(a) In general. During a hearing, the hearing of a motion, or an interlocutory proceeding under Rule 715, any part or all of a deposition taken pursuant to Rule 404, so far as admissible as though the witness were then present and testifying, may be used against any participant who was present or represented at the taking of the deposition or who had reasonable notice thereof, in accordance with any of the provisions of this section.
(1) If the deponent is a witness at a hearing, any participant may use the deposition of that witness at the time of the witness' examination to contradict, impeach, or complete the testimony of that witness.
(2) The deposition of a participant or of any person who, at the time of taking the deposition, was an officer, director, or managing agent of a participant, or a person designated under Rule 404(b)(3) to testify on behalf of a participant may be used by another participant for any purpose.
(3) The deposition of any witness, whether or not a participant, may be used by a participant for any purpose, if the presiding officer finds that:
(i) The witness is dead;
(ii) The witness is unable to attend or testify because of age, illness, infirmity or imprisonment;
(iii) The participant offering the deposition is unable after the exercise of due diligence to procure the attendance of the witness by subpoena; or
(iv) Exceptional circumstances make it necessary in the interest of fairness with due regard to the importance of presenting the witness in open hearing, to allow use of the deposition.
(4) If only part of a deposition is offered in evidence by a participant, a participant may require the introduction of any other part which ought, in fairness, to be considered with the part introduced, and any adverse participant may introduce any other part.
(b) Objections to admissibility. No part of a deposition will constitute a part of the record in the proceeding, unless received in evidence by the Commission or presiding officer. Subject to paragraph (c) of this section, a participant may object to receiving into evidence all or part of any deposition for any reason that the evidence would be excluded if the deponent were present and testifying.
(c) Effect of errors and irregularities in depositions.(1) Any objection to the taking of a deposition based on errors or irregularities in notice of the deposition is waived, unless written objection is promptly served on the participant giving the notice.
(2) Any objection to the taking of a deposition based on the disqualification of the officer before whom it is to be taken is waived, unless the objection is made before the deposition begins or as soon thereafter as the disqualification becomes known or could be discovered with reasonable diligence.
(3) Any objection to the competency of the witness or the competency, relevancy, or materiality of testimony is not waived by failure to make the objection before or during the taking of the deposition, unless the basis for the objection might have been removed if the objection had been presented at the taking of the deposition.
(4) Any objection to errors and irregularities occurring at the oral examination in the manner of taking the deposition, in the form of the questions and answers, in the oath or affirmation, or in the conduct of participants, and errors of any kind that might be obviated, removed or cured if presented at the deposition, is waived unless objection is made at the taking of the deposition.
(5) Any objection based on errors or irregularities in the manner in which the testimony is transcribed or the deposition is prepared, signed, certified, endorsed, or otherwise dealt with by the officer is waived, unless the objection is made with reasonable promptness after the defect is, or with due diligence should have been, ascertained.
Title 18 published on 2012-04-01
The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 18.
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