(a) Mannitol is the chemical 1,2,3,4,5,6,-hexanehexol (C6H14O6) a hexahydric alcohol, differing from sorbitol principally by having a different optical rotation. Mannitol is produced by one of the following processes:
(1) The electrolytic reduction or transition metal catalytic hydrogenation of sugar solutions containing glucose or fructose.
(2) The fermentation of sugars or sugar alcohols such as glucose, sucrose, fructose, or sorbitol using the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.
(3) A pure culture fermentation of sugars such as fructose, glucose, or maltose using the nonpathogenic, nontoxicogenic bacterium Lactobacillus intermedius (fermentum).
(b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 188-190, which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be obtained from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20418, or may be examined at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.
(c) The ingredient is used as an anticaking agent and free-flow agent as defined in § 170.3(o)(1) of this chapter, formulation aid as defined in § 170.3(o) (14) of this chapter, firming agent as defined in § 170.3(o)(10) of this chapter, flavoring agent and adjuvant as defined in § 170.3(o)(12) of this chapter, lubricant and release agent as defined in § 170.3(o)(18) of this chapter, nutritive sweetener as defined in § 170.3(o)(21) of this chapter, processing aid as defined in § 170.3(o)(24) of this chapter, stabilizer and thickener as defined in § 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter, surface-finishing agent as defined in § 170.3(o)(30) of this chapter, and texturizer as defined in § 170.3(o)(32) of this chapter.
(d) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed 98 percent in pressed mints and 5 percent in all other hard candy and cough drops as defined in § 170.3(n)(25) of this chapter, 31 percent in chewing gum as defined in § 170.3(n)(6) of this chapter, 40 percent in soft candy as defined in § 170.3(n)(38) of this chapter, 8 percent in confections and frostings as defined in § 170.3(n)(9) of this chapter, 15 percent in nonstandardized jams and jellies, commercial, as defined in § 170.3(n)(28) of this chapter, and at levels less than 2.5 percent in all other foods.
(e) The label and labeling of food whose reasonably foreseeable consumption may result in a daily ingestion of 20 grams of mannitol shall bear the statement “Excess consumption may have a laxative effect”.
(f) In accordance with § 180.1, adequate and appropriate feeding studies have been undertaken for this substance. Continued uses of this ingredient are contingent upon timely and adequate progress reports of such tests, and no indication of increased risk to public health during the test period.
(g) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this regulation do not exist or have been waived.
[42 FR 14636, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 49 FR 5610, Feb. 14, 1984; 61 FR 7991, Mar. 1, 1996; 69 FR 65542, Nov. 15, 2004]
Title 21 published on 2013-04-01
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