Health claims: Soy protein and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).
(a) Relationship between diets that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and that include soy protein and the risk of CHD.(1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. CHD is one of the most common and serious forms of cardiovascular disease and refers to diseases of the heart muscle and supporting blood vessels. High blood total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels are associated with increased risk of developing CHD. High CHD rates occur among people with high total cholesterol levels of 240 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) (6.21 millimole per liter (mmol/L)) or above and LDL-cholesterol levels of 160 mg/dL (4.13 mmol/L) or above. Borderline high risk total cholesterol levels range from 200 to 239 mg/dL (5.17 to 6.18 mmol/L) and 130 to 159 mg/dL (3.36 to 4.11 mmol/L) of LDL-cholesterol. The scientific evidence establishes that diets high in saturated fat and cholesterol are associated with increased levels of blood total and LDL-cholesterol and, thus, with increased risk of CHD.
(2) Populations with a low incidence of CHD tend to have relatively low blood total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. These populations also tend to have dietary patterns that are not only low in total fat, especially saturated fat and cholesterol, but are also relatively high in plant foods that contain dietary fiber and other components.
(3) Scientific evidence demonstrates that diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of CHD. Other evidence demonstrates that the addition of soy protein to a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol may also help to reduce the risk of CHD.
(b) Significance of the relationship between diets that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and that include soy protein and the risk of CHD.(1) CHD is a major public health concern in the United States. It accounts for more deaths than any other disease or group of diseases. Early management of risk factors for CHD is a major public health goal that can assist in reducing risk of CHD. High blood total and LDL-cholesterol are major modifiable risk factors in the development of CHD.
(2) Intakes of saturated fat exceed recommended levels in the diets of many people in the United States. One of the major public health recommendations relative to CHD risk is to consume less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fat and an average of 30 percent or less of total calories from all fat. Recommended daily cholesterol intakes are 300 mg or less per day. Scientific evidence demonstrates that diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol are associated with lower blood total and LDL-cholesterol levels. Soy protein, when included in a low saturated fat and cholesterol diet, also helps to lower blood total and LDL-cholesterol levels.
(c) Requirements.(1) All requirements set forth in § 101.14 shall be met.
(2) Specific requirements—(i) Nature of the claim. A health claim associating diets that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and that include soy protein with reduced risk of heart disease may be made on the label or labeling of a food described in paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section, provided that:
(A) The claim states that diets that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and that include soy protein “may” or “might” reduce the risk of heart disease;
(B) In specifying the disease, the claim uses the following terms: “heart disease” or “coronary heart disease”;
(C) In specifying the substance, the claim uses the term “soy protein”;
(D) In specifying the fat component, the claim uses the terms “saturated fat” and “cholesterol”;
(E) The claim does not attribute any degree of risk reduction for CHD to diets that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and that include soy protein;
(F) The claim does not imply that consumption of diets that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and that include soy protein is the only recognized means of achieving a reduced risk of CHD; and
(G) The claim specifies the daily dietary intake of soy protein that is necessary to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and the contribution one serving of the product makes to the specified daily dietary intake level. The daily dietary intake level of soy protein that has been associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease is 25 grams (g) or more per day of soy protein.
(ii) Nature of the substance.(A) Soy protein from the legume seed Glycine max.
(B) FDA will assess qualifying levels of soy protein in the following fashion: FDA will measure total protein content by the appropriate method of analysis given in the “Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International,” as described at § 101.9(c)(7). For products that contain no sources of protein other than soy, FDA will consider the amount of soy protein as equivalent to the total protein content. For products that contain a source or sources of protein in addition to soy, FDA will, using the measurement of total protein content, calculate the soy protein content based on the ratio of soy protein ingredients to total protein ingredients in the product. FDA will base its calculation on information identified and supplied by manufacturers, such as nutrient data bases or analyses, recipes or formulations, purchase orders for ingredients, or any other information that reasonably substantiates the ratio of soy protein to total protein. Manufacturers must maintain records sufficient to substantiate the claim for as long as the products are marketed and provide these records, on written request, to appropriate regulatory officials.
(iii) Nature of the food eligible to bear the claim.(A) The food product shall contain at least 6.25 g of soy protein per reference amount customarily consumed of the food product;
(B) The food shall meet the nutrient content requirements in § 101.62 for a “low saturated fat” and “low cholesterol” food; and
(C) The food shall meet the nutrient content requirement in § 101.62 for a “low fat” food, unless it consists of or is derived from whole soybeans and contains no fat in addition to the fat inherently present in the whole soybeans it contains or from which it is derived.
(d) Optional information.(1) The claim may state that the development of heart disease depends on many factors and may identify one or more of the following risk factors for heart disease about which there is general scientific agreement: A family history of CHD; elevated blood total and LDL-cholesterol; excess body weight; high blood pressure; cigarette smoking; diabetes; and physical inactivity. The claim may also provide additional information about the benefits of exercise and management of body weight to help lower the risk of heart disease;
(2) The claim may state that the relationship between intake of diets that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and that include soy protein and reduced risk of heart disease is through the intermediate link of “blood cholesterol” or “blood total and LDL-cholesterol”;
(3) The claim may include information from paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, which summarize the relationship between diets that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and that include soy protein and CHD and the significance of the relationship;
(4) The claim may state that a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol that includes soy protein is consistent with “Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans,” U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Government Printing Office (GPO);
(5) The claim may state that individuals with elevated blood total and LDL-cholesterol should consult their physicians for medical advice and treatment. If the claim defines high or normal blood total and LDL-cholesterol levels, then the claim shall state that individuals with high blood cholesterol should consult their physicians for medical advice and treatment;
(6) The claim may include information on the number of people in the United States who have heart disease. The sources of this information shall be identified, and it shall be current information from the National Center for Health Statistics, the National Institutes of Health, or “Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans,” USDA and DHHS, GPO;
(e) Model health claim. The following model health claims may be used in food labeling to describe the relationship between diets that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and that include soy protein and reduced risk of heart disease:
(1) 25 grams of soy protein a day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease. A serving of [name of food] supplies __ grams of soy protein.
(2) Diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol that include 25 grams of soy protein a day may reduce the risk of heart disease. One serving of [name of food] provides __ grams of soy protein.
[64 FR 57732, Oct. 26, 1999]
Effective Date Note:At 64 FR 57732, Oct. 26, 1999, § 101.82 was added. Paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(B) contains information collection and recordkeeping requirements and will not become effective until approval has been given by the Office of Management and Budget.
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