2 CFR Part 230, Appendix A to Part 230 - General Principles

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View PDF at GPO Pt. 230, App. A
Appendix A to Part 230—General Principles
General Principles
Table of Contents
A. Basic Considerations
1. Composition of total costs
2. Factors affecting allowability of costs
3. Reasonable costs
4. Allocable costs
5. Applicable credits
6. Advance understandings
7. Conditional exemptions
B. Direct Costs
C. Indirect Costs
D. Allocation of Indirect Costs and Determination of Indirect Cost Rates
1. General
2. Simplified allocation method
3. Multiple allocation base method
4. Direct allocation method
5. Special indirect cost rates
E. Negotiation and Approval of Indirect Cost Rates
1. Definitions
2. Negotiation and approval of rates
General Principles
A. Basic Considerations
1. Composition of total costs. The total cost of an award is the sum of the allowable direct and allocable indirect costs less any applicable credits.
2. Factors affecting allowability of costs. To be allowable under an award, costs must meet the following general criteria:
a. Be reasonable for the performance of the award and be allocable thereto under these principles.
b. Conform to any limitations or exclusions set forth in these principles or in the award as to types or amount of cost items.
c. Be consistent with policies and procedures that apply uniformly to both federally-financed and other activities of the organization.
d. Be accorded consistent treatment.
e. Be determined in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).
f. Not be included as a cost or used to meet cost sharing or matching requirements of any other federally-financed program in either the current or a prior period.
g. Be adequately documented.
3. Reasonable costs. A cost is reasonable if, in its nature or amount, it does not exceed that which would be incurred by a prudent person under the circumstances prevailing at the time the decision was made to incur the costs. The question of the reasonableness of specific costs must be scrutinized with particular care in connection with organizations or separate divisions thereof which receive the preponderance of their support from awards made by Federal agencies. In determining the reasonableness of a given cost, consideration shall be given to:
a. Whether the cost is of a type generally recognized as ordinary and necessary for the operation of the organization or the performance of the award.
b. The restraints or requirements imposed by such factors as generally accepted sound business practices, arms length bargaining, Federal and State laws and regulations, and terms and conditions of the award.
c. Whether the individuals concerned acted with prudence in the circumstances, considering their responsibilities to the organization, its members, employees, and clients, the public at large, and the Federal Government.
d. Significant deviations from the established practices of the organization which may unjustifiably increase the award costs.
4. Allocable costs. a. A cost is allocable to a particular cost objective, such as a grant, contract, project, service, or other activity, in accordance with the relative benefits received. A cost is allocable to a Federal award if it is treated consistently with other costs incurred for the same purpose in like circumstances and if it:
(1) Is incurred specifically for the award.
(2) Benefits both the award and other work and can be distributed in reasonable proportion to the benefits received, or
(3) Is necessary to the overall operation of the organization, although a direct relationship to any particular cost objective cannot be shown.
b. Any cost allocable to a particular award or other cost objective under these principles may not be shifted to other Federal awards to overcome funding deficiencies, or to avoid restrictions imposed by law or by the terms of the award.
5. Applicable credits. a. The term applicable credits refers to those receipts, or reduction of expenditures which operate to offset or reduce expense items that are allocable to awards as direct or indirect costs. Typical examples of such transactions are: Purchase discounts, rebates or allowances, recoveries or indemnities on losses, insurance refunds, and adjustments of overpayments or erroneous charges. To the extent that such credits accruing or received by the organization relate to allowable cost, they shall be credited to the Federal Government either as a cost reduction or cash refund, as appropriate.
b. In some instances, the amounts received from the Federal Government to finance organizational activities or service operations should be treated as applicable credits. Specifically, the concept of netting such credit items against related expenditures should be applied by the organization in determining the rates or amounts to be charged to Federal awards for services rendered whenever the facilities or other resources used in providing such services have been financed directly, in whole or in part, by Federal funds.
c. For rules covering program income (i.e., gross income earned from federally-supported activities) see § 215.24 of2 CFR part 215 Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements with Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations (OMB Circular A-110).
6. Advance understandings. Under any given award, the reasonableness and allocability of certain items of costs may be difficult to determine. This is particularly true in connection with organizations that receive a preponderance of their support from Federal agencies. In order to avoid subsequent disallowance or dispute based on unreasonableness or nonallocability, it is often desirable to seek a written agreement with the cognizant or awarding agency in advance of the incurrence of special or unusual costs. The absence of an advance agreement on any element of cost will not, in itself, affect the reasonableness or allocability of that element.
7. Conditional exemptions. a. OMB authorizes conditional exemption from OMB administrative requirements and cost principles for certain Federal programs with statutorily-authorized consolidated planning and consolidated administrative funding, that are identified by a Federal agency and approved by the head of the Executive department or establishment. A Federal agency shall consult with OMB during its consideration of whether to grant such an exemption.
b. To promote efficiency in State and local program administration, when Federal non-entitlement programs with common purposes have specific statutorily-authorized consolidated planning and consolidated administrative funding and where most of the State agency's resources come from non-Federal sources, Federal agencies may exempt these covered State-administered, non-entitlement grant programs from certain OMB grants management requirements. The exemptions would be from all but the allocability of costs provisions of Appendix A, subsection C.e. of 2 CFR part 225 (OMB Circular A-87); Appendix A, Section C.4. of 2 CFR part 220 (OMB Circular A-21); Section A.4. of this appendix; and from all of the administrative requirements provisions of 2 CFR part 215 (OMB Circular A-110) and the agencies' grants management common rule.
c. When a Federal agency provides this flexibility, as a prerequisite to a State's exercising this option, a State must adopt its own written fiscal and administrative requirements for expending and accounting for all funds, which are consistent with the provisions of 2 CFR part 225 (OMB Circular A-87), and extend such policies to all subrecipients. These fiscal and administrative requirements must be sufficiently specific to ensure that: Funds are used in compliance with all applicable Federal statutory and regulatory provisions, costs are reasonable and necessary for operating these programs, and funds are not to be used for general expenses required to carry out other responsibilities of a State or its subrecipients.
B. Direct Costs
1. Direct costs are those that can be identified specifically with a particular final cost objective, i.e., a particular award, project, service, or other direct activity of an organization. However, a cost may not be assigned to an award as a direct cost if any other cost incurred for the same purpose, in like circumstance, has been allocated to an award as an indirect cost. Costs identified specifically with awards are direct costs of the awards and are to be assigned directly thereto. Costs identified specifically with other final cost objectives of the organization are direct costs of those cost objectives and are not to be assigned to other awards directly or indirectly.
2. Any direct cost of a minor amount may be treated as an indirect cost for reasons of practicality where the accounting treatment for such cost is consistently applied to all final cost objectives.
3. The cost of certain activities are not allowable as charges to Federal awards (see, for example, fundraising costs in paragraph 17 of Appendix B to this part). However, even though these costs are unallowable for purposes of computing charges to Federal awards, they nonetheless must be treated as direct costs for purposes of determining indirect cost rates and be allocated their share of the organization's indirect costs if they represent activities which include the salaries of personnel, occupy space, and benefit from the organization's indirect costs.
4. The costs of activities performed primarily as a service to members, clients, or the general public when significant and necessary to the organization's mission must be treated as direct costs whether or not allowable and be allocated an equitable share of indirect costs. Some examples of these types of activities include:
a. Maintenance of membership rolls, subscriptions, publications, and related functions.
b. Providing services and information to members, legislative or administrative bodies, or the public.
c. Promotion, lobbying, and other forms of public relations.
d. Meetings and conferences except those held to conduct the general administration of the organization.
e. Maintenance, protection, and investment of special funds not used in operation of the organization.
f. Administration of group benefits on behalf of members or clients, including life and hospital insurance, annuity or retirement plans, financial aid, etc.
C. Indirect Costs
1. Indirect costs are those that have been incurred for common or joint objectives and cannot be readily identified with a particular final cost objective. Direct cost of minor amounts may be treated as indirect costs under the conditions described in subparagraph B.2 of this appendix. After direct costs have been determined and assigned directly to awards or other work as appropriate, indirect costs are those remaining to be allocated to benefiting cost objectives. A cost may not be allocated to an award as an indirect cost if any other cost incurred for the same purpose, in like circumstances, has been assigned to an award as a direct cost.
2. Because of the diverse characteristics and accounting practices of non-profit organizations, it is not possible to specify the types of cost which may be classified as indirect cost in all situations. However, typical examples of indirect cost for many non-profit organizations may include depreciation or use allowances on buildings and equipment, the costs of operating and maintaining facilities, and general administration and general expenses, such as the salaries and expenses of executive officers, personnel administration, and accounting.
3. Indirect costs shall be classified within two broad categories: “Facilities” and “Administration.” “Facilities” is defined as depreciation and use allowances on buildings, equipment and capital improvement, interest on debt associated with certain buildings, equipment and capital improvements, and operations and maintenance expenses. “Administration” is defined as general administration and general expenses such as the director's office, accounting, personnel, library expenses and all other types of expenditures not listed specifically under one of the subcategories of “Facilities” (including cross allocations from other pools, where applicable). See indirect cost rate reporting requirements in subparagraphs D.2.e and D.3.g of this appendix.
D. Allocation of Indirect Costs and Determination of Indirect Cost Rates
1. General. a. Where a non-profit organization has only one major function, or where all its major functions benefit from its indirect costs to approximately the same degree, the allocation of indirect costs and the computation of an indirect cost rate may be accomplished through simplified allocation procedures, as described in subparagraph D.2 of this appendix.
b. Where an organization has several major functions which benefit from its indirect costs in varying degrees, allocation of indirect costs may require the accumulation of such costs into separate cost groupings which then are allocated individually to benefiting functions by means of a base which best measures the relative degree of benefit. The indirect costs allocated to each function are then distributed to individual awards and other activities included in that function by means of an indirect cost rate(s).
c. The determination of what constitutes an organization's major functions will depend on its purpose in being; the types of services it renders to the public, its clients, and its members; and the amount of effort it devotes to such activities as fundraising, public information and membership activities.
d. Specific methods for allocating indirect costs and computing indirect cost rates along with the conditions under which each method should be used are described in subparagraphs D.2 through 5 of this appendix.
e. The base period for the allocation of indirect costs is the period in which such costs are incurred and accumulated for allocation to work performed in that period. The base period normally should coincide with the organization's fiscal year but, in any event, shall be so selected as to avoid inequities in the allocation of the costs.
2. Simplified allocation method. a. Where an organization's major functions benefit from its indirect costs to approximately the same degree, the allocation of indirect costs may be accomplished by separating the organization's total costs for the base period as either direct or indirect, and dividing the total allowable indirect costs (net of applicable credits) by an equitable distribution base. The result of this process is an indirect cost rate which is used to distribute indirect costs to individual awards. The rate should be expressed as the percentage which the total amount of allowable indirect costs bears to the base selected. This method should also be used where an organization has only one major function encompassing a number of individual projects or activities, and may be used where the level of Federal awards to an organization is relatively small.
b. Both the direct costs and the indirect costs shall exclude capital expenditures and unallowable costs. However, unallowable costs which represent activities must be included in the direct costs under the conditions described in subparagraph B.3 of this appendix.
c. The distribution base may be total direct costs (excluding capital expenditures and other distorting items, such as major subcontracts or subgrants), direct salaries and wages, or other base which results in an equitable distribution. The distribution base shall generally exclude participant support costs as defined in paragraph 32 of Appendix B.
d. Except where a special rate(s) is required in accordance with subparagraph 5 of this appendix, the indirect cost rate developed under the above principles is applicable to all awards at the organization. If a special rate(s) is required, appropriate modifications shall be made in order to develop the special rate(s).
e. For an organization that receives more than $10 million in Federal funding of direct costs in a fiscal year, a breakout of the indirect cost component into two broad categories, Facilities and Administration as defined in subparagraph C.3 of this appendix, is required. The rate in each case shall be stated as the percentage which the amount of the particular indirect cost category (i.e., Facilities or Administration) is of the distribution base identified with that category.
3. Multiple allocation base method.
a. General. Where an organization's indirect costs benefit its major functions in varying degrees, indirect costs shall be accumulated into separate cost groupings, as described in subparagraph D.3.b of this appendix. Each grouping shall then be allocated individually to benefiting functions by means of a base which best measures the relative benefits. The default allocation bases by cost pool are described in subparagraph D.3.c of this appendix.
b. Identification of indirect costs. Cost groupings shall be established so as to permit the allocation of each grouping on the basis of benefits provided to the major functions. Each grouping shall constitute a pool of expenses that are of like character in terms of functions they benefit and in terms of the allocation base which best measures the relative benefits provided to each function. The groupings are classified within the two broad categories: “Facilities” and “Administration,” as described in subparagraph C.3 of this appendix. The indirect cost pools are defined as follows:
(1) Depreciation and use allowances. The expenses under this heading are the portion of the costs of the organization's buildings, capital improvements to land and buildings, and equipment which are computed in accordance with paragraph 11 of Appendix B to this part (“Depreciation and use allowances”).
(2) Interest. Interest on debt associated with certain buildings, equipment and capital improvements are computed in accordance with paragraph 23 of Appendix B to this part (“Interest”).
(3) Operation and maintenance expenses. The expenses under this heading are those that have been incurred for the administration, operation, maintenance, preservation, and protection of the organization's physical plant. They include expenses normally incurred for such items as: Janitorial and utility services; repairs and ordinary or normal alterations of buildings, furniture and equipment; care of grounds; maintenance and operation of buildings and other plant facilities; security; earthquake and disaster preparedness; environmental safety; hazardous waste disposal; property, liability and other insurance relating to property; space and capital leasing; facility planning and management; and, central receiving. The operation and maintenance expenses category shall also include its allocable share of fringe benefit costs, depreciation and use allowances, and interest costs.
(4) General administration and general expenses. (a) The expenses under this heading are those that have been incurred for the overall general executive and administrative offices of the organization and other expenses of a general nature which do not relate solely to any major function of the organization. This category shall also include its allocable share of fringe benefit costs, operation and maintenance expense, depreciation and use allowances, and interest costs. Examples of this category include central offices, such as the director's office, the office of finance, business services, budget and planning, personnel, safety and risk management, general counsel, management information systems, and library costs.
(b) In developing this cost pool, special care should be exercised to ensure that costs incurred for the same purpose in like circumstances are treated consistently as either direct or indirect costs. For example, salaries of technical staff, project supplies, project publication, telephone toll charges, computer costs, travel costs, and specialized services costs shall be treated as direct costs wherever identifiable to a particular program. The salaries and wages of administrative and pooled clerical staff should normally be treated as indirect costs. Direct charging of these costs may be appropriate where a major project or activity explicitly requires and budgets for administrative or clerical services and other individuals involved can be identified with the program or activity. Items such as office supplies, postage, local telephone costs, periodicals and memberships should normally be treated as indirect costs.
c. Allocation bases. Actual conditions shall be taken into account in selecting the base to be used in allocating the expenses in each grouping to benefiting functions. The essential consideration in selecting a method or a base is that it is the one best suited for assigning the pool of costs to cost objectives in accordance with benefits derived; a traceable cause and effect relationship; or logic and reason, where neither the cause nor the effect of the relationship is determinable. When an allocation can be made by assignment of a cost grouping directly to the function benefited, the allocation shall be made in that manner. When the expenses in a cost grouping are more general in nature, the allocation shall be made through the use of a selected base which produces results that are equitable to both the Federal Government and the organization. The distribution shall be made in accordance with the bases described herein unless it can be demonstrated that the use of a different base would result in a more equitable allocation of the costs, or that a more readily available base would not increase the costs charged to sponsored awards. The results of special cost studies (such as an engineering utility study) shall not be used to determine and allocate the indirect costs to sponsored awards.
(1) Depreciation and use allowances. Depreciation and use allowances expenses shall be allocated in the following manner:
(a) Depreciation or use allowances on buildings used exclusively in the conduct of a single function, and on capital improvements and equipment used in such buildings, shall be assigned to that function.
(b) Depreciation or use allowances on buildings used for more than one function, and on capital improvements and equipment used in such buildings, shall be allocated to the individual functions performed in each building on the basis of usable square feet of space, excluding common areas, such as hallways, stairwells, and restrooms.
(c) Depreciation or use allowances on buildings, capital improvements and equipment related space (e.g., individual rooms, and laboratories) used jointly by more than one function (as determined by the users of the space) shall be treated as follows. The cost of each jointly used unit of space shall be allocated to the benefiting functions on the basis of either the employees and other users on a full-time equivalent (FTE) basis or salaries and wages of those individual functions benefiting from the use of that space; or organization-wide employee FTEs or salaries and wages applicable to the benefiting functions of the organization.
(d) Depreciation or use allowances on certain capital improvements to land, such as paved parking areas, fences, sidewalks, and the like, not included in the cost of buildings, shall be allocated to user categories on a FTE basis and distributed to major functions in proportion to the salaries and wages of all employees applicable to the functions.
(2) Interest. Interest costs shall be allocated in the same manner as the depreciation or use allowances on the buildings, equipment and capital equipments to which the interest relates.
(3) Operation and maintenance expenses. Operation and maintenance expenses shall be allocated in the same manner as the depreciation and use allowances.
(4) General administration and general expenses. General administration and general expenses shall be allocated to benefiting functions based on modified total direct costs (MTDC), as described in subparagraph D.3.f of this appendix. The expenses included in this category could be grouped first according to major functions of the organization to which they render services or provide benefits. The aggregate expenses of each group shall then be allocated to benefiting functions based on MTDC.
d. Order of distribution. (1) Indirect cost categories consisting of depreciation and use allowances, interest, operation and maintenance, and general administration and general expenses shall be allocated in that order to the remaining indirect cost categories as well as to the major functions of the organization. Other cost categories could be allocated in the order determined to be most appropriate by the organization. When cross allocation of costs is made as provided in subparagraph D.3.d.(2) of this appendix, this order of allocation does not apply.
(2) Normally, an indirect cost category will be considered closed once it has been allocated to other cost objectives, and costs shall not be subsequently allocated to it. However, a cross allocation of costs between two or more indirect costs categories could be used if such allocation will result in a more equitable allocation of costs. If a cross allocation is used, an appropriate modification to the composition of the indirect cost categories is required.
e. Application of indirect cost rate or rates. Except where a special indirect cost rate(s) is required in accordance with subparagraph D.5 of this appendix, the separate groupings of indirect costs allocated to each major function shall be aggregated and treated as a common pool for that function. The costs in the common pool shall then be distributed to individual awards included in that function by use of a single indirect cost rate.
f. Distribution basis. Indirect costs shall be distributed to applicable sponsored awards and other benefiting activities within each major function on the basis of MTDC. MTDC consists of all salaries and wages, fringe benefits, materials and supplies, services, travel, and subgrants and subcontracts up to the first $25,000 of each subgrant or subcontract (regardless of the period covered by the subgrant or subcontract). Equipment, capital expenditures, charges for patient care, rental costs and the portion in excess of $25,000 shall be excluded from MTDC. Participant support costs shall generally be excluded from MTDC. Other items may only be excluded when the Federal cost cognizant agency determines that an exclusion is necessary to avoid a serious inequity in the distribution of indirect costs.
g. Individual Rate Components. An indirect cost rate shall be determined for each separate indirect cost pool developed. The rate in each case shall be stated as the percentage which the amount of the particular indirect cost pool is of the distribution base identified with that pool. Each indirect cost rate negotiation or determination agreement shall include development of the rate for each indirect cost pool as well as the overall indirect cost rate. The indirect cost pools shall be classified within two broad categories: “Facilities” and “Administration,” as described in subparagraph C.3 of this appendix.
4. Direct allocation method. a. Some non-profit organizations treat all costs as direct costs except general administration and general expenses. These organizations generally separate their costs into three basic categories: General administration and general expenses, fundraising, and other direct functions (including projects performed under Federal awards). Joint costs, such as depreciation, rental costs, operation and maintenance of facilities, telephone expenses, and the like are prorated individually as direct costs to each category and to each award or other activity using a base most appropriate to the particular cost being prorated.
b. This method is acceptable, provided each joint cost is prorated using a base which accurately measures the benefits provided to each award or other activity. The bases must be established in accordance with reasonable criteria, and be supported by current data. This method is compatible with the Standards of Accounting and Financial Reporting for Voluntary Health and Welfare Organizations issued jointly by the National Health Council, Inc., the National Assembly of Voluntary Health and Social Welfare Organizations, and the United Way of America.
c. Under this method, indirect costs consist exclusively of general administration and general expenses. In all other respects, the organization's indirect cost rates shall be computed in the same manner as that described in subparagraph D.2 of this appendix.
5. Special indirect cost rates. In some instances, a single indirect cost rate for all activities of an organization or for each major function of the organization may not be appropriate, since it would not take into account those different factors which may substantially affect the indirect costs applicable to a particular segment of work. For this purpose, a particular segment of work may be that performed under a single award or it may consist of work under a group of awards performed in a common environment. These factors may include the physical location of the work, the level of administrative support required, the nature of the facilities or other resources employed, the scientific disciplines or technical skills involved, the organizational arrangements used, or any combination thereof. When a particular segment of work is performed in an environment which appears to generate a significantly different level of indirect costs, provisions should be made for a separate indirect cost pool applicable to such work. The separate indirect cost pool should be developed during the course of the regular allocation process, and the separate indirect cost rate resulting therefrom should be used, provided it is determined that the rate differs significantly from that which would have been obtained under subparagraphs D.2, 3, and 4 of this appendix, and the volume of work to which the rate would apply is material.
E. Negotiation and Approval of Indirect Cost Rates
1. Definitions. As used in this section, the following terms have the meanings set forth below:
a. Cognizant agency means the Federal agency responsible for negotiating and approving indirect cost rates for a non-profit organization on behalf of all Federal agencies.
b. Predetermined rate means an indirect cost rate, applicable to a specified current or future period, usually the organization's fiscal year. The rate is based on an estimate of the costs to be incurred during the period. A predetermined rate is not subject to adjustment.
c. Fixed rate means an indirect cost rate which has the same characteristics as a predetermined rate, except that the difference between the estimated costs and the actual costs of the period covered by the rate is carried forward as an adjustment to the rate computation of a subsequent period.
d. Final rate means an indirect cost rate applicable to a specified past period which is based on the actual costs of the period. A final rate is not subject to adjustment.
e. Provisional rate or billing rate means a temporary indirect cost rate applicable to a specified period which is used for funding, interim reimbursement, and reporting indirect costs on awards pending the establishment of a final rate for the period.
f. Indirect cost proposal means the documentation prepared by an organization to substantiate its claim for the reimbursement of indirect costs. This proposal provides the basis for the review and negotiation leading to the establishment of an organization's indirect cost rate.
g. Cost objective means a function, organizational subdivision, contract, grant, or other work unit for which cost data are desired and for which provision is made to accumulate and measure the cost of processes, projects, jobs and capitalized projects.
2. Negotiation and approval of rates. a. Unless different arrangements are agreed to by the agencies concerned, the Federal agency with the largest dollar value of awards with an organization will be designated as the cognizant agency for the negotiation and approval of the indirect cost rates and, where necessary, other rates such as fringe benefit and computer charge-out rates. Once an agency is assigned cognizance for a particular non-profit organization, the assignment will not be changed unless there is a major long-term shift in the dollar volume of the Federal awards to the organization. All concerned Federal agencies shall be given the opportunity to participate in the negotiation process but, after a rate has been agreed upon, it will be accepted by all Federal agencies. When a Federal agency has reason to believe that special operating factors affecting its awards necessitate special indirect cost rates in accordance with subparagraph D.5 of this appendix, it will, prior to the time the rates are negotiated, notify the cognizant agency.
b. A non-profit organization which has not previously established an indirect cost rate with a Federal agency shall submit its initial indirect cost proposal immediately after the organization is advised that an award will be made and, in no event, later than three months after the effective date of the award.
c. Organizations that have previously established indirect cost rates must submit a new indirect cost proposal to the cognizant agency within six months after the close of each fiscal year.
d. A predetermined rate may be negotiated for use on awards where there is reasonable assurance, based on past experience and reliable projection of the organization's costs, that the rate is not likely to exceed a rate based on the organization's actual costs.
e. Fixed rates may be negotiated where predetermined rates are not considered appropriate. A fixed rate, however, shall not be negotiated if all or a substantial portion of the organization's awards are expected to expire before the carry-forward adjustment can be made; the mix of Federal and non-Federal work at the organization is too erratic to permit an equitable carry-forward adjustment; or the organization's operations fluctuate significantly from year to year.
f. Provisional and final rates shall be negotiated where neither predetermined nor fixed rates are appropriate.
g. The results of each negotiation shall be formalized in a written agreement between the cognizant agency and the non-profit organization. The cognizant agency shall distribute copies of the agreement to all concerned Federal agencies.
h. If a dispute arises in a negotiation of an indirect cost rate between the cognizant agency and the non-profit organization, the dispute shall be resolved in accordance with the appeals procedures of the cognizant agency.
i. To the extent that problems are encountered among the Federal agencies in connection with the negotiation and approval process, OMB will lend assistance as required to resolve such problems in a timely manner.

Title 2 published on 2014-01-01

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