20 CFR 404.447 - Evaluation of factors involved in substantial services test.

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§ 404.447 Evaluation of factors involved in substantial services test.
In determining whether an individual's services are substantial, consideration is given to the following factors:
(a) Amount of time devoted to trades or businesses. Consideration is first given to the amount of time the self-employed individual devotes to all trades or businesses, the net income or loss of which is includable in computing his earnings as defined in § 404.429. For the purposes of this paragraph, the time devoted to a trade or business includes all the time spent by the individual in any activity, whether physical or mental, at the place of business or elsewhere in furtherance of such trade or business. This includes the time spent in advising and planning the operation of the business, making business contacts, attending meetings, and preparing and maintaining the facilities and records of the business. All time spent at the place of business which cannot reasonably be considered unrelated to business activities is considered time devoted to the trade or business. In considering the weight to be given to the time devoted to trades or businesses the following rules are applied:
(1) Forty-five hours or less in a month devoted to trade or business. Where the individual establishes that the time devoted to his trades and businesses during a calendar month was not more than 45 hours, the individual's services in that month are not considered substantial unless other factors (see paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section) make such a finding unreasonable. For example, an individual who worked only 15 hours in a month might nevertheless be found to have rendered substantial services if he was managing a sizable business or engaging in a highly skilled occupation. However, the services of less than 15 hours rendered in all trades and businesses during a calendar month are not substantial.
(2) More than 45 hours in a month devoted to trades and businesses. Where an individual devotes more than 45 hours to all trades and businesses during a calendar month, it will be found that the individual's services are substantial unless it is established that the individual could reasonably be considered retired in the month and, therefore, that such services were not, in fact, substantial.
(b) Nature of services rendered. Consideration is also given to the nature of the services rendered by the individual in any case where a finding that the individual was retired would be unreasonable if based on time alone (see paragraph (a) of this section). The more highly skilled and valuable his services in self-employment are, the more likely the individual rendering such services could not reasonably be considered retired. The performance of services regularly also tends to show that the individual has not retired. Services are considered in relation to the technical and management needs of the business in which they are rendered. Thus, skilled services of a managerial or technical nature may be so important to the conduct of a sizable business that such services would be substantial even though the time required to render the services is considerably less than 45 hours.
(c) Comparison of services rendered before and after retirement. Where consideration of the amount of time devoted to a trade or business (see paragraph (a) of this section) and the nature of services rendered (see paragraph (b) of this section) is not sufficient to establish whether an individual's services were substantial, consideration is given to the extent and nature of the services rendered by the individual before his retirement, as compared with the services performed during the period in question. A significant reduction in the amount or importance of services rendered in the business tends to show that the individual is retired; absence of such reduction tends to show that the individual is not retired.
(d) Setting in which services performed. Where consideration of the factors described in paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this section is not sufficient to establish that an individual's services in self-employment were or were not substantial, all other factors are considered. The presence or absence of a capable manager, the kind and size of the business, the amount of capital invested and whether the business is seasonal, as well as any other pertinent factors, are considered in determining whether the individual's services are such that he can reasonably be considered retired.

Title 20 published on 2012-04-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 20.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2014-03-03; vol. 79 # 41 - Monday, March 3, 2014
    1. 79 FR 11706 - Medicare Determinations and Income-Related Monthly Adjustment Amounts to Medicare Part B Premiums; Conforming Changes to Regulations
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION
      Final rule.
      The interim final rule with request for comments published on September 18, 2013, at 78 FR 57257, is confirmed as final, effective March 3, 2014.
      20 CFR Parts 404 and 418

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United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 31 - MONEY AND FINANCE
U.S. Code: Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

§ 401 - Trust Funds

§ 402 - Old-age and survivors insurance benefit payments

§ 403 - Reduction of insurance benefits

§ 404 - Overpayments and underpayments

§ 405 - Evidence, procedure, and certification for payments

§ 405 note - Evidence, procedure, and certification for payments

§ 406 - Representation of claimants before Commissioner

§ 409 - “Wages” defined

§ 410 - Definitions relating to employment

§ 410a - Transferred

§ 411 - Definitions relating to self-employment

§ 412 - Self-employment income credited to calendar years

§ 413 - Quarter and quarter of coverage

§ 414 - Insured status for purposes of old-age and survivors insurance benefits

§ 415 - Computation of primary insurance amount

§ 416 - Additional definitions

§ 417 - Benefits for veterans

§ 418 - Voluntary agreements for coverage of State and local employees

§ 418 note - Voluntary agreements for coverage of State and local employees

§ 421 - Disability determinations

§ 421 note - Disability determinations

§ 422 - Rehabilitation services

§ 423 - Disability insurance benefit payments

§ 424a - Reduction of disability benefits

§ 425 - Additional rules relating to benefits based on disability

§ 428 - Benefits at age 72 for certain uninsured individuals

§ 429 - Benefits in case of members of uniformed services

§ 430 - Adjustment of contribution and benefit base

§ 431 - Benefits for certain individuals interned by United States during World War II

§ 433 - International agreements

§ 902 - Commissioner; Deputy Commissioner; other officers

§ 902 note - Commissioner; Deputy Commissioner; other officers

§ 909 - Delivery of benefit checks

42 U.S. Code § 1320a–6 - Adjustments in SSI benefits on account of retroactive benefits under subchapter II

42 U.S. Code § 1320a–8a - Administrative procedure for imposing penalties for false or misleading statements

42 U.S. Code § 1320b–13 - Social security account statements

42 U.S. Code § 1320b–17 - Cross-program recovery of overpayments from benefits

U.S. Code: Title 48 - TERRITORIES AND INSULAR POSSESSIONS
Statutes at Large

Title 20 published on 2012-04-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 20 CFR 404 after this date.

  • 2014-03-03; vol. 79 # 41 - Monday, March 3, 2014
    1. 79 FR 11706 - Medicare Determinations and Income-Related Monthly Adjustment Amounts to Medicare Part B Premiums; Conforming Changes to Regulations
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION
      Final rule.
      The interim final rule with request for comments published on September 18, 2013, at 78 FR 57257, is confirmed as final, effective March 3, 2014.
      20 CFR Parts 404 and 418