16 CFR 14.15 - In regard to comparative advertising.

§ 14.15 In regard to comparative advertising.
(a) Introduction. The Commission's staff has conducted an investigation of industry trade associations and the advertising media regarding their comparative advertising policies. In the course of this investigation, numerous industry codes, statements of policy, interpretations and standards were examined. Many of the industry codes and standards contain language that could be interpreted as discouraging the use of comparative advertising. This Policy Statement enunciates the Commission's position that industry self-regulation should not restrain the use by advertisers of truthful comparative advertising.
(b) Policy Statement. The Federal Trade Commission has determined that it would be of benefit to advertisers, advertising agencies, broadcasters, and self-regulation entities to restate its current policy concerning comparative advertising. 1 Commission policy in the area of comparative advertising encourages the naming of, or reference to competitiors, but requires clarity, and, if necessary, disclosure to avoid deception of the consumer. Additionally, the use of truthful comparative advertising should not be restrained by broadcasters or self-regulation entities.

Footnote(s):
1 For purposes of this Policy Statement, comparative advertising is defined as advertising that compares alternative brands on objectively measurable attributes or price, and identifies the alternative brand by name, illustration or other distinctive information.

(c) The Commission has supported the use of brand comparisions where the bases of comparision are clearly identified. Comparative advertising, when truthful and nondeceptive, is a source of important information to consumers and assists them in making rational purchase decisions. Comparative advertising encourages product improvement and innovation, and can lead to lower prices in the marketplace. For these reasons, the Commission will continue to scrutinize carefully restraints upon its use.
(1) Disparagement. Some industry codes which prohibit practices such as “disparagement,” “disparagement of competitors,” “improper disparagement,” “unfairly attaching,” “discrediting,” may operate as a restriction on comparative advertising. The Commission has previously held that disparaging advertising is permissible so long as it is truthful and not deceptive. In Carter Products, Inc., 60 F.T.C. 782, modified,323 F.2d 523 (5th Cir. 1963), the Commission narrowed an order recommended by the hearing examiner which would have prohibited respondents from disparaging competing products through the use of false or misleading pictures, depictions, or demonstrations, “or otherwise” disparaging such products. In explaining why it eliminated “or otherwise” from the final order, the Commission observed that the phrase would have prevented:
respondents from making truthful and non-deceptive statements that a product has certain desirable properties or qualities which a competing product or products do not possess. Such a comparison may have the effect of disparaging the competing product, but we know of no rule of law which prevents a seller from honestly informing the public of the advantages of its products as opposed to those of competing products. 60 F.T.C. at 796.
Industry codes which restrain comparative advertising in this manner are subject to challenge by the Federal Trade Commission.
(2) Substantiation. On occasion, a higher standard of substantiation by advertisers using comparative advertising has been required by self-regulation entities. The Commission evaluates comparative advertising in the same manner as it evaluates all other advertising techniques. The ultimate question is whether or not the advertising has a tendency or capacity to be false or deceptive. This is a factual issue to be determined on a case-by-case basis. However, industry codes and interpretations that impose a higher standard of substantiation for comparative claims than for unilateral claims are inappropriate and should be revised.
(Sec. 5, 38 Stat. 719, as amended; 15 U.S.C. 45)
[44 FR 47328, Aug. 13, 1979]

Title 16 published on 2014-01-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

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United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE

§ 41 - Federal Trade Commission established; membership; vacancies; seal

§ 42 - Employees; expenses

§ 43 - Office and place of meeting

§ 44 - Definitions

§ 45 - Unfair methods of competition unlawful; prevention by Commission

§ 45a - Labels on products

§ 46 - Additional powers of Commission

§ 46a - Concurrent resolution essential to authorize investigations

§ 47 - Reference of suits under antitrust statutes to Commission

§ 48 - Information and assistance from departments

§ 49 - Documentary evidence; depositions; witnesses

§ 50 - Offenses and penalties

§ 51 - Effect on other statutory provisions

§ 52 - Dissemination of false advertisements

§ 53 - False advertisements; injunctions and restraining orders

§ 54 - False advertisements; penalties

§ 55 - Additional definitions

§ 56 - Commencement, defense, intervention and supervision of litigation and appeal by Commission or Attorney General

§ 57 - Separability clause

§ 57a - Unfair or deceptive acts or practices rulemaking proceedings

15 U.S. Code § 57a–1 - Omitted

§ 57b - Civil actions for violations of rules and cease and desist orders respecting unfair or deceptive acts or practices

15 U.S. Code § 57b–1 - Civil investigative demands

15 U.S. Code § 57b–2 - Confidentiality

15 U.S. Code § 57b–2a - Confidentiality and delayed notice of compulsory process for certain third parties

15 U.S. Code § 57b–2b - Protection for voluntary provision of information

15 U.S. Code § 57b–3 - Rulemaking process

15 U.S. Code § 57b–4 - Good faith reliance on actions of Board of Governors

15 U.S. Code § 57b–5 - Agricultural cooperatives

§ 57c - Authorization of appropriations

15 U.S. Code § 57c–1 - Staff exchanges

15 U.S. Code § 57c–2 - Reimbursement of expenses

§ 58 - Short title