21 CFR 201.80 - Specific requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products; older drugs not described in

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§ 201.80 Specific requirements on content and format of labeling for human prescription drug and biological products; older drugs not described in § 201.56(b)(1).
Each section heading listed in § 201.56(d), if not omitted under § 201.56(d)(3), shall contain the following information in the following order:
(a) Description.
(1) Under this section heading, the labeling shall contain:
(i) The proprietary name and the established name, if any, as defined in section 502(e)(2) of the act, of the drug;
(ii) The type of dosage form and the route of administration to which the labeling applies;
(iii) The same qualitative and/or quantitative ingredient information as required under § 201.100(b) for labels;
(iv) If the product is sterile, a statement of that fact;
(v) The pharmacological or therapeutic class of the drug;
(vi) The chemical name and structural formula of the drug;
(vii) If the product is radioactive, a statement of the important nuclear physical characteristics, such as the principal radiation emission data, external radiation, and physical decay characteristics.
(2) If appropriate, other important chemical or physical information, such as physical constants, or pH, shall be stated.
(b) Clinical Pharmacology.
(1) Under this section heading, the labeling shall contain a concise factual summary of the clinical pharmacology and actions of the drug in humans. The summary may include information based on in vitro and/or animal data if the information is essential to a description of the biochemical and/or physiological mode of action of the drug or is otherwise pertinent to human therapeutics. Pharmacokinetic information that is important to safe and effective use of the drug is required, if known, e.g., degree and rate of absorption, pathways of biotransformation, percentage of dose as unchanged drug and metabolites, rate or half-time of elimination, concentration in body fluids associated with therapeutic and/or toxic effects, degree of binding to plasma proteins, degree of uptake by a particular organ or in the fetus, and passage across the blood brain barrier. Inclusion of pharmacokinetic information is restricted to that which relates to clinical use of the drug. If the pharmacological mode of action of the drug is unknown or if important metabolic or pharmacokinetic data in humans are unavailable, the labeling shall contain a statement about the lack of information.
(2) Data that demonstrate activity or effectiveness in in vitro or animal tests and that have not been shown by adequate and well-controlled clinical studies to be pertinent to clinical use may be included under this section of the labeling only under the following circumstances:
(i) In vitro data for anti-infective drugs may be included if the data are immediately preceded by the statement “The following in vitro data are available but their clinical significance is unknown.”
(ii) For other classes of drugs, in vitro and animal data that have not been shown by adequate and well-controlled clinical studies, as defined in § 314.126(b) of this chapter, to be pertinent to clinical use may be used only if a waiver is granted under § 201.58 or § 314.126(c) of this chapter.
(c) Indications and Usage.
(1) Under this section heading, the labeling shall state that:
(i) The drug is indicated in the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of a recognized disease or condition, e.g., penicillin is indicated for the treatment of pneumonia due to susceptible pneumococci; and/or
(ii) The drug is indicated for the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of an important manifestation of a disease or condition, e.g., chlorothiazide is indicated for the treatment of edema in patients with congestive heart failure; and/or
(iii) The drug is indicated for the relief of symptoms associated with a disease or syndrome, e.g., chlorpheniramine is indicated for the symptomatic relief of nasal congestion in patients with vasomotor rhinitis; and/or
(iv) The drug, if used for a particular indication only in conjuction with a primary mode of therapy, e.g., diet, surgery, or some other drug, is an adjunct to the mode of therapy.
(2)
(i) For drug products other than biological products, all indications listed in this section must be supported by substantial evidence of effectiveness based on adequate and well-controlled studies as defined in § 314.126(b) of this chapter unless the requirement is waived under § 201.58 or § 314.126(c) of this chapter. Indications or uses must not be implied or suggested in other sections of labeling if not included in this section.
(ii) For biological products, all indications listed in this section must be supported by substantial evidence of effectiveness. Indications or uses must not be implied or suggested in other sections of labeling if not included in this section.
(3) This section of the labeling shall also contain the following additional information:
(i) If evidence is available to support the safety and effectiveness of the drug only in selected subgroups of the larger population with a disease, syndrome, or symptom under consideration, e.g., patients with mild disease or patients in a special age group, the labeling shall describe the available evidence and state the limitations of usefulness of the drug. The labeling shall also identify specific tests needed for selection or monitoring of the patients who need the drug, e.g., microbe susceptibility tests. Information on the approximate kind, degree, and duration of improvement to be anticipated shall be stated if available and shall be based on substantial evidence derived from adequate and well-controlled studies as defined in § 314.126(b) of this chapter unless the requirement is waived under § 201.58 or § 314.126(c) of this chapter. If the information is relevant to the recommended intervals between doses, the usual duration of treatment, or any modification of dosage, it shall be stated in the “Dosage and Administration” section of the labeling and referenced in this section.
(ii) If safety considerations are such that the drug should be reserved for certain situations, e.g., cases refractory to other drugs, this information shall be stated in this section.
(iii) If there are specific conditions that should be met before the drug is used on a long-term basis, e.g., demonstration of responsiveness to the drug in a short-term trial, the labeling shall identify the conditions; or, if the indications for long-term use are different from those for short-term use, the labeling shall identify the specific indications for each use.
(iv) If there is a common belief that the drug may be effective for a certain use or if there is a common use of the drug for a condition, but the preponderance of evidence related to the use or condition shows that the drug is ineffective, the Food and Drug Administration may require that the labeling state that there is a lack of evidence that the drug is effective for that use or condition.
(v) Any statements comparing the safety or effectiveness, either greater or less, of the drug with other agents for the same indication shall be supported by adequate and well-controlled studies as defined in § 314.126(b) of this chapter unless this requirement is waived under § 201.58 or § 314.126(c) of this chapter.
(d) Contraindications. Under this section heading, the labeling shall describe those situations in which the drug should not be used because the risk of use clearly outweighs any possible benefit. These situations include administration of the drug to patients known to have a hypersensitivity to it; use of the drug in patients who, because of their particular age, sex, concomitant therapy, disease state, or other condition, have a substantial risk of being harmed by it; or continued use of the drug in the face of an unacceptably hazardous adverse reaction. Known hazards and not theoretical possibilities shall be listed, e.g., if hypersensitivity to the drug has not been demonstrated, it should not be listed as a contraindication. If no contraindications are known, this section of the labeling shall state “None known.”
(e) Warnings. Under this section heading, the labeling shall describe serious adverse reactions and potential safety hazards, limitations in use imposed by them, and steps that should be taken if they occur. The labeling shall be revised to include a warning as soon as there is reasonable evidence of an association of a serious hazard with a drug; a causal relationship need not have been proved. A specific warning relating to a use not provided for under the “Indications and Usage” section of the labeling may be required by the Food and Drug Administration if the drug is commonly prescribed for a disease or condition, and there is lack of substantial evidence of effectivenes for that disease or condition, and such usage is associated with serious risk or hazard. Special problems, particularly those that may lead to death or serious injury, may be required by the Food and Drug Administration to be placed in a prominently displayed box. The boxed warning ordinarily shall be based on clinical data, but serious animal toxicity may also be the basis of a boxed warning in the absence of clinical data. If a boxed warning is required, its location will be specified by the Food and Drug Administration. The frequency of these serious adverse reactions and, if known, the approximate mortality and morbidity rates for patients sustaining the reaction, which are important to safe and effective use of the drug, shall be expressed as provided under the “Adverse Reactions” section of the labeling.
(f) Precautions. Under this section heading, the labeling shall contain the following subsections as appropriate for the drug:
(1) General. This subsection of the labeling shall contain information regarding any special care to be exercised by the practitioner for safe and effective use of the drug, e.g., precautions not required under any other specific section or subsection of the labeling.
(2) Information for patients. This subsection must contain information necessary for patients to use the drug safely and effectively (e.g., precautions concerning driving or the concomitant use of other substances that may have harmful additive effects). Any FDA-approved patient labeling must be referenced in this section and the full text of such patient labeling must be reprinted immediately following the last section of labeling or, alternatively, accompany the prescription drug labeling. The type size requirement for the Medication Guide set forth in § 208.20 of this chapter does not apply to the Medication Guide that is reprinted in or accompanying the prescription drug labeling unless such Medication Guide is to be detached and distributed to patients in compliance with § 208.24 of this chapter.
(3) Laboratory tests. This subsection of the labeling shall identify any laboratory tests that may be helpful in following the patient's response or in identifying possible adverse reactions. If appropriate, information shall be provided on such factors as the range of normal and abnormal values expected in the particular situation and the recommended frequency with which tests should be done before, during, and after therapy.
(4)
(i) Drug interactions. This subsection of the labeling shall contain specific practical guidance for the physician on preventing clinically significant drug/drug and drug/food interactions that may occur in vivo in patients taking the drug. Specific drugs or classes of drugs with which the drug to which the labeling applies may interact in vivo shall be identified, and the mechanism(s) of the interaction shall be briefly described. Information in this subsection of the labeling shall be limited to that pertaining to clinical use of the drug in patients. Drug interactions supported only by animal or in vitro experiments may not ordinarily be included, but animal or in vitro data may be used if shown to be clinically relevant. Drug incompatibilities, i.e., drug interactions that may occur when drugs are mixed in vitro, as in a solution for intravenous administration, shall be discussed under the “Dosage and Administration” section of the labeling rather than under this subsection of the labeling.
(ii) Drug/laboratory test interactions. This subsection of the labeling shall contain practical guidance on known interference of the drug with laboratory tests.
(5) Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility. This subsection of the labeling shall state whether long-term studies in animals have been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential and, if so, the species and results. If reproduction studies or other data in animals reveal a problem or potential problem concerning mutagenesis or impairment of fertility in either males or females, the information shall be described. Any precautionary statement on these topics shall include practical, relevant advice to the physician on the significance of these animal findings. If there is evidence from human data that the drug may be carcinogenic or mutagenic or that it impairs fertility, this information shall be included under the “Warnings” section of the labeling. Also, under “Precautions,” the labeling shall state: “See ‘Warnings’ section for information on carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and impairment of fertility.”
(6) Pregnancy. This subsection of the labeling may be omitted only if the drug is not absorbed systemically and the drug is not known to have a potential for indirect harm to the fetus. For all other drugs, this subsection of the labeling shall contain the following information:
(i) Teratogenic effects. Under this heading the labeling shall identify one of the following categories that applies to the drug, and the labeling shall bear the statement required under the category:
(a) Pregnancy category A. If adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy (and there is no evidence of a risk in later trimesters), the labeling shall state: “Pregnancy Category A. Studies in pregnant women have not shown that (name of drug) increases the risk of fetal abnormalities if administered during the first (second, third, or all) trimester(s) of pregnancy. If this drug is used during pregnancy, the possibility of fetal harm appears remote. Because studies cannot rule out the possibility of harm, however, (name of drug) should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.” The labeling shall also contain a description of the human studies. If animal reproduction studies are available and they fail to demonstrate a risk to the fetus, the labeling shall also state: “Reproduction studies have been performed in (kinds of animal(s)) at doses up to (x) times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to (name of drug).” The labeling shall also contain a description of available data on the effect of the drug on the later growth, development, and functional maturation of the child.
(b) Pregnancy category B. If animal reproduction studies have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women, the labeling shall state: “Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies have been performed in (kind(s) of animal(s)) at doses up to (x) times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to (name of drug). There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.” If animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect (other than decrease in fertility), but adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women have failed to demonstrate a risk to the fetus during the first trimester of pregnancy (and there is no evidence of a risk in later trimesters), the labeling shall state: “Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies in (kind(s) of animal(s)) have shown (describe findings) at (x) times the human dose. Studies in pregnant women, however, have not shown that (name of drug) increases the risk of abnormalities when administered during the first (second, third, or all) trimester(s) of pregnancy. Despite the animal findings, it would appear that the possibility of fetal harm is remote, if the drug is used during pregnancy. Nevertheless, because the studies in humans cannot rule out the possibility of harm, (name of drug) should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.” The labeling shall also contain a description of the human studies and a description of available data on the effect of the drug on the later growth, development, and functional maturation of the child.
(c) Pregnancy category C. If animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus, if there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, and if the benefits from the use of the drug in pregnant women may be acceptable despite its potential risks, the labeling shall state: “Pregnancy Category C. (Name of drug) has been shown to be teratogenic (or to have an embryocidal effect or other adverse effect) in (name(s) of species) when given in doses (x) times the human dose. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. (Name of drug) should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.” The labeling shall contain a description of the animal studies. If there are no animal reproduction studies and no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, the labeling shall state: “Pregnancy Category C. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with (name of drug). It is also not known whether (name of drug) can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. (Name of drug) should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.” The labeling shall contain a description of any available data on the effect of the drug on the later growth, development, and functional maturation of the child.
(d) Pregnancy category D. If there is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but the potential benefits from the use of the drug in pregnant women may be acceptable despite its potential risks (for example, if the drug is needed in a life-threatening situation or serious disease for which safer drugs cannot be used or are ineffective), the labeling shall state: “Pregnancy Category D. See ‘Warnings’ section.” Under the “Warnings” section, the labeling states: “(Name of drug) can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. (Describe the human data and any pertinent animal data.) If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.”
(e) Pregnancy category X. If studies in animals or humans have demonstrated fetal abnormalities or if there is positive evidence of fetal risk based on adverse reaction reports from investigational or marketing experience, or both, and the risk of the use of the drug in a pregnant woman clearly outweighs any possible benefit (for example, safer drugs or other forms of therapy are available), the labeling shall state: “Pregnancy Category X. See ‘Contraindications’ section.” Under “Contraindications,” the labeling shall state: “(Name of drug) may (can) cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. (Describe the human data and any pertinant animal data.) (Name of drug) is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.”
(ii) Nonteratogenic effects. Under this heading the labeling shall contain other information on the drug's effects on reproduction and the drug's use during pregnancy that is not required specifically by one of the pregnancy categories, if the information is relevant to the safe and effective use of the drug. Information required under this heading shall include nonteratogenic effects in the fetus or newborn infant (for example, withdrawal symptoms or hypoglycemia) that may occur because of a pregnant woman's chronic use of the drug for a preexisting condition or disease.
(7) Labor and delivery. If the drug has a recognized use during labor or delivery (vaginal or abdominal delivery), whether or not the use is stated in the indications section of the labeling, this subsection of the labeling shall describe the available information about the effect of the drug on the mother and the fetus, on the duration of labor or delivery, on the possibility that forceps delivery or other intervention or resuscitation of the newborn will be necessary, and the effect of the drug on the later growth, development, and functional maturation of the child. If any information required under this subsection is unknown, this subsection of the labeling shall state that the information is unknown.
(8) Nursing mothers.
(i) If a drug is absorbed systemically, this subsection of the labeling shall contain, if known, information about excretion of the drug in human milk and effects on the nursing infant. Pertinent adverse effects observed in animal offspring shall be described.
(ii) If a drug is absorbed systemically and is known to be excreted in human milk, this subsection of the labeling shall contain one of the following statements, as appropriate. If the drug is associated with serious adverse reactions or if the drug has a known tumorigenic potential, the labeling shall state: “Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from (name of drug) (or, “Because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for (name of drug) in (animal or human) studies), a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.” If the drug is not associated with serious adverse reactions and does not have a known tumorigenic potential, the labeling shall state: “Caution should be exercised when (name of drug) is administered to a nursing woman.”
(iii) If a drug is absorbed systemically and information on excretion in human milk is unknown, this subsection of the labeling shall contain one of the following statements, as appropriate. If the drug is associated with serious adverse reactions or has a known tumorigenic potential, the labeling shall state: “It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from (name of drug) (or, “Because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for (name of drug) in (animal or human) studies), a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.” If the drug is not associated with serious adverse reactions and does not have a known tumorigenic potential, the labeling shall state: “It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when (name of drug) is administered to a nursing woman.”
(9) Pediatric use.
(i) Pediatric population(s)/pediatric patient(s): For the purposes of paragraphs (f)(9)(ii) through (f)(9)(viii) of this section, the terms pediatric population(s) and pediatric patient(s) are defined as the pediatric age group, from birth to 16 years, including age groups often called neonates, infants, children, and adolescents.
(ii) If there is a specific pediatric indication (i.e., an indication different from those approved for adults) that is supported by adequate and well-controlled studies in the pediatric population, it shall be described under the “Indications and Usage” section of the labeling, and appropriate pediatric dosage information shall be given under the “Dosage and Administration” section of the labeling. The “Pediatric use” subsection shall cite any limitations on the pediatric indication, need for specific monitoring, specific hazards associated with use of the drug in any subsets of the pediatric population (e.g., neonates), differences between pediatric and adult responses to the drug, and other information related to the safe and effective pediatric use of the drug. Data summarized in this subsection of the labeling should be discussed in more detail, if appropriate, under the “Clinical Pharmacology” or “Clinical Studies” section. As appropriate, this information shall also be contained in the “Contraindications,” “Warnings,” and elsewhere in the “Precautions” sections.
(iii) If there are specific statements on pediatric use of the drug for an indication also approved for adults that are based on adequate and well-controlled studies in the pediatric population, they shall be summarized in the “Pediatric use” subsection of the labeling and discussed in more detail, if appropriate, under the “Clinical Pharmacology” and “Clinical Studies” sections. Appropriate pediatric dosage shall be given under the “Dosage and Administration” section of the labeling. The “Pediatric use” subsection of the labeling shall also cite any limitations on the pediatric use statement, need for specific monitoring, specific hazards associated with use of the drug in any subsets of the pediatric population (e.g., neonates), differences between pediatric and adult responses to the drug, and other information related to the safe and effective pediatric use of the drug. As appropriate, this information shall also be contained in the “Contraindications,” “Warnings,” and elsewhere in the “Precautions” sections.
(iv) FDA may approve a drug for pediatric use based on adequate and well-controlled studies in adults, with other information supporting pediatric use. In such cases, the agency will have concluded that the course of the disease and the effects of the drug, both beneficial and adverse, are sufficiently similar in the pediatric and adult populations to permit extrapolation from the adult efficacy data to pediatric patients. The additional information supporting pediatric use must ordinarily include data on the pharmacokinetics of the drug in the pediatric population for determination of appropriate dosage. Other information, such as data from pharmacodynamic studies of the drug in the pediatric population, data from other studies supporting the safety or effectiveness of the drug in pediatric patients, pertinent premarketing or postmarketing studies or experience, may be necessary to show that the drug can be used safely and effectively in pediatric patients. When a drug is approved for pediatric use based on adequate and well-controlled studies in adults with other information supporting pediatric use, the “Pediatric use” subsection of the labeling shall contain either the following statement, or a reasonable alternative: “The safety and effectiveness of (drug name) have been established in the age groups _ to _ (note any limitations, e.g., no data for pediatric patients under 2, or only applicable to certain indications approved in adults). Use of (drug name) in these age groups is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of (drug name) in adults with additional data (insert wording that accurately describes the data submitted to support a finding of substantial evidence of effectiveness in the pediatric population).” Data summarized in the preceding prescribed statement in this subsection of the labeling shall be discussed in more detail, if appropriate, under the “Clinical Pharmacology” or the “Clinical Studies” section. For example, pediatric pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic studies and dose-response information should be described in the “Clinical Pharmacology” section. Pediatric dosing instructions shall be included in the “Dosage and Administration” section of the labeling. Any differences between pediatric and adult responses, need for specific monitoring, dosing adjustments, and any other information related to safe and effective use of the drug in pediatric patients shall be cited briefly in the “Pediatric use” subsection and, as appropriate, in the “Contraindications,” “Warnings,” “Precautions,” and “Dosage and Administration” sections.
(v) If the requirements for a finding of substantial evidence to support a pediatric indication or a pediatric use statement have not been met for a particular pediatric population, the “Pediatric use” subsection of the labeling shall contain an appropriate statement such as “Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of (_) have not been established.” If use of the drug in this pediatric population is associated with a specific hazard, the hazard shall be described in this subsection of the labeling, or, if appropriate, the hazard shall be stated in the “Contraindications” or “Warnings” section of the labeling and this subsection shall refer to it.
(vi) If the requirements for a finding of substantial evidence to support a pediatric indication or a pediatric use statement have not been met for any pediatric population, this subsection of the labeling shall contain the following statement: “Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.” If use of the drug in premature or neonatal infants, or other pediatric subgroups, is associated with a specific hazard, the hazard shall be described in this subsection of the labeling, or, if appropriate, the hazard shall be stated in the “Contraindications” or “Warnings” section of the labeling and this subsection shall refer to it.
(vii) If the sponsor believes that none of the statements described in paragraphs (f)(9)(ii) through (f)(9)(vi) of this section is appropriate or relevant to the labeling of a particular drug, the sponsor shall provide reasons for omission of the statements and may propose alternative statement(s). FDA may permit use of an alternative statement if FDA determines that no statement described in those paragraphs is appropriate or relevant to the drug's labeling and that the alternative statement is accurate and appropriate.
(viii) If the drug product contains one or more inactive ingredients that present an increased risk of toxic effects to neonates or other pediatric subgroups, a special note of this risk shall be made, generally in the “Contraindications,” “Warnings,” or “Precautions” section.
(10) Geriatric use.
(i) A specific geriatric indication, if any, that is supported by adequate and well-controlled studies in the geriatric population shall be described under the “Indications and Usage” section of the labeling, and appropriate geriatric dosage shall be stated under the “Dosage and Administration” section of the labeling. The “Geriatric use” subsection shall cite any limitations on the geriatric indication, need for specific monitoring, specific hazards associated with the geriatric indication, and other information related to the safe and effective use of the drug in the geriatric population. Unless otherwise noted, information contained in the “Geriatric use” subsection of the labeling shall pertain to use of the drug in persons 65 years of age and older. Data summarized in this subsection of the labeling shall be discussed in more detail, if appropriate, under “Clinical Pharmacology” or the “Clinical Studies” section. As appropriate, this information shall also be contained in “Contraindications,” “Warnings,” and elsewhere in “Precautions.”
(ii) Specific statements on geriatric use of the drug for an indication approved for adults generally, as distinguished from a specific geriatric indication, shall be contained in the “Geriatric use” subsection and shall reflect all information available to the sponsor that is relevant to the appropriate use of the drug in elderly patients. This information includes detailed results from controlled studies that are available to the sponsor and pertinent information from well-documented studies obtained from a literature search. Controlled studies include those that are part of the marketing application and other relevant studies available to the sponsor that have not been previously submitted in the investigational new drug application, new drug application, biological license application, or a supplement or amendment to one of these applications (e.g., postmarketing studies or adverse drug reaction reports). The “Geriatric use” subsection shall contain the following statement(s) or reasonable alternative, as applicable, taking into account available information:
(A) If clinical studies did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether elderly subjects respond differently from younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified such differences, the “Geriatric use” subsection shall include the following statement:
“Clinical studies of (name of drug) did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.”
(B) If clinical studies (including studies that are part of marketing applications and other relevant studies available to the sponsor that have not been submitted in the sponsor's applications) included enough elderly subjects to make it likely that differences in safety or effectiveness between elderly and younger subjects would have been detected, but no such differences (in safety or effectiveness) were observed, and other reported clinical experience has not identified such differences, the “Geriatric use” subsection shall contain the following statement:
Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of (name of drug), _ percent were 65 and over, while _ percent were 75 and over. (Alternatively, the labeling may state the total number of subjects included in the studies who were 65 and over and 75 and over.) No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
(C) If evidence from clinical studies and other reported clinical experience available to the sponsor indicates that use of the drug in elderly patients is associated with differences in safety or effectiveness, or requires specific monitoring or dosage adjustment, the “Geriatric use” subsection of the labeling shall contain a brief description of observed differences or specific monitoring or dosage requirements and, as appropriate, shall refer to more detailed discussions in the “Contraindications,” “Warnings,” “Dosage and Administration,” or other sections of the labeling.
(iii)
(A) If specific pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic studies have been carried out in the elderly, they shall be described briefly in the “Geriatric use” subsection of the labeling and in detail under the “Clinical Pharmacology” section. The “Clinical Pharmacology” section and “Drug interactions” subsection of the “Precautions” section ordinarily contain information on drug-disease and drug-drug interactions that is particularly relevant to the elderly, who are more likely to have concomitant illness and to utilize concomitant drugs.
(B) If a drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, the “Geriatric use” subsection shall include the statement:
“This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.”
(iv) If use of the drug in the elderly appears to cause a specific hazard, the hazard shall be described in the “Geriatric use” subsection of the labeling, or, if appropriate, the hazard shall be stated in the “Contraindications,” “Warnings,” or “Precautions” section of the labeling, and the “Geriatric use” subsection shall refer to those sections.
(v) Labeling under paragraphs (f)(10)(i) through (f)(10)(iii) of this section may include statements, if they would be useful in enhancing safe use of the drug, that reflect good clinical practice or past experience in a particular situation, e.g., for a sedating drug, it could be stated that:
“Sedating drugs may cause confusion and over-sedation in the elderly; elderly patients generally should be started on low doses of (name of drug) and observed closely.”
(vi) If the sponsor believes that none of the requirements described in paragraphs (f)(10)(i) through (f)(10)(v) of this section is appropriate or relevant to the labeling of a particular drug, the sponsor shall provide reasons for omission of the statements and may propose an alternative statement. FDA may permit omission of the statements if FDA determines that no statement described in those paragraphs is appropriate or relevant to the drug's labeling. FDA may permit use of an alternative statement if the agency determines that such statement is accurate and appropriate.
(g) Adverse Reactions. An adverse reaction is an undesirable effect, reasonably associated with the use of the drug, that may occur as part of the pharmacological action of the drug or may be unpredictable in its occurrence.
(1) This section of the labeling shall list the adverse reactions that occur with the drug and with drugs in the same pharmacologically active and chemically related class, if applicable.
(2) In this listing, adverse reactions may be categorized by organ system, by severity of the reaction, by frequency, or by toxicological mechanism, or by a combination of these, as appropriate. If frequency information from adequate clinical studies is available, the categories and the adverse reactions within each category shall be listed in decreasing order of frequency. An adverse reaction that is significantly more severe than the other reactions listed in a category, however, shall be listed before those reactions, regardless of its frequency. If frequency information from adequate clinical studies is not available, the categories and adverse reactions within each category shall be listed in decreasing order of severity. The approximate frequency of each adverse reaction shall be expressed in rough estimates or orders of magnitude essentially as follows: “The most frequent adverse reaction(s) to (name of drug) is (are) (list reactions). This (these) occur(s) in about (e.g., one-third of patients; one in 30 patients; less than one-tenth of patients). Less frequent adverse reactions are (list reactions), which occur in approximately (e.g., one in 100 patients). Other adverse reactions, which occur rarely, in approximately (e.g., one in 1,000 patients), are (list reactions).” Percent figures may not ordinarily be used unless they are documented by adequate and well-controlled studies as defined in § 314.126(b) of this chapter, they are shown to reflect general experience, and they do not falsely imply a greater degree of accuracy than actually exists.
(3) The “Warnings” section of the labeling or, if appropriate, the “Contraindications” section of the labeling shall identify any potentially fatal adverse reaction.
(4) Any claim comparing the drug to which the labeling applies with other drugs in terms of frequency, severity, or character of adverse reactions shall be based on adequate and well-controlled studies as defined in § 314.126(b) of this chapter unless this requirement is waived under § 201.58 or § 314.126(c) of this chapter.
(h) Drug Abuse and Dependence. Under this section heading, the labeling shall contain the following subsections, as appropriate for the drug:
(1) Controlled Substance. If the drug is controlled by the Drug Enforcement Administration, the schedule in which it is controlled shall be stated.
(2) Abuse. This subsection of the labeling shall be based primarily on human data and human experience, but pertinent animal data may also be used. This subsection shall state the types of abuse that can occur with the drug and the adverse reactions pertinent to them. Particularly susceptible patient populations shall be identified.
(3) Dependence. This subsection of the labeling shall describe characteristic effects resulting from both psychological and physical dependence that occur with the drug and shall identify the quantity of the drug over a period of time that may lead to tolerance or dependence, or both. Details shall be provided on the adverse effects of chronic abuse and the effects of abrupt withdrawal. Procedures necessary to diagnose the dependent state shall be provided, and the principles of treating the effects of abrupt withdrawal shall be described.
(i) Overdosage. Under this section heading, the labeling shall describe the signs, symptoms, and laboratory findings of acute overdosage and the general principles of treatment. This section shall be based on human data, when available. If human data are unavailable, appropriate animal and in vitro data may be used. Specific information shall be provided about the following:
(1) Signs, symptoms, and laboratory findings associated with an overdosage of the drug.
(2) Complications that can occur with the drug (for example, organ toxicity or delayed acidosis).
(3) Oral LD50 of the drug in animals; concentrations of the drug in biologic fluids associated with toxicity and/or death; physiologic variables influencing excretion of the drug, such as urine pH; and factors that influence the dose response relationship of the drug, such as tolerance. The pharmacokinetic data given in the “Clinical Pharmacology” section also may be referenced here, if applicable to overdoses.
(4) The amount of the drug in a single dose that is ordinarily associated with symptoms of overdosage and the amount of the drug in a single dose that is likely to be life-threatening.
(5) Whether the drug is dialyzable.
(6) Recommended general treatment procedures and specific measures for support of vital functions, such as proven antidotes, gastric lavage, and forced diuresis. Unqualified recommendations for which data are lacking with the specific drug or class of drugs, especially treatment using another drug (for example, central nervous system stimulants, respiratory stimulants) may not be stated unless specific data or scientific rationale exists to support safe and effective use.
(j) Dosage and Administration. This section of the labeling shall state the recommended usual dose, the usual dosage range, and, if appropriate, an upper limit beyond which safety and effectiveness have not been established; dosages shall be stated for each indication when appropriate. Dosing regimens must not be implied or suggested in other sections of labeling if not included in this section. This section shall also state the intervals recommended between doses, the optimal method of titrating dosage, the usual duration of treatment, and any modification of dosage needed in special patient populations, e.g., in children, in geriatric age groups, or in patients with renal or hepatic disease. Specific tables or monographs may be included to clarify dosage schedules. Radiation dosimetry information shall be stated for both the patient receiving a radioactive drug and the person administering it. This section shall also contain specific direction on dilution, preparation (including the strength of the final dosage solution, when prepared according to instructions, in terms of milligrams active ingredient per milliliter of reconstituted solution, unless another measure of the strength is more appropriate), and administration of the dosage form, if needed, e.g., the rate of administration of parenteral drug in milligrams per minute; storage conditions for stability of the drug or reconstituted drug, when important; essential information on drug incompatibilities if the drug is mixed in vitro with other drugs; and the following statement for parenterals: “Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.”
(k) How Supplied. This section of the labeling shall contain information on the available dosage forms to which the labeling applies and for which the manufacturer or distributor is responsible. The information shall ordinarily include:
(1) The strength of the dosage form, e.g., 10-milligram tablets, in metric system and, if the apothecary system is used, a statement of the strength is placed in parentheses after the metric designation;
(2) The units in which the dosage form is ordinarily available for prescribing by practitioners, e.g., bottles of 100;
(3) Appropriate information to facilitate identification of the dosage forms, such as shape, color, coating, scoring, and National Drug Code; and
(4) Special handling and storage conditions.
(l) Animal Pharmacology and/or Animal Toxicology. In most cases, the labeling need not include this section. Significant animal data necessary for safe and effective use of the drug in humans shall ordinarily be included in one or more of the other sections of the labeling, as appropriate. Commonly for a drug that has been marketed for a long time, and in rare cases for a new drug, chronic animal toxicity studies have not been performed or completed for a drug that is administered over prolonged periods or is implanted in the body. The unavailability of such data shall be stated in the appropriate section of the labeling for the drug. If the pertinent animal data cannot be appropriately incorporated into other sections of the labeling, this section may be used.
(m) “Clinical Studies” and “References”. These sections may appear in labeling in the place of a detailed discussion of a subject that is of limited interest but nonetheless important. A reference to a specific important clinical study may be made in any section of the format required under §§ 201.56 and 201.57 if the study is essential to an understandable presentation of the available information. References may appear in sections of the labeling format, other than the “Clinical Studies” or “References” section, in rare circumstances only. A clinical study or reference may be cited in prescription drug labeling only under the following conditions:
(1)
(i) If the clinical study is cited in the labeling in place of a detailed discussion of data and information concerning an indication for use of the drug, the clinical study must constitute an adequate and well-controlled study as described in § 314.126(b) of this chapter, except for biological products, and must not imply or suggest indications or uses or dosing regimens not stated in the “Indications and Usage” or “Dosage and Administration” section.
(ii) When prescription drug labeling must summarize or otherwise rely on a recommendation by an authoritative scientific body, or on a standardized methodology, scale, or technique, because the information is important to prescribing decisions, the labeling may include a reference to the source of the information.
(2) If the clinical study or reference is cited in the labeling in the place of a detailed discussion of data and information concerning a risk or risks from the use of the drug, the risk or risks shall also be identified or discussed in the appropriate section of the labeling for the drug.
[44 FR 37462, June 26, 1979, as amended at 55 FR 11576, Mar. 29, 1990; 59 FR 64249, Dec. 13, 1994; 62 FR 45325, Aug. 27, 1997; 63 FR 66396, Dec. 1, 1998. Redesignated and amended at 71 FR 3988, 3996, Jan. 24, 2006]

Title 21 published on 2014-04-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.