17 CFR 1.16 - Qualifications and reports of accountants.

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§ 1.16 Qualifications and reports of accountants.
(a) Definitions—(1) Accountant's report. The term “accountant's report,” when used in regard to financial statements and schedules, means a document in which an independent licensed or certified public accountant indicates the scope of the audit (or examination) which he has made and sets forth his opinion regarding the financial statements and schedules taken as a whole or an assertion to the fact that an overall opinion cannot be expressed. When an overall opinion cannot be expressed, the reasons therefore must be stated.
(2) Audit or examination. The terms “audit” and “examination,” when used in regard to financial statements and schedules, mean an examination of the statements and schedules by an accountant in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards for the purposes of expressing an opinion thereon.
(3) Certified. The term “certified,” when used in regard to financial statements and schedules, means audited and reported upon with an opinion expressed by an independent certified public accountant or independent licensed public accountant.
(4) Customer. The term “customer” means customer, as defined in § 1.3, and 30.7 customer, as defined in § 30.1 of this chapter.
(b) Qualifications of accountants. (1) The Commission will recognize any person as a certified public accountant who is duly registered and in good standing as such under the laws of the place of his residence or principal office; Provided, however, that a certified public accountant engaged to conduct an examination of a futures commission merchant must be registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board and must have undergone an examination by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, and may not be subject to a permanent or temporary bar to engage in the examination of public issuers or brokers or dealers registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission as a result of a Public Company Accounting Oversight Board disciplinary hearing.
(2) The Commission will not recognize any certified public accountant or licensed public accountant as independent who is not in fact independent. For example, an accountant will not be considered independent with respect to any applicant or registrant or any parent, subsidiary, or other affiliate of such applicant or registrant (i) in which, during the period of his professional engagement to examine the financial statements and schedules being reported on or at the date of his report, he or his firm or a member thereof had, or was committed to acquire, any direct financial interest or any material indirect financial interest, or (ii) with which, during the period of his professional engagement to examine the financial statements and schedules being reported on, at the date of his report or during the period covered by the financial statements, he or his firm or a member thereof was connected as a promoter, underwriter, voting trustee, director, officer, or employee, except that a firm will be deemed independent with respect to an applicant or registrant and its affiliates if a former employee or officer of such applicant or registrant or any such affiliate is employed by the firm and such individual has completely disassociated himself from the applicant or registrant and its affiliates and does not participate in auditing financial statements and schedules of the applicant or registrant or its affiliates covering any period of his employment by the applicant or registrant or its affiliates. An accountant will not be considered independent if he or his firm or a member thereof performs manual or automated bookkeeping services or assumes responsibility for maintenance of the accounting records, including accounting classification decisions, of such applicant or registrant or any of its affiliates. For the purposes of this § 1.16(b), the term “member” means all partners in the firm and all professional employees participating in the audit or located in the office of the firm participating in a significant portion of the audit.
(3) In determining whether an accountant may in fact not be independent with respect to a particular applicant or registrant, the Commission will give appropriate consideration to all relevant circumstances, including evidence bearing on all relationships between the accountant and that applicant or registrant or any affiliate thereof, and will not confine itself to the relationship existing in connection with the filing of reports with the Commission.
(4) The governing body of each futures commission merchant must ensure that the certified public accountant engaged is duly qualified to perform an audit of the futures commission merchant. Such an evaluation of the qualifications of the certified public accountant should include, among other issues, the certified public accountant's experience in auditing futures commission merchants, the depth of the certified public accountant's staff, the certified public accountant's knowledge of the Act and Regulations, the size and geographic location of the futures commission merchant, and the independence of the certified public accountant. The governing body should also review and consider the inspection reports issued by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board as part of the assessment of the qualifications of the public accountant to perform an audit of the futures commission merchant.
(c) Accountant's reports—(1) Technical requirements. The accountant's report must:
(i) Be dated;
(ii) Indicate the city and State where issued; and
(iii) Identify without detailed enumeration the financial statements covered by the report.
(2) Representations as to the audit. The accountant's report must state whether the audit was made in accordance with the auditing standards adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, and must designate any auditing procedures deemed necessary by the accountant under the circumstances of the particular case which have been omitted and the reasons for their omission. However, nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to imply authority for the omission of any procedure which independent accountants would ordinarily employ in the course of an audit made for the purposes of expressing the opinion required by paragraph (c)(3) of this section.
(3) Opinion to be expressed. The accountant's report must state clearly: (i) The opinion of the accountant with respect to the financial statements and schedules covered by the report and the accounting principles and practices reflected therein and (ii) the opinion of the accountant as to the consistency of the application of the accounting principles, or as to any changes in such principles which have material effect on the financial statements and schedules.
(4) Exceptions. Any matters to which the accountant takes exception must be clearly identified, such exceptions specifically and clearly stated, and to the extent practicable, the effect of each exception on related financial statements and schedules given.
(5) Accountant's report on material inadequacies. A registrant must file concurrently with the annual audit report a supplemental report by the accountant describing any material inadequacies found to exist or found to have existed since the date of the previous audit. An applicant must file concurrently with the audit report a supplemental report by the accountant describing any material inadequacies found to exist as of the date of the Form 1-FR being filed: Provided, however, That if such applicant is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission as a securities broker or dealer, and it files (in accordance with § 1.10(h)) a copy of its Financial and Operational Combined Uniform Single Report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, Part II, Part IIA, or Part II CSE, in lieu of Form 1-FR, the accountant's supplemental report must be made as of the date of such report. The supplemental report must indicate any corrective action taken or proposed by the applicant or registrant in regard thereto. If the audit did not disclose any material inadequacies, the supplemental report must so state.
(d) Audit objectives. (1) The audit must be made in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards and must include a review and appropriate tests of the accounting system, the internal accounting control, and the procedures for safeguarding customer and firm assets in accordance with the provisions of the Act and the regulations thereunder, since the prior examination date. The audit must include all procedures necessary under the circumstances to enable the independent licensed or certified public accountant to express an opinion on the financial statements and schedules. The scope of the audit and review of the accounting system, the internal controls, and procedures for safeguarding customer and firm assets must be sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that any material inadequacies existing at the date of the examination in (i) the accounting system, (ii) the internal accounting controls, and (iii) the procedures for safeguarding customer and firm assets (including, in the case of a futures commission merchant, the segregation requirements of section 4d(a)(2) of the Act and these regulations and the secured amount requirements of the Act and these regulations) will be discovered. Additionally, as specified objectives the audit must include reviews of the practices and procedures followed by the registrant in making (A) periodic computations of the minimum financial requirements pursuant to § 1.17 and (B) in the case of a futures commission merchant, daily computations of the segregation requirements of section 4d(a)(2) of the Act and these regulations and the secured amount requirements of the Act and these regulations.
(2) A material inadequacy in the accounting system, the internal accounting controls, the procedures for safeguarding customer and firm assets, and the practices and procedures referred to in paragraph (d)(1) of this section which is to be reported in accordance with paragraph (e)(2) of this section includes any conditions which contributed substantially to or, if appropriate corrective action is not taken, could reasonably be expected to:
(i) Inhibit an applicant or registrant from promptly completing transactions or promptly discharging his responsibilities to customers or other creditors;
(ii) Result in material financial loss;
(iii) Result in material misstatement of the applicant's or registrant's financial statements and schedules; or
(iv) Result in violations of the Commission's segregation or secured amount (in the case of a futures commission merchant), recordkeeping or financial reporting requirements to the extent that could reasonably be expected to result in the conditions described in paragraph (d)(2) (i), (ii), or (iii) of this section.
(e) Extent and timing of audit procedures. (1) The extent and timing of audit procedures are matters for the independent public accountant to determine on the basis of his review and evaluation of existing internal controls and other audit procedures performed in accordance with generally accepted auditing standards and the audit objectives set forth in paragraph (d) of this section. In determining the extent of testing, consideration must be given to the materiality of an area and to the possible effect on the financial statements and schedules of a material misstatement in a related account.
(2) If during the course of an audit or interim work, the independent public accountant determines that any material inadequacies exist in the accounting system, in the internal accounting control, in the procedures for safeguarding customer or firm assets, or as otherwise defined in paragraph (d) of this section, he must call such inadequacies to the attention of the applicant or registrant, which has the responsibility to give notice to the National Futures Association and, if an applicant, or the Commission and the designated self-regulatory organization, if any, if a registrant, in accordance with paragraphs (d) and (g) of § 1.12: Provided, however, That if the applicant or registrant is an introducing broker or applicant for registration as an introducing broker, it also has the responsibility to give notice to the National Futures Association, the designated self-regulatory organization, if any, and every futures commission merchant carrying or intending to carry customer accounts for the introducing broker or applicant for registration as an introducing broker. The applicant or registrant must also furnish the accountant with a copy of said notice within three (3) business days. If the accountant fails to receive such notice from the applicant or registrant within three (3) business days, or if he disagrees with the statements contained in the notice of the applicant or registrant, the accountant must inform the National Futures Association, in the case of an applicant, or the Commission and the designated self-regulatory organization, if any, in the case of a registrant, by reporting the material inadequacy and, in the case of an applicant or registrant which is an introducing broker or applicant for registration as in introducing broker, the accountant must also inform the National Futures Association, the designated self-regulatory organization, if any, and every futures commission merchant carrying or intending to carry customer accounts for the introducing an introducing broker, within three (3) business days thereafter. Such report from the accountant must, if the applicant or registrant failed to file a notice, describe the material inadequacies found to exist. If the applicant or registrant filed a notice, the accountant must file a report detailing the aspects, if any, of the applicant's or registrant's notice with which the accountant does not agree.
(f)
(1) Extension of time for filing audited reports. In the event a registered futures commission merchant or a registered introducing broker finds that it cannot file, without substantial undue hardship, its certified financial statements and schedules for any year within the time specified in § 1.10 (b)(1)(ii) or § 1.10 (b)(2)(ii) of this part, as applicable, such registrants may request approval for an extension of time, as follows:
(i) Futures commission merchant registrants. (A) A futures commission merchant may file with its designated self-regulatory organization an application for an extension of time, a copy of which the registrant must file with the Commission. The application shall be approved or denied in writing by the designated self-regulatory organization. The registrant must file immediately with the Commission a copy of any notice it receives from the designated self-regulatory organization to approve or deny the registrant's request for extension of time. A written notice of approval shall become effective upon the filing by the registrant of a copy with the Commission, and a written notice of denial shall be effective as of the date of the notice.
(B) A futures commission merchant that is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission as a securities broker or dealer may file with its designated self-regulatory organization a copy of any application that the registrant has filed with its designated examining authority, pursuant to § 240.17-a5(l)(1)of this title, for an extension of time to file audited annual financial statements. The registrant must also file immediately with the designated self-regulatory organization and the Commission copies of any notice it receives from its designated examining authority to approve or deny the requested extension of time. Upon receipt by the designated self-regulatory organization and the Commission of copies of any such notice of approval, the requested extension of time referenced in the notice shall be deemed approved under this paragraph (f)(1)(i).
(C) Any copy that under this paragraph is required to be filed with the Commission must be filed via electronic transmission using a form of user authentication assigned in accordance with procedures established by or approved by the Commission, and otherwise in accordance with instructions issued by or approved by the Commission. Any such electronic submission must clearly indicate the registrant on whose behalf such filing is made and the use of such user authentication in submitting such filing will constitute and become a substitute for the manual signature of the authorized signer.
(ii) Introducing broker registrants. (A) An introducing broker may file with the National Futures Association an application for extension of time, which shall be approved or denied in writing.
(B) An introducing broker that is registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission as a securities broker or dealer may file with the National Futures Association copies of any application that the registrant has filed with its designated examining authority, pursuant to § 240.17-a5(l)(1) of this title, for an extension of time to file audited annual financial statements. The registrant must also file immediately with the National Futures Association copies of any notice it receives from its designated examining authority to approve or deny the requested extension of time. Upon the receipt by the National Futures Association of a copy of any such notice of approval, the requested extension of time referenced in the notice shall be deemed approved under this paragraph (f)(1)(ii).
(2) Exemption requests. On the written request of any designated self-regulatory organization or registrant, or on its own motion, the Commission may grant an extension of time or an exemption from any of the certified financial reporting requirements of this chapter either unconditionally or on specified terms and conditions.
(g) Replacement of accountant. (1) In the event (i) the independent public accountant who was previously engaged as the principal accountant to audit an applicant's or registrant's financial statements resigns (or indicates he declines to stand for re-election after the completion of the current audit) or is dismissed as the applicant's or registrant's principal accountant, (ii) another independent accountant is engaged as principal accountant, or (iii) an independent accountant on whom the principal accountant expresses reliance in his report regarding a subsidiary resigns (or formally indicates he declines to stand for re-election after completion of the current audit) or is dismissed or another independent public accountant is engaged to audit that subsidiary, an applicant shall file written notice of such occurrence with the National Futures Association, and a registrant shall file written notice of such occurrence with the Commission at its principal office in Washington, DC, and with the designated self-regulatory organization, if any, not more than 15 business days after such occurrence.
(2) Such notice must state (i) the date of such resignation (or declination to stand for re-election, dismissal or engagement) and (ii) whether, in connection with the audit of the two most recent fiscal years and any subsequent interim period preceding such resignation, dismissal or engagement, there were any disagreements with the former accountant on any matter of accounting principles or practices, financial statements disclosure, auditing scope or procedures, or compliance with the applicable rules of the Commission, which, if not resolved to the satisfaction of the former accountant, would have caused him to make reference in connection with his report to the subject matter of the disagreements (if so, describe such disagreements). The disagreements required to be reported in this paragraph (g)(2) include both those resolved to the former accountant's satisfaction and those not resolved to the former accountant's satisfaction. Disagreements contemplated by this paragraph (g)(2) are those which occur at the decision-making level, i.e., between personnel of the applicant or registrant responsible for presentation of its financial statements and schedules and personnel of the accounting firm responsible for rendering its report. The notice must also state whether the accountant's report on the financial statements and schedules for any of the past two years contained an adverse opinion or a disclaimer of opinion or was qualified as to uncertainties, audit scope, or accounting principles (if so, describe the nature of each such adverse opinion, disclaimer of opinion, or qualification). An applicant must also request the former accountant to furnish the applicant with a letter addressed to the National Futures Association, and a registrant must also request the former accountant to furnish the registrant with a letter addressed to the Commission, stating whether he agrees with the statements contained in the notice of the applicant or registrant and, if not, stating the respects in which he does not agree. Each copy of the notice and accountant's letter must be manually signed by the sole proprietor or a general partner or a duly authorized corporate officer of the applicant or registrant, as appropriate, and by the accountant.
(3) If (i) within the 24 months prior to the date of the most recent audited financial statement, a notice has been filed pursuant to paragraph (g)(1) of this section reporting a change of accountants, (ii) included in such filing there is a reported disagreement on any matters of accounting principles or practices, financial statements disclosure, auditing scope, or noncompliance with the applicable rules of the Commission, (iii) during the fiscal year in which the change in accountants took place or during the subsequent fiscal year, there have been any transactions or events similar to those which involved a reported disagreement, and (iv) such transactions or events are material and were accounted for or disclosed in a manner different from that which the former accountant apparently would have concluded was required, the existence and nature of the disagreements and also the effect on the financial statements must be stated in a written notice to the National Futures Association, in the case of an applicant, or to the Commission at its principal office in Washington, DC, and the designated self-regulatory organization, if any, in the case of a registrant, if the method which the former accountant apparently would have concluded was required had been followed. These disclosures need not be made if the method asserted by the former accountant ceases to be generally accepted because of authoritative standards or interpretations subsequently issued. The notice required by this paragraph (g)(3) must be filed by the applicant or registrant concurrently with the financial statements and schedules to which it pertains.
(h) Exemption for introducing broker or applicant therefor. The provisions of this section do not apply to an introducing broker which is operating pursuant to a guarantee agreement, nor do such provisions apply to an applicant for registration as an introducing broker who files concurrently with such application a guarantee agreement, provided such introducing broker or applicant therefor is not also a securities broker or dealer.
(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control numbers 3038-0007, 3038-0024)
[43 FR 39970, Sept. 8, 1978, as amended at 46 FR 54516, Nov. 3, 1981; 46 FR 63035, Dec. 30, 1981; 48 FR 35284, Aug. 3, 1983; 49 FR 39526, Oct. 9, 1984; 52 FR 28995, Aug. 5, 1987; 53 FR 4612, Feb. 17, 1988; 69 FR 41426, July 9, 2004; 69 FR 49798, Aug. 12, 2004; 71 FR 5593, Feb. 2, 2006; 77 FR 66320, Nov. 2, 2012; 78 FR 68625, Nov. 14, 2013]

Title 17 published on 2014-04-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 17.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2014-09-26; vol. 79 # 187 - Friday, September 26, 2014
    1. 79 FR 57767 - Exclusion of Utility Operations-Related Swaps With Utility Special Entities From De Minimis Threshold for Swaps With Special Entities
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      COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION
      Final rule.
      Effective October 27, 2014.
      17 CFR Part 1

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 7 - AGRICULTURE

§ 1a - Definitions

§ 2 - Jurisdiction of Commission; liability of principal for act of agent; Commodity Futures Trading Commission; transaction in interstate commerce

§ 5 - Findings and purpose

§ 6 - Regulation of futures trading and foreign transactions

§ 6a - Excessive speculation

§ 6b - Contracts designed to defraud or mislead

§ 6c - Prohibited transactions

§ 6d - Dealing by unregistered futures commission merchants or introducing brokers prohibited; duties in handling customer...rules to avoid duplicative regulations; swap requirements; portfolio margining accounts

§ 6e - Dealings by unregistered floor trader or broker prohibited

§ 6f - Registration and financial requirements; risk assessment

§ 6g - Reporting and recordkeeping

§ 6h - False self-representation as registered entity member prohibited

§ 6i - Reports of deals equal to or in excess of trading limits; books and records; cash and controlled transactions

§ 6k - Registration of associates of futures commission merchants, commodity pool operators, and commodity trading advisors; required disclosure of disqualifications; exemptions for associated persons

7 U.S. Code § -

§ 6m - Use of mails or other means or instrumentalities of interstate commerce by commodity trading advisors and commodity pool operators; relation to other law

§ 6n - Registration of commodity trading advisors and commodity pool operators; application; expiration and renewal; record keeping and reports; disclosure; statements of account

7 U.S. Code § -

§ 6p - Standards and examinations

§ 6r - Reporting and recordkeeping for uncleared swaps

§ 6s - Registration and regulation of swap dealers and major swap participants

§ 7 - Designation of boards of trade as contract markets

§ 7a - Repealed.

7 U.S. Code § 2a to 4a - Transferred

7 U.S. Code § 2a to 4a - Transferred

§ 7b - Suspension or revocation of designation as registered entity

7 U.S. Code § 2a to 4a - Transferred

§ 8 - Application for designation as contract market or derivatives transaction execution facility; time; suspension or revocation of designation; hearing; review by court of appeals

§ 9 - Prohibition regarding manipulation and false information

§ 10 - Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 646,

§ 10a - Cooperative associations and corporations, exclusion from board of trade; rules of board inapplicable to payment of compensation by association

§ 12 - Public disclosure

§ 12a - Registration of commodity dealers and associated persons; regulation of registered entities

§ 12c - Disciplinary actions

§ 13a - Nonenforcement of rules of government or other violations; cease and desist orders; fines and penalties; imprisonment; misdemeanor; separate offenses

7 U.S. Code § 12–1 to 12–3 - Omitted

§ 16 - Commission operations

§ 16a - Service fees and National Futures Association study

§ 19 - Consideration of costs and benefits and antitrust laws

§ 21 - Registered futures associations

§ 23 - Standardized contracts for certain commodities

§ 24 - Customer property with respect to commodity broker debtors; definitions

Statutes at Large

Title 17 published on 2014-04-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 17 CFR 1 after this date.

  • 2014-11-20; vol. 79 # 224 - Thursday, November 20, 2014
    1. 79 FR 69073 - Forward Contracts With Embedded Volumetric Optionality
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      SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION, COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION
      Proposed interpretation.
      Comments must be received on or before December 22, 2014.
      17 CFR Part 1