider of other services.
(2) Such information must be stated in positive, non-blacklisting, non-exclusionary terms except for information with respect to the names or nationalities of carriers or routes of shipment, which may continue to be stated in negative terms in conjunction with shipments to a boycotting country, in order to comply with precautionary requirements protecting against war risks or confiscation.
Examples of Compliance With Import and Shipping Document Requirements
The following examples are intended to give guidance in determining the circumstances in which compliance with the import requirements of a boycotting country is permissible. They are illustrative, not comprehensive.
(i) Boycotting country Y contracts with A, a U.S. petroleum equipment manufacturer, for certain equipment. Y requires that goods being imported into Y must be accompanied by a certification that the goods being supplied did not originate in boycotted country X.
A may not supply such a certification in negative terms but may identify instead the country of origin of the goods in positive terms only.
(ii) Same as (i), except that Y requires that the shipping documentation accompanying the goods specify the country of origin of the goods.
A may furnish the information.
(iii) [Reserved]
(iv) A, a U.S. apparel manufacturer, has contracted to sell certain of its products to B, a national of boycotting country Y. The form that must be submitted to customs officials of Y requires the shipper to certify that the goods contained in the shipment have not been supplied by “blacklisted” persons.
A may not furnish the information in negative terms but may certify, in positive terms only, the name of the supplier of the goods.
(v) Same as (iv), except the customs form requires certification that the insurer and freight forwarder used are not “blacklisted.”
A may not comply with the request but may supply a certification stating, in positive terms only, the names of the insurer and freight forwarder.
(vi) A, a U.S. petrochemical manufacturer, executes a sales contract with B, a resident of boycotting country Y. A provision of A's contract with B requires that the bill of lading and other shipping documents contain certifications that the goods have not been shipped on a “blacklisted” carrier.
A may not agree to supply a certification that the carrier is not “blacklisted” but may certify the name of the carrier in positive terms only.
(vii) Same as (vi), except that the contract requires certification that the goods will not be shipped on a carrier which flies the flag of, or is owned, chartered, leased, or operated by boycotted country X, or by nationals or residents of X.
Such a certification, which is a reasonable requirement to protect against war risks or confiscation, may be furnished at any time.
(viii) Same as (vi), except that the contract requires that the shipping documents certify the name of the carrier being used.
A may, at any time, supply or agree to supply the requested documentation regarding the name of the carrier, either in negative or positive terms.
(ix) Same as (vi), except that the contract requires a certification that the carrier will not call at a port in boycotted country X before making delivery in Y.
Such a certification, which is a reasonable requirement to protect against war risks or confiscation, may be furnished at any time.
(x) Same as (vi), except that the contract requires that the shipping documents indicate the name of the insurer and freight forwarder.
A may comply at any time, because the statement is not required to be made in negative or blacklisting terms.
(xi) A, a U.S. exporter, is negotiating a contract to sell bicycles to boycotting country Y. Y insists that A agree to certify that the goods will not be shipped on a vessel which has ever called at a port in boycotted country X.
As distinguished from a certification that goods will not be shipped on a vessel which will call enroute at a port of boycotted country X, such a certification is not a reasonable requirement to protect against war risks or confiscation, and, hence, may not be supplied.
(xii) Same as (xi), except that Y insists that A agree to certify that the goods will not be shipped on a carrier that is ineligible to enter Y's waters.
Such a certification, which is not a reasonable requirement to protect against war risks or confiscation may not be supplied.
(d) Unilateral and specific selection.
Compliance with Unilateral and Specific Selection
(1) A United States person may comply or agree to comply in the normal course of business with the unilateral and specific selection by a boycotting country, a national of a boycotting country, or a resident of a boycotting country (including a United States person who is a bona fide resident of a boycotting country) of carriers, insurers, suppliers of services to be performed within the boycotting country, or specific goods, provided that with respect to services, it is necessary and customary that a not insignificant part of the services be performed within the boycotting country. With respect to goods, the items, in the normal course of business, must be identifiable as to their source or origin at the time of their entry into the boycotting country by (a) uniqueness of design or appearance or (b) trademark, trade name, or other identification normally on the items themselves, including their packaging.
(2) This exception pertains to what is permissible for a United States person who is the recipient of a unilateral and specific selection of goods or services to be furnished by a third person. It does not pertain to whether the act of making such a selection is permitted; that question is covered, with respect to United States persons, in paragraph (g) of this section on “Compliance with Local Law.” Nor does it pertain to the United States person who is the recipient of an order to supply its own goods or services. Nothing in this part prohibits or restricts a United States person from filling an order himself, even if he is selected by the buyer on a boycott basis (e.g., because he is not blacklisted), so long as he does not himself take any action prohibited by this part.
Unilateral and Specific Character of the Selection
(3) In order for this exception to apply, the selection with which a United States person wishes to comply must be unilateral and specific.
(4) A “specific” selection is one which is stated in the affirmative and which specifies a particular supplier of goods or services.
(5) A “unilateral” selection is one in which the discretion in making the selection is exercised by the boycotting country buyer. If the United States person who receives a unilateral selection has provided the buyer with any boycott-based assistance (including information for purposes of helping the buyer select someone on a boycott basis), then the buyer's selection is not unilateral, and compliance with that selection by a United States person does not come within this exception.
(6) The provision of so-called “pre-selection” or “pre-award” services, such as providing lists of qualified suppliers, subcontractors, or bidders, does not, in and of itself, destroy the unilateral character of a selection, provided such services are not boycott-based. Lists of qualified suppliers, for example, must not exclude anyone because he is blacklisted. Moreover, such services must be of the type customarily provided in similar transactions by the firm (or industry of which the firm is a part) as measured by the practice in non-boycotting as well as boycotting countries. If such services are not customarily provided in similar transactions or such services are provided in such a way as to exclude blacklisted persons from participating in a transaction or diminish their opportunity for such participation, then the services may not be provided without destroying the unilateral character of any subsequent selection.
Selection To Be Made by Boycotting Country Resident
(7) In order for this exception to be available, the unilateral and specific selection must have been made by a boycotting country, or by a national or resident of a boycotting country. Such a resident may be a United States person. For purposes of this exception, a United States person will be considered a resident of a boycotting country only if he is a bona fide resident. A United States person may be a bona fide resident of a boycotting country even if such person's residency is temporary.
(8) Factors that will be considered in determining whether a United States person is a bona fide resident of a boycotting country include:
(i) Physical presence in the country;
(ii) Whether residence is needed for legitimate business reasons;
(iii) Continuity of the residency;
(iv) Intent to maintain the residency;
(v) Prior residence in the country;
(vi) Size and nature of presence in the country;
(vii) Whether the person is registered to do business or incorporated in the country;
(viii) Whether the person has a valid work visa; and
(ix) Whether the person has a similar presence in both boycotting and non-boycotting foreign countries in connection with similar business activities.
Note to paragraph (d)(8) of this section:
No one of the factors is dispositive. All the circumstances will be examined closely to ascertain whether there is, in fact, a bona fide residency. Residency established solely for purposes of avoidance of the application of this part, unrelated to legitimate business needs, does not constitute bona fide residency.
(9) The boycotting country resident must be the one actually making the selection. If a selection is made by a non-resident agent, parent, subsidiary, affiliate, home office or branch office of a boycotting country resident, it is not a selection by a resident within the meaning of this exception.
(10) A selection made solely by a bona fide resident and merely transmitted by another person to a United States person for execution is a selection by a bona fide resident within the meaning of this exception.
Duty of Inquiry
(11) If a United States person receives, from another person located in the United States, what may be a unilateral selection by a boycotting country customer, and knows or has reason to know that the selection is made for boycott reasons, he has a duty to inquire of the transmitting person to determine who actually made the selection. If he knows or has reason to know that the selection was made by other than a boycotting country, or a national or resident of a boycotting country, he may not comply. A course or pattern of conduct which a United States person recognizes or should recognize as consistent with boycott restrictions will create a duty to inquire.
(12) If the United States person does not know or have reason to know that the selection it receives is boycott-based, its compliance with such a selection does not offend any prohibition and this exception is not needed.
Selection of Services
(13) This exception applies only to compliance with selections of certain types of suppliers of services-carriers, insurers, and suppliers of services to be performed “within the boycotting country.” Services to be performed wholly within the United States or wholly within any country other than the boycotting country are not covered.
(14) For purposes of this part, services are to be performed “within the boycotting country” only if they are of a type which would customarily be performed by suppliers of those services within the country of the recipient of those services, and if the part of the services performed within the boycotting country is a necessary and not insignificant part of the total services performed.
(15) What is “customary and necessary” for these purposes depends on the usual practice of the supplier of the services (or the industry of which he is a part) as measured by the practice in non-boycotting as well as boycotting countries, except where such practices are instituted to accommodate this part.
Selection of Goods
(16) This exception applies only to compliance with selections of certain types of goods—goods that, in the normal course of business, are identifiable as to their source or origin at the time of their entry into the boycotting country. The definition of “specifically identifiable goods” is the same under this section as it is in paragraph (g) of this section on “Compliance with Local Law.”
(17) Goods “specifically identifiable” in the normal course of business are those items which at the time of their entry into a boycotting country are identifiable as to source or origin by uniqueness of design or appearance; or trademark, trade name, or other identification normally on the items themselves, including their packaging. Goods are “specifically identifiable” in the normal course of business if their source or origin is ascertainable by inspection of the items themselves, including their packaging, regardless of whether inspection takes place. Goods are not considered to be “specifically identifiable” in the normal course of business if a trademark, trade name, or other form of identification not normally present is added to the items themselves, including their packaging, to accommodate this part.
General
(18) If a unilateral selection meets the conditions described in paragraph (d) of this section, the United States person receiving the unilateral selection may comply or agree to comply, even if he knows or has reason to know that the selection was boycott-based. However, no United States person may comply or agree to comply with any unilateral selection if he knows or has reason to know that the purpose of the selection is to effect discrimination against any United States person on the basis of race, religion, sex, or national origin.
Examples of Compliance With a Unilateral Selection
The following examples are intended to give guidance in determining what constitutes a unilateral selection and the circumstances in which compliance with such a selection is permissible. They are illustrative, not comprehensive.
Specific and Unilateral Selection
(i) A, a U.S. manufacturer of road-grading equipment, is asked by boycotting country Y to ship goods to Y on U.S. vessel B, a carrier which is not blacklisted by Y. A knows or has reason to know that Y's selection of B is boycott-based.
A may comply with Y's request, or may agree to comply as a condition of the contract, because the selection is specific and unilateral.
(ii) A, a U.S. contractor building an industrial facility in boycotting country Y is asked by B, a resident of Y, to use C as the supplier of air conditioning equipment to be used in the facility. C is not blacklisted by country Y. A knows or has reason to know that B's request is boycott-based.
A may comply with B's request, or may agree to comply as a condition of the contract, because the selection of C is specific and unilateral.
(iii) A, a U.S. manufacturer of automotive equipment, is asked by boycotting country Y not to ship its goods to Y on U.S. carriers, B, C, or D. Carriers B, C, and D are blacklisted by boycotting country Y. A knows or has reason to know that Y's request is boycott-based.
A may not comply or agree to comply with Y's request, because no specific selection of any particular carrier has been made.
(iv) A, a U.S. exporter shipping goods ordered by boycotting country Y, is provided by Y with a list of eligible U.S. insurers from which A may choose in insuring the shipment of its goods. A knows or has reason to know that the list was compiled on a boycott basis.
A may not comply or agree to comply with Y's request that A choose from among the eligible insurers, because no specific selection of any particular insurer has been made.
(v) A, a U.S. aircraft manufacturer, is negotiating to sell aircraft to boycotting country Y. During the negotiations, Y asks A to identify the company which normally manufactures the engines for the aircraft. A responds that they are normally manufactured by U.S. engine manufacturer B. B is blacklisted by Y. In making the purchase, Y specifies that the engines for the aircraft should be supplied by U.S. engine manufacturer C.
A may comply or agree to comply with Y's selection of C, because Y's selection is unilateral and specific.
(vi) A, a U.S. construction firm, is retained by an agency of boycotting country Y to build a pipeline. Y requests A to suggest qualified engineering firms to be used on-site in the construction of the pipeline. It is customary for A, regardless of where it conducts its operations, to identify qualified engineering firms to its customers so that its customers may make their own selection of the firm to be engaged. Choice of engineering firm is customarily a prerogative of the customer. A provides a list of five engineering firms, B-F, excluding no firm because it may be blacklisted, and then confers with and gives its recommendations to Y. A recommends C, because C is the best qualified. Y then selects B, because C is blacklisted.
A may comply with Y's selection of B, because the boycott-based decision is made by Y and is unilateral and specific. Since A's pre-award services are of the kind customarily provided in these situations, and since they are provided without reference to the boycott, they do not destroy the unilateral character of Y's selection.
(vii) A, a U.S. aircraft manufacturer, has an order to supply a certain number of planes to boycotting country Y. In connection with the order, Y asks A to supply it with a list of qualified aircraft tire manufacturers so that Y can select the tires to be placed on the planes. This is a highly unusual request, since, in A's worldwide business operations, choice of tires is customarily made by the manufacturer, not the customer. Nonetheless, A supplies a list of tire manufacturers, B, C, D, and E. Y chooses tire manufacturer B because B is not blacklisted. Had A, as is customary, selected the tires, company C would have been chosen. C happens to be blacklisted, and A knows that C's blacklist status was the reason for Y's selection of B.
A's provision of a list of tire manufacturers for Y to choose from destroys the unilateral character of Y's selection, because such a pre-selection service is not customary in A's worldwide business operations.
(viii) A, a U.S. aircraft manufacturer, receives an order from U.S. company C, which is located in the United States, for the sale of aircraft to company D, a U.S. affiliate of C. D is a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y. C instructs A that “in order to avoid boycott problems,” A must use engines that are manufactured by company B, a company that is not blacklisted by Y. Engines built by B are unique in design and also bear B's trade name.
Since A has reason to know that the selection is boycott-based, he must inquire of C whether the selection was in fact made by D. If C informs A that the selection was made by D, A may comply.
(ix) Same as (viii), except that C initially states that the designation was unilaterally and specifically made by D.
A may accept C's statement without further investigation and may comply with the selection, because C merely transmitted D's unilateral and specific selection.
(x) Same as (ix), except that C informs A that it, C, has selected B on behalf of or as an agent of its affiliated company resident in the boycotting country.
A may not comply with this selection, because the decision was not made by a resident of the boycotting country.
(xi) A, a U.S. management consulting firm, is advising boycotting country Y on the selection of a contracting firm to construct a plant for the manufacture of agricultural chemicals. As is customary in its business, A compiles a list of potential contractors on the basis of its evaluation of the capabilities of the respective candidates to perform the job. A has knowledge that company B is blacklisted, but provides Y with the names of companies B, C, D, and E, listing them in order of their qualifications. Y instructs A to negotiate with C.
A may comply with Y's instruction, because Y's selection is unilateral and specific.
(xii) A, a U.S. exporter, is asked by boycotting country Y not to ship goods on carriers B, C, or D, which are owned by nationals of and are registered in country P, a country not boycotted by Y.
A may comply or agree to comply with Y's request even though the selection is not specific, because A does not know or have reason to know that the request is boycott-based.
(Note:
In example (xii), A has violated no prohibition, because it does not know or have reason to know that Y's instruction is boycott-based. Therefore, A could not act with the requisite intent to comply with the boycott.)
(xiii) A, a U.S. construction company, receives a contract to construct a hotel in boycotting country Y. As part of the contract, A is required to furnish Y with lists of qualified suppliers of various specifically identifiable items. A compiles lists of various qualified suppliers wholly without reference to the boycott, and thereafter Y instructs A to negotiate with, enter into contracts with, and arrange for delivery from each of the suppliers which Y designates. A knows that Y's choices are made on a boycott basis.
A may comply with Y's selections and carry out these post-award services for Y, because Y's selections were unilateral and specific and A's pre-award services were provided without reference to Y's boycott.
Examples of Boycotting Country Buyer
(The factors in determining whether a United States person is a “bona fide resident” of a boycotting country are the same as in paragraph (g) of this section on “Compliance with Local Law.” See also the examples in that section.)
(i) A, a U.S. exporter, is asked by B, a U.S. person who is a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y, to ship goods on U.S. carrier C. C is not blacklisted by Y, and A knows that B has chosen on a boycott basis in order to comply with Y's boycott laws.
A may comply or agree to comply with B's request, because B is a bona fide resident of Y.
(ii) A is a U.S. computer company whose subsidiary, B, is a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y. A receives an order from B for specific, identifiable products manufactured by company C in connection with a computer which B is installing in Y.
A may comply or agree to comply with B's unilateral and specific selection, so long as the discretion was in fact exercised by B, not A.
(Note:
Unilateral selection transactions involving related United States persons will be scrutinized carefully to ensure that the selection was in fact made by the bona fide resident of the boycotting country.)
(iii) A, a U.S. engineering firm, has chief engineer B as its resident engineer on a dam construction site in boycotting country Y. B's presence at the site is necessary in order to ensure proper supervision of the project. In order to comply with local law, B selects equipment supplier C rather than D, who is blacklisted, and directs A to purchase certain specific equipment from C for use in the project.
A may comply with this unilateral selection, because the decision was made by a bona fide resident of Y.
(As noted above, unilateral selections involving related United States persons will be scrutinized carefully to ensure that the selection was in fact made by the bona fide resident of the boycotting country.)
(iv) B, a branch of U.S. bank A, is located in boycotting country Y. B is in need of office supplies and asks the home office in New York to make the necessary purchases. A contacts C, a U.S. company in the office supply business, and instructs C to purchase various items from certain specific companies and ship them directly to B. In order to avoid any difficulties for B with respect to Y's boycott laws, A is careful to specify only non-blacklisted companies or suppliers. C knows that that was A's purpose. C may not comply with A's instruction, because the selection of suppliers was not made by a resident of a boycotting country.
(v) Same as (iv), except that A has given standing instructions to B that whenever it needs office supplies, it should specify certain suppliers designated by A. To avoid running afoul of Y's boycott laws, A's designations consist exclusively of non-blacklisted firms. A receives an order from B with the suppliers designated in accordance with A's instructions.
A may not comply with B's selection, because the selection was not in fact made by a bona fide resident of the boycotting country, but by a person located in the United States.
Examples of Suppliers of Services
(i) A, a U.S. manufacturer, is asked by boycotting country Y to ship goods to Y on U.S. vessel B, a carrier which is not blacklisted by Y.
A may comply or agree to comply with Y's request, because compliance with the unilateral and specific selection of carriers is expressly permitted under this exception.
(ii) A, a U.S. exporter shipping goods ordered by C, a national of boycotting country Y, is asked by C to insure the shipment through U.S. insurer B.
A may comply or agree to comply with C's request, because compliance with the unilateral and specific selection of an insurer is expressly permitted under this exception.
(iii) A, a U.S. construction company, is hired by C, an agency of the government of boycotting country Y, to build a power plant in Y. C specifies that A should subcontract the foundation work to U.S. contractor B. Part of the foundation design work will be done by B in the United States.
A may comply or agree to comply with Y's designation, because a necessary and not insignificant part of B's services are to be performed within the boycotting country, and such services are customarily performed on-site.
(iv) A, a U.S. contractor, is engaged by boycotting country Y to build a power plant. Y specifies that U.S. architectural firm B should be retained by A to design the plant. In order to design the plant, it is essential that B's personnel visit and become familiar with the site, although the bulk of the design and drawing work will be done in the United States.
A may comply or agree to comply with Y's unilateral and specific selection of architectural firm B, because a necessary and not insignificant part of B's services are to be performed within Y, and such on-site work is customarily involved in the provision of architectural services. The fact that the bulk of the actual work may be performed in the United States is irrelevant since the part to be performed within Y is necessary to B's effective performance.
(v) Same as (iv), except that Y specifies that the turbine for the power plant should be designed by U.S. engineer C. It is neither customary nor necessary for C to visit the site in order to do any of his work, but C has informed A that he would probably want to visit the site in Y if he were selected for the job.
A may not comply or agree to comply with Y's request, because, in the normal course of business, it is neither customary nor necessary for engineer C's services to be performed in Y.
(vi) A, a U.S. aircraft manufacturer, receives a contract from boycotting country Y to manufacture jet engines for Y's use. Y specifies that the engines should be designed by U.S. industrial engineering firm B.
A may not comply or agree to comply with Y's request, because, in the normal course of business, the services will not be performed in Y.
(vii) U.S. company A has a contract to supply specially designed road graders to boycotting country Y. Y has instructed A that it should engage engineering firm B in the design work rather than engineering firm C, which A normally uses, because C is blacklisted. When A contacts B, B informs A that one of B's personnel customarily visits the location in which any equipment B designs is used after it is in use, in order to determine how good a design job B has done. Such visits are necessary from B's point of view to provide a check on the quality of its work, and they are necessary from Y's point of view because they make it possible for Y to discuss possible design changes should deficiencies be detected.
A may not comply with Y's selection of B, because the services which B would perform in Y are an insignificant part of the total services to be performed by B.
Examples of Specifically Identifiable Goods
(The test of what constitutes “specifically identifiable goods” under this exception also applies to the term “specifically identifiable goods” as used in paragraph (g) of this section on “Compliance with Local Law.”)
(i) A, a U.S. contractor, is constructing an apartment complex, on a turnkey basis, for boycotting country Y. Y instructs A to use only kitchen appliances manufactured by U.S. company B in completing the project. The appliances normally bear the manufacturer's name and trademark.
A may comply with Y's selection of B, because Y's unilateral and specific selection is of goods identifiable as to source or origin in the normal course of business at the time of their entry into Y.
(ii) Same as (i), except that Y directs A to use lumber manufactured only by U.S. company C. In the normal course of business, C neither stamps its name on the lumber nor identifies itself as the manufacturer on the packaging. In addition, normal export packaging does not identify the manufacturer.
A may not comply with Y's selection, because the goods selected are not identifiable by source or origin in the normal course of business at the time of their entry into Y.
(iii) B, a U.S. contractor who is a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y, is engaged in building roads. B retains the services of A, a U.S. engineering firm, to assist it in procuring construction equipment. B directs A to purchase road graders only from manufacturer C because other road grader manufacturers which A might use are blacklisted. C's road graders normally bear C's insignia.
A may comply with B's selection of C, because the goods selected are identifiable by source or origin in the normal course of business at the time of their entry into Y.
(iv) A, a U.S. company, manufactures computer-operated machine tools. The computers are mounted on a separate bracket on the side of the equipment and are readily identifiable by brand name imprinted on the equipment. There are five or six U.S. manufacturers of such computers which will function interchangeably to operate the machine tools manufactured by A. B, a resident of boycotting country Y, contracts to buy the machine tools manufactured by A on the condition that A incorporate, as the computer drive, a computer manufactured by U.S. company C. B's designation of C is made to avoid boycott problems which could be caused if computers manufactured by some other company were used.
A may comply with B's designation of C, because the goods selected are identifiable by source or origin in the normal course of business at the time of their entry into Y.
(v) A, a U.S. wholesaler of electronic equipment, receives an order from B, a U.S. manufacturer of radio equipment, who is a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y. B orders a variety of electrical components and specifies that all transistors must be purchased from company C, which is not blacklisted by Y. The transistors requested by B do not normally bear the name of the manufacturer; however, they are typically shipped in cartons, and C's name and logo appear on the cartons.
A may comply with B's selection, because the goods selected by B are identifiable as to source or origin in the normal course of business at the time of their entry into Y by virtue of the containers or packaging used.
(vi) A, a U.S. computer manufacturer, receives an order for a computer from B, a university in boycotting country Y. B specifies that certain integrated circuits incorporated in the computer must be supplied by U.S. electronics company C. These circuits are incorporated into the computer and are not visible without disassembling the computer.
A may not comply or agree to comply with B's specific selection of these components, because they are not identifiable as to their source or origin in the normal course of business at the time of their entry into Y.
(vii) A, a U.S. clothing manufacturer, receives an order for shirts from B, a retailer resident in boycotting country Y. B specifies that the shirts are to be manufactured from cotton produced by U.S. farming cooperative C. Such shirts will not identify C or the source of the cotton.
A may not comply or agree to comply with B's designation, because the cotton is not identifiable as to source or origin in the normal course of business at the time of entry into Y.
(viii) A, a U.S. contractor, is retained by B, a construction firm located in and wholly-owned by boycotting country Y, to assist B in procuring construction materials. B directs A to purchase a range of materials, including hardware, tools, and trucks, all of which bear the name of the manufacturer stamped on the item. In addition, B directs A to purchase steel beams manufactured by U.S. company C. The name of manufacturer C normally does not appear on the steel itself or on its export packaging.
A may comply with B's selection of the hardware, tools, and trucks, because they are identifiable as to source or origin in the normal course of business at the time of entry into Y. A may not comply with B's selection of steel beams, because the goods are not identifiable as to source or origin by trade name, trademark, uniqueness or packaging at the time of their entry into Y.
Example of Discrimination on Basis of Race, Religion, Sex, or National Origin
(i) A, a U.S. paper manufacturer, is asked by boycotting country Y to ship goods to Y on U.S. vessel B. Y states that the reason for its choice of B is that, unlike U.S. vessel C, B is not owned by persons of a particular faith.
A may not comply or agree to comply with Y's request, because A has reason to know that the purpose of the selection is to effect religious discrimination against a United States person.
(e) Shipment and transshipment of exports pursuant to a boycotting country's requirements.
Compliance With a Boycotting Country's Requirements Regarding Shipment and Transshipment of Exports
(1) A United States person may comply or agree to comply with the export requirements of a boycotting country with respect to shipments or transshipments of exports to:
(i) A boycotted country;
(ii) Any business concern of a boycotted country;
(iii) Any business concern organized under the laws of a boycotted country; or
(iv) Any national or resident of a boycotted country.
(2) This exception permits compliance with restrictions which a boycotting country may place on direct exports to a boycotted country; on indirect exports to a boycotted country (i.e., those that pass via third parties); and on exports to residents, nationals, or business concerns of, or organized under the laws of, a boycotted country, including those located in third countries.
(3) This exception also permits compliance with restrictions which a boycotting country may place on the route of export shipments when the restrictions are reasonably related to preventing the export shipments from coming into contact with or under the jurisdiction of the boycotted country. This exception applies whether a boycotting country or the vendor of the shipment:
(i) Explicitly states that the shipment should not pass through the boycotted country enroute to its final destination; or
(ii) Affirmatively describes a route of shipment that does not include the boycotted country.
(4) A United States person may not, under this exception, refuse on an across-the-board basis to do business with a boycotted country or a national or resident of a boycotted country.
Examples of Compliance With a Boycotting Country's Requirements Regarding Shipment or Transshipment of Exports
The following examples are intended to give guidance in determining the circumstances in which compliance with the export requirements of a boycotting country is permissible. They are illustrative, not comprehensive.
(i) A, a U.S. petroleum company, exports petroleum products to 20 countries, including the United States, from boycotting country Y. Country Y's export regulations require that products not be exported from Y to boycotted country X.
A may agree to and comply with Y's regulations with respect to the export of goods from Y to X.
(ii) Same as (i), except that Y's export regulations require that goods not be exported from boycotting country Y to any business concern organized under the laws of boycotted country X.
A may agree to and comply with Y's regulations with respect to the export of goods from Y to a business concern organized under the laws of X, even if such concern is located in a country not involved in Y's boycott of X.
(iii) B, the operator of a storage facility in country M, contracts with A, a U.S. carrier, for the shipment of certain goods manufactured in boycotting country Y. A's contract with B contains a provision stating that the goods to be transported may not be shipped or transshipped to boycotted country X. B informs A that this provision is a requirement of C, the manufacturer of goods who is a resident of boycotting country Y. Country M is not boycotted by Y.
A may agree to and comply with this provision, because such a provision is required by the export regulations of boycotting country Y in order to prevent shipment of Y-origin goods to a country boycotted by Y.
(iv) A, a U.S. petroleum refiner located in the United States, purchases crude oil from boycotting country Y. A has a branch operation in boycotted country X. Y requires, as a condition of sale, that A agree not to ship or transship the crude oil or products refined in Y to A's branch in X.
A may agree to and comply with these requirements, because they are export requirements of Y designed to prevent Y-origin products from being shipped to a boycotted country.
(v) A, a U.S. company, has a petrochemical plant in boycotting country Y. As a condition of securing an export license from Y, A must agree that it will not ship or permit transshipment of any of its output from the plant in Y to any companies which Y lists as being owned by nationals of boycotted country X.
A may agree to this condition, because it is a restriction designed to prevent Y-origin products from being exported to a business concern of boycotted country X or to nationals of boycotted country X.
(vi) Same as (v), except that the condition imposed on A is that Y-origin goods may not be shipped or permitted to be transshipped to any companies which Y lists as being owned by persons whose national origin is X.
A may not agree to this condition, because it is a restriction designed to prevent Y-origin goods from being exported to persons of a particular national origin rather than to residents or nationals of a particular boycotted country.
(vii) A, a U.S. petroleum company, exports petroleum products to 20 countries, including the United States, from boycotting country Y. Y requires, as a condition of sale, that A not ship the products to be exported from Y to or through boycotted country X.
A may agree to and comply with this requirement because it is an export requirement of Y designed to prevent Y-origin products from coming into contact with or under the jurisdiction of a boycotted country.
(viii) Same as (vii), except that boycotting country Y's export regulations require that products to be exported from Y not pass through a port of boycotted country X.
A may agree to and comply with Y's regulations prohibiting Y-origin exports from passing through a port at boycotted country X, because they are export requirements of Y designed to prevent Y-origin products from coming into contact with or under the jurisdiction of a boycotted country.
(ix) Same as (vii), except that Y's export regulations require that A not transship the exported products “in or at” boycotted country X.
A may agree to and comply with Y's regulations with respect to the transshipment of goods “in or at” X, because they are export requirements of Y designed to prevent Y-origin products from coming into contact with or under the jurisdiction of a boycotted country.
(f) Immigration, passport, visa, or employment requirements of a boycotting country.
Compliance With Immigration, Passport, Visa, or Employment Requirements of a Boycotting Country
(1) A United States individual may comply or agree to comply with the immigration, passport, visa, or employment requirements of a boycotting country, and with requests for information from a boycotting country made to ascertain whether such individual meets requirements for employment within the boycotting country, provided that he furnishes information only about himself or a member of his family, and not about any other United States individual, including his employees, employers, or co-workers.
(2) For purposes of this section, a United States individual means a person who is a resident or national of the United States. Family means immediate family members, including parents, siblings, spouse, children, and other dependents living in the individual's home.
(3) A United States person may not furnish information about its employees or executives, but may allow any individual to respond on his own to any request for information relating to immigration, passport, visa, or employment requirements. A United States person may also perform any ministerial acts to expedite processing of applications by individuals. These include informing employees of boycotting country visa requirements at an appropriate time; typing, translation, messenger and similar services; and assisting in or arranging for the expeditious processing of applications. All such actions must be undertaken on a non-discriminatory basis.
(4) A United States person may proceed with a project in a boycotting country even if certain of its employees or other prospective participants in a transaction are denied entry for boycott reasons. But no employees or other participants may be selected in advance in a manner designed to comply with a boycott.
Examples of Compliance With Immigration, Passport, Visa, or Employment Requirements of a Boycotting Country
The following examples are intended to give guidance in determining the circumstances in which compliance with immigration, passport, visa, or employment requirements is permissible. They are illustrative, not comprehensive.
(i) A, a U.S. individual employed by B, a U.S. manufacturer of sporting goods with a plant in boycotting country Y, wishes to obtain a work visa so that he may be assigned to the plant in Y. Country Y's immigration laws specify that anyone wishing to enter the country or obtain a visa to work in the country must supply information about his religion. This information is required for boycott purposes.
A may furnish such information, because it is required by Y's immigration laws.
(ii) Same as (i), except that A is asked to supply such information about other employees of B.
A may not supply this information, because it is not information about himself or his family.
(iii) A, a U.S. building contractor, has been awarded a construction contract to be performed in boycotting country Y. Y's immigration laws require that individuals applying for visas must indicate race, religion, and place of birth. The information is sought for boycott purposes. To avoid repeated rejections of applications for work visas by A's employees, A desires to furnish to country Y a list of its prospective and current employees and required information about each so that Y can make an initial screening.
A may not furnish such a list, because A would be furnishing information about the race, religion, and national origin of its employees.
(iv) Same as (iii), except that A selects for work on the project those of its current employees whom it believes will be granted work visas from boycotting country Y.
A may not make a selection from among its employees in a manner designed to comply with the boycott-based visa requirements of Y, but must allow all eligible employees to apply for visas. A may later substitute an employee who obtains the necessary visa for one who has had his application rejected.
(v) Same as (iii), except that A selects employees for the project and then allows each employee individually to apply for his own visa. Two employees' applications are rejected, and A then substitutes two other employees who, in turn, submit their own visa applications.
A may take such action, because in so doing A is not acting in contravention of any prohibition of this part.
(vi) Same as (v), except that A arranges for the translation, typing and processing of its employees' applications, and transmits all the applications to the consulate of boycotting country Y.
A may take such ministerial actions, because in so doing A is not itself furnishing information with respect to race, religion, sex, or national origin, but is merely transmitting information furnished by its individual employees.
(vii) A, a U.S. contractor, selects U.S. subcontractor B to perform certain engineering services in connection with A's project in boycotting country Y. The work visa application submitted by the employee whom B has proposed as chief engineer of this project is rejected by Y because his national origin is of boycotted country X. Subcontractor B thereupon withdraws.
A may continue with the project and select another subcontractor, because A is not acting in contravention of any prohibition of this part.
(g) Compliance with local law.
(1) This exception contains two parts. The first covers compliance with local law with respect to a United States person's activities exclusively within a foreign country; the second covers compliance with local import laws by United States persons resident in a foreign country. Under both parts of this exception, local laws are laws of the host country, whether derived from statutes, regulations, decrees, or other official sources having the effect of law in the host country. This exception is not available for compliance with presumed policies or understandings of policies unless those policies are reflected in official sources having the effect of law.
(2) Both parts of this exception apply only to United States persons resident in a foreign country. For purposes of this exception, a United States person will be considered to be a resident of a foreign country only if he is a bona fide resident. A United States person may be a bona fide resident of a foreign country even if such person's residency is temporary.
(3)
(i) Factors that will be considered in determining whether a United States person is a bona fide resident of a foreign country include:
(A) Physical presence in the country;
(B) Whether residence is needed for legitimate business reasons;
(C) Continuity of the residency;
(D) Intent to maintain the residency;
(E) Prior residence in the country;
(F) Size and nature of presence in the country;
(G) Whether the person is registered to do business or incorporated in the country;
(H) Whether the person has a valid work visa; and
(I) Whether the person has a similar presence in both boycotting and non-boycotting foreign countries in connection with similar business activities.
(ii) No one of the factors in paragraph (g)(3) of this section is dispositive. All the circumstances involved will be closely examined to ascertain whether there is, in fact, bona fide residency. Residency established solely for purposes of avoidance of the application of this part, unrelated to legitimate business needs, does not constitute bona fide residency.
Examples of Bona Fide Residency
The following examples are intended to give guidance in determining the circumstances in which a United States person may be a bona fide resident of a foreign country. For purposes of illustration, each example discusses only one or two factors, instead of all relevant factors. They are illustrative, not comprehensive.
(i) A, a U.S. radio manufacturer located in the United States, receives a tender to bid on a contract to supply radios for a hotel to be built in boycotting country Y. After examining the proposal, A sends a bid from its New York office to Y.
A is not a resident of Y, because it is not physically present in Y.
(ii) Same as (i), except that after receiving the tender, A sends its sales representative to Y. A does not usually have sales representatives in countries when it bids from the United States, and this particular person's presence in Y is not necessary to enable A to make the bid.
A is not a bona fide resident of Y, because it has no legitimate business reasons for having its sales representative resident in Y.
(iii) A, a U.S. bank, wishes to establish a branch office in boycotting country Y. In pursuit of that objective, A's personnel visit Y to make the necessary arrangements. A intends to establish a permanent branch office in Y after the necessary arrangements are made.
A's personnel in Y are not bona fide residents of Y, because A does not yet have a permanent business operation in Y.
(iv) Same as (iii), except A's personnel are required by Y's laws to furnish certain non-discriminatory boycott information in order to establish a branch in Y.
In these limited circumstances, A's personnel may furnish the non-discriminatory boycott information necessary to establish residency to the same extent a U.S. person who is a bona fide resident in that country could. If this information could not be furnished in such limited circumstances, the exception would be available only to firms resident in a boycotting country before January 18, 1978.
(v) A, a U.S. construction company, receives an invitation to build a power plant in boycotting country Y. After receipt of the invitation, A's personnel visit Y in order to survey the site and make necessary analyses in preparation for submitting a bid. The invitation requires that otherwise prohibited boycott information be furnished with the bid.
A's personnel in Y are not bona fide residents of Y, because A has no permanent business operation in Y. Therefore, A's personnel may not furnish the prohibited information.
(vi) Same as (v), except that A is considering establishing an office in boycotting country Y. A's personnel visit Y in order to register A to do business in that country. A intends to establish ongoing construction operations in Y. A's personnel are required by Y's laws to furnish certain non-discriminatory boycott information in order to register A to do business or incorporate a subsidiary in Y.
In these limited circumstances, A's personnel may furnish non-discriminatory boycott information necessary to establish residency to the same extent a U.S. person who is a bona fide resident in that country could. If this information could not be furnished in such limited circumstances, the exception would be available only to firms resident in a boycotting country before January 18, 1978.
(vii) A, a subsidiary of U.S. oil company B, is located in boycotting country Y. A has been engaged in oil explorations in Y for a number of years.
A is a bona fide resident of Y, because of its pre-existing continuous presence in Y for legitimate business reasons.
(viii) Same as (vii), except that A has just been established in Y and has not yet begun operations.
A is a bona fide resident of Y, because it is present in Y for legitimate business reasons and it intends to reside continuously.
(ix) U.S. company A is a manufacturer of prefabricated homes. A builds a plant in boycotting country Y for purposes of assembling components made by A in the United States and shipped to Y.
A's personnel in Y are bona fide residents of Y, because A's plant in Y is established for legitimate business reasons, and it intends to reside continuously.
(x) U.S. company A has its principal place of business in the United States. A's sales agent visits boycotting country Y from time to time for purposes of soliciting orders.
A's sales agent is not a bona fide resident of Y, because such periodic visits to Y are insufficient to establish a bona fide residency.
(xi) A, a branch office of U.S. construction company B, is located in boycotting country Y. The branch office has been in existence for a number of years and has been performing various management services in connection with B's construction operations in Y.
A is a bona fide resident of Y, because of its longstanding presence in Y and its conduct of ongoing operations in Y.
(xii) U.S. construction company A has never done any business in boycotting country Y. It is awarded a contract to construct a hospital in Y, and preparatory to beginning construction, sends its personnel to Y to set up operations.
A's personnel are bona fide residents of Y, because they are present in Y for the purposes of carrying out A's legitimate business purposes; they intend to reside continuously; and residency is necessary to conduct their business.
(xiii) U.S. company A manufactures furniture. All its sales in foreign countries are conducted from its offices in the United States. From time to time A has considered opening sales offices abroad, but it has concluded that it is more efficient to conduct sales operations from the United States. Shortly after the effective date of this part, A sends a sales representative to boycotting country Y to open an office in and solicit orders from Y. It is more costly to conduct operations from that office than to sell directly from the United States, but A believes that if it establishes a residence in Y, it will be in a better position to avoid conflicts with U.S. law in its sales to Y.
A's sales representative is not a bona fide resident of Y, because the residency was established to avoid the application of this part and not for legitimate business reasons.
(xiv) Same as (xiii), except that it is in fact more efficient to have a sales office in Y. In fact, without a sales office in Y, A would find it difficult to explore business opportunities in Y. A is aware, however, that residency in Y would permit its sales representative to comply with Y's boycott laws.
A's sales representative is a bona fide resident of Y, because A has a legitimate business reason for establishing a sales office in Y.
(xv) U.S. company B is a computer manufacturer. B sells computers and related programming services tailored to the needs of individual clients. Because of the complex nature of the product, B must have sales representatives in any country where sales are made. B has a sales representative, A, in boycotting country Y. A spends two months of the year in Y, and the rest of the year in other countries. B has a permanent sales office from which A operates while in Y, and the sales office is stocked with brochures and other sales materials.
A is a bona fide resident of Y, because his presence in Y is necessary to carry out B's legitimate business purposes; B maintains a permanent office in Y; and B intends to continue doing business in Y in the future.
(xvi) A, a U.S. construction engineering company, is engaged by B, a U.S. general contracting company, to provide services in connection with B's contract to construct a hospital complex in boycotting country Y. In order to perform those services, A's engineers set up a temporary office in a trailer on the construction site in Y. A's work is expected to be completed within six months.
A's personnel in Y are bona fide residents of Y, because A's on-site office is necessary to the performance of its services for B, and because A's personnel are continuously there.
(xvii) A, a U.S. company, sends one of its representatives to boycotting country Y to explore new sales possibilities for its line of transistor radios. After spending several weeks in Y, A's representative rents a post office box in Y, to which all persons interested in A's products are directed to make inquiry.
A is not a bona fide resident of Y, because rental of a post office box is not a sufficient presence in Y to constitute residency.
(xviii) A, a U.S. computer company, has a patent and trademark registered in the United States. In order to obtain registration of its patent and trademark in boycotting country Y, A is required to furnish certain non-discriminatory boycott information.
A may not furnish the information, because A is not a bona fide resident of Y.
(h) Activities exclusively within a foreign country.
(1) Any United States person who is a bona fide resident of a foreign country, including a boycotting country, may comply or agree to comply with the laws of that country with respect to his activities exclusively within that country. These activities include:
(i) Entering into contracts which provide that local law applies or governs, or that the parties will comply with such laws;
(ii) Employing residents of the host country;
(iii) Retaining local contractors to perform work within the host country;
(iv) Purchasing or selling goods or services from or to residents of the host country; and
(v) Furnishing information within the host country.
(2) Activities exclusively within the country do not include importing goods or services from outside the host country, and, therefore, this part of the exception does not apply to compliance with import laws in connection with importing goods or services.
Examples of Permissible Compliance With Local Law With Respect to Activities Exclusively Within a Foreign Country
The following examples are intended to give guidance in determining the circumstances in which compliance with local law is permissible. They are illustrative, not comprehensive.
Activities Exclusively Within a Foreign Country
(i) U.S. construction company A, a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y, has a contract to build a school complex in Y. Pursuant to Y's boycott laws, the contract requires A to refuse to purchase supplies from certain local merchants. While Y permits such merchants to operate within Y, their freedom of action in Y is constrained because of their relationship with boycotted country X.
A may enter into the contract, because dealings with local merchants are activities exclusively within Y.
(ii) A, a banking subsidiary of U.S. bank B, is a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y. From time to time, A purchases office supplies from the United States.
A's purchase of office supplies is not an activity exclusively within Y, because it involves the import of goods from abroad.
(iii) A, a branch of U.S. bank B, is a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y. Under Y's boycott laws, A is required to supply information about whether A has any dealings with boycotted country X. A compiles and furnishes the information within Y and does so of its own knowledge.
A may comply with that requirement, because in compiling and furnishing the information within Y, based on its own knowledge, A is engaging in an activity exclusively within Y.
(iv) Same as (iii), except that A is required to supply information about B's dealings with X. From its own knowledge and without making any inquiry of B, A compiles and furnishes the information.
A may comply with that requirement, because in compiling and furnishing the information within Y, based on its own knowledge, A is engaging in an activity exclusively within Y.
(v) Same as (iv), except that in making its responses, A asks B to compile some of the information.
A may not comply, because the gathering of the necessary information takes place partially outside Y.
(vi) U.S. company A has applied for a license to establish a permanent manufacturing facility in boycotting country Y. Under Y's boycott law, A must agree, as a condition of the license, that it will not sell any of its output to blacklisted foreign firms.
A may not comply, because the agreement would govern activities of A which are not exclusively within Y.
Discrimination Against United States Persons
(i) A, a subsidiary of U.S. company B, is a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y. A manufactures air conditioners in its plant in Y. Under Y's boycott laws, A must agree not to hire nationals of boycotted country X.
A may agree to the restriction and may abide by it with respect to its recruitment of individuals within Y, because the recruitment of such individuals is an activity exclusively within Y. However, A cannot abide by this restriction with respect to its recruitment of individuals outside Y, because this is not an activity exclusively within Y.
(ii) Same as (i), except that pursuant to Y's boycott laws, A must agree not to hire anyone who is of a designated religion.
A may not agree to this restriction, because the agreement calls for discrimination against U.S. persons on the basis of religion. It makes no difference whether the recruitment of the U.S. persons occurs within or without Y.
(Note:
The exception for compliance with local law does not apply to boycott-based refusals to employ U.S. persons on the basis of race, religion, sex, or national origin even if the activity is exclusively within the boycotting country.)
(i) Compliance with local import law.
(1) Any United States person who is a bona fide resident of a foreign country, including a boycotting country, may, in importing goods, materials or components into that country, comply or agree to comply with the import laws of that country, provided that:
(i) The items are for his own use or for his use in performing contractual services within that country; and
(ii) In the normal course of business, the items are identifiable as to their source or origin at the time of their entry into the foreign country by:
(a) Uniqueness of design or appearance; or
(b) Trademark, trade name, or other identification normally on the items themselves, including their packaging.
(2) The factors that will be considered in determining whether a United States person is a bona fide resident of a foreign country are those set forth in paragraph (g) of this section. Bona fide residence of a United States company's subsidiary, affiliate, or other permanent establishment in a foreign country does not confer such residence on such United States company. Likewise, bona fide residence of a United States company's employee in a foreign country does not confer such residence on the entire company.
(3) A United States person who is a bona fide resident of a foreign country may take action under this exception through an agent outside the country, but the agent must act at the direction of the resident and not exercise his own discretion. Therefore, if a United States person resident in a boycotting country takes action to comply with a boycotting country's import law with respect to the importation of qualified goods, he may direct his agent in the United States on the action to be taken, but the United States agent himself may not exercise any discretion.
(4) For purposes of this exception, the test that governs whether goods or components of goods are specifically identifiable is identical to the test applied in paragraph (d) of this section on “Compliance With Unilateral and Specific Selection” to determine whether they are identifiable as to their source or origin in the normal course of business.
(5) The availability of this exception for the import of goods depends on whether the goods are intended for the United States person's own use at the time they are imported. It does not depend upon who has title to the goods at the time of importation into a foreign country.
(6) Goods are for the United States person's own use (including the performance of contractual services within the foreign country) if:
(i) They are to be consumed by the United States person;
(ii) They are to remain in the United States person's possession and to be used by that person;
(iii) They are to be used by the United States person in performing contractual services for another;
(iv) They are to be further manufactured, incorporated into, refined into, or reprocessed into another product to be manufactured for another; or
(v) They are to be incorporated into, or permanently affixed as a functional part of, a project to be constructed for another.
(7) Goods acquired to fill an order for such goods from another are not for the United States person's own use. Goods procured for another are not for one's own use, even if the furnishing of procurement services is the business in which the United States person is customarily engaged. Nor are goods obtained for simple resale acquired for one's own use, even if the United States person is engaged in the retail business. Likewise, goods obtained for inclusion in a turnkey project are not for one's own use if they are not customarily incorporated into, or do not customarily become permanently affixed as a functional part of the project.
(8) This part of the local law exception does not apply to the import of services, even when the United States person importing such services is a bona fide resident of a boycotting country and is importing them for his own use. In addition, this exception is available for a United States person who is a bona fide resident of a foreign country only when the individual or entity actually present within that country takes action through the exercise of his own discretion.
(9) Use of this exception will be monitored and continually reviewed to determine whether its continued availability is consistent with the national interest. Its availability may be limited or withdrawn as appropriate. In reviewing the continued availability of this exception, the effect that the inability to comply with local import laws would have on the economic and other relations of the United States with boycotting countries will be considered.
(10) A United States person who is a bona fide resident of a foreign country may comply or agree to comply with the host country's import laws even if he knows or has reason to know that particular laws are boycott-related. However, no United States person may comply or agree to comply with any host country law which would require him to discriminate against any United States person on the basis of race, religion, sex, or national origin, or to supply information about any United States person's race, religion, sex, or national origin.
Examples of Permissible Compliance With Local Import Law
The following examples are intended to give guidance in determining the circumstances in which compliance with local import law is permissible. They are illustrative, not comprehensive.
Compliance by a Bona Fide Resident
(i) A, a subsidiary of U.S. company B, is a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y and is engaged in oil drilling operations in Y. In acquiring certain large, specifically identifiable products for carrying out its operations in Y, A chooses only from non-blacklisted firms because Y's import laws prohibit the importation of goods from blacklisted firms. However, with respect to smaller items, B makes the selection on behalf of A and sends them to A in Y.
A may choose from non-blacklisted firms, because it is a U.S. person who is a bona fide resident in Y. However, because B is not resident in Y, B cannot make boycott-based selections to conform with Y's import laws prohibiting the importation of goods from blacklisted firms.
(ii) Same as (i), except that after making its choices on the larger items, A directs B to carry out its instructions by entering into appropriate contracts and making necessary shipping arrangements.
B may carry out A's instructions provided that A, a bona fide resident of Y, has in fact made the choice and B is exercising no discretion, but is acting only as A's agent.
(Note:
Such transactions between related companies will be scrutinized carefully. A must in fact exercise the discretion and make the selections. If the discretion is exercised by B, B would be in violation of this part.)
(iii) U.S. construction company A has a contract to build a school in boycotting country Y. A's employees set up operations in Y for purposes of commencing construction. A's employees in Y advise A's headquarters in the United States that Y's import laws prohibit importation of goods manufactured by blacklisted firms. A's headquarters then issues invitations to bid only to non-blacklisted firms for certain specifically identifiable goods.
A's headquarters' choice of non-blacklisted suppliers is not a choice made by a U.S. person who is a bona fide resident of Y, because the discretion in issuing the bids was exercised in the United States, not in Y.
(iv) Same as (iii), except that A's employees in Y actually make the decision regarding to whom the bids should be issued.
The choices made by A's employees are choices made by U.S. persons who are bona fide residents of Y, because the discretion in choosing was exercised solely in Y.
(Note:
Choices purportedly made by employees of U.S. companies who are resident in boycotting countries will be carefully scrutinized to ensure that the discretion was exercised entirely in the boycotting country.)
Specifically Identifiable Goods
The test and examples as to what constitutes specifically identifiable goods are identical to those applicable under paragraph (d) of this section on “Compliance With Unilateral Selection.”
Imports for U.S. Person's Own Use Within Boycotting Country
(i) A, a subsidiary of U.S. company B, is a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y. A plans to import computer operated machine tools to be installed in its automobile plant in boycotting country Y. The computers are mounted on a separate bracket on the side of the equipment and are readily identifiable by brand name. A orders the tools from U.S. supplier C and specifies that C must incorporate computers manufactured by D, a non-blacklisted company. A would have chosen computers manufactured by E, except that E is blacklisted, and Y's import laws prohibit the importation of goods manufactured by blacklisted firms.
A may refuse to purchase E's computers, because A is importing the computers for its own use in its manufacturing operations in Y.
(ii) A, a subsidiary of U.S. company B, is a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y. To meet the needs of its employees in Y, A imports certain specifically identifiable commissary items for sale, such as cosmetics; and canteen items, such as candy. In selecting such items for importation into Y, A chooses items made only by non-blacklisted firms, because Y's import laws prohibit importation of goods from blacklisted firms.
A may import these items only from non-blacklisted firms, because the importation of goods for consumption by A's employees is an importation for A's own use.
(iii) A, a U.S. construction company which is a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y, has a contract to build a hospital complex for the Ministry of Health in Y. Under the contract, A will be general manager of the project with discretion to choose all subcontractors and suppliers. The complex is to be built on a turnkey basis, with A retaining title to the property and bearing all financial risk until the complex is conveyed to Y. In choosing specifically identifiable goods for import, such as central air conditioning units and plate glass, A excludes blacklisted suppliers in order to comply with Y's import laws. These goods are customarily incorporated into, or permanently affixed as a functional part of, the project.
A may refuse to deal with blacklisted suppliers of specifically identifiable goods, because importation of goods by a general contractor to be incorporated into a construction project in Y is an importation of goods for A's own use.
(iv) Same as (iii), except that, in addition, in choosing U.S. architects and engineers to work on the project, A excludes blacklisted firms, because Y's import laws prohibit the use of services rendered by blacklisted persons.
A may not refuse to deal with blacklisted architectural or engineering firms, because this exception does not apply to the import of services. It is irrelevant that, at some stage, the architectural or engineering drawings or plans may be brought to the site in Y. This factor is insufficient to transform such services into “goods” for purposes of this exception.
(v) Same as (iii), except that the project is to be completed on a “cost plus” basis, with Y making progress payments to A at various stages of completion.
A may refuse to deal with blacklisted suppliers of specifically identifiable goods, because the importation of goods by A to be incorporated in a project A is under contract to complete is an importation of goods for its own use. The terms of payment are irrelevant.
(vi) A, a U.S. construction company which is a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y, has a contract for the construction of an office building in Y on a turnkey basis. In choosing goods to be used or included in the office complex, A orders wallboard, office partitions, and lighting fixtures from non-blacklisted manufacturers. A likewise orders desks, office chairs, typewriters, and office supplies from non-blacklisted manufacturers.
Because they are customarily incorporated into or permanently affixed as a functional part of an office building, the wallboard, office partitions, and lighting fixtures are for A's own use, and A may select non-blacklisted suppliers of these goods in order to comply with Y's import laws. Because they are not customarily incorporated into or permanently affixed to the project, the desks, office chairs, typewriters, and office supplies are not for A's own use, and A may not make boycott-based selections of the suppliers of these goods.
(vii) A, a U.S. company engaged in the business of selling automobiles, is a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y. In ordering automobiles from time to time for purposes of stocking its inventory, A purchases from U.S. manufacturer B, but not U.S. manufacturer C, because C is blacklisted. Retail sales are subsequently made from this inventory.
A's import of automobiles from B is not an import for A's own use, because the importation of items for general inventory in a retail sales operation is not an importation for one's own use.
(viii) A, a U.S. company engaged in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products, is a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y. In importing chemicals for incorporation into the pharmaceutical products, A purchases from U.S. supplier B, but not U.S. supplier C, because C is blacklisted.
A may import chemicals from B rather than C, because the importation of specifically identifiable items for incorporation into another product is an importation for one's own use.
(ix) A, a U.S. management company which is a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y, has a contract with the Ministry of Education in Y to purchase supplies for Y's school system. From time to time, A purchases goods from abroad for delivery to various schools in Y.
A's purchase of goods for Y's school system does not constitute an importation of goods for A's own use, because A is acting as a procurement agent for another. A, therefore, cannot make boycott-based selections of suppliers of such school supplies.
(x) A, a U.S. company which is a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y, has a contract to make purchases for Y in connection with a construction project in Y. A is not engaged in the construction of, or in any other activity in connection with, the project. A's role is merely to purchase goods for Y and arrange for their delivery to Y.
A is not purchasing goods for its own use, because A is acting as a procurement agent for Y. A, therefore, cannot make boycott selections of suppliers of such goods.
(xi) A, a U.S. company which is a bona fide resident of boycotting country Y, imports specifically identifiable goods into Y for exhibit by A at a trade fair in Y. In selecting goods for exhibit, A excludes items made by blacklisted firms.
A's import of goods for its exhibit at a trade fair constitutes an import for A's own use. However, A may not sell in Y those goods it imported for exhibit.
(xii) A is a bona fide resident of boycotting countries Y and Z. In compliance with Y's boycott laws, A chooses specifically identifiable goods for its oil drilling operations in Y and Z by excluding blacklisted suppliers. The goods are first imported into Y. Those purchased for A's use in Z are then transshipped to Z.
In selecting those goods for importation into Y, A is making an import selection for its own use, even though A may use some of the imported goods in Z. Further, the subsequent shipment from Y to Z of those goods purchased for use in Z is an import into Z for A's own use.
[61 FR 12862, Mar. 25, 1996, as amended at 65 FR 34946, June 1, 2000; 73 FR 68327, Nov. 18, 2008]

Title 15 published on 2014-01-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

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United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 50, APPENDIX - WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSE
U.S. Code: Title 50 - WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSE
Presidential Documents

Executive Order ... 13222

Notice ... Aug. 15, 2012