26 CFR 1.162-3 - Materials and supplies.

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§ 1.162-3 Materials and supplies.
(a) In general—
(1) Non-incidental materials and supplies. Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, amounts paid to acquire or produce materials and supplies (as defined in paragraph (c) of this section) are deductible in the taxable year in which the materials and supplies are first used in the taxpayer's operations or are consumed in the taxpayer's operations.
(2) Incidental materials and supplies. Amounts paid to acquire or produce incidental materials and supplies (as defined in paragraph (c) of this section) that are carried on hand and for which no record of consumption is kept or of which physical inventories at the beginning and end of the taxable year are not taken, are deductible in the taxable year in which these amounts are paid, provided taxable income is clearly reflected.
(3) Use or consumption of rotable and temporary spare parts. Except as provided in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, for purposes of paragraph (a)(1) of this section, rotable and temporary spare parts (defined under paragraph (c)(2) of this section) are first used in the taxpayer's operations or are consumed in the taxpayer's operations in the taxable year in which the taxpayer disposes of the parts.
(b) Coordination with other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. Nothing in this section changes the treatment of any amount that is specifically provided for under any provision of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) or regulations other than section 162(a) or section 212 and the regulations under those sections. For example, see § 1.263(a)-3, which requires taxpayers to capitalize amounts paid to improve tangible property and section 263A and the regulations under section 263A, which require taxpayers to capitalize the direct and allocable indirect costs, including the cost of materials and supplies, of property produced by the taxpayer and property acquired for resale. See also § 1.471-1, which requires taxpayers to include in inventory certain materials and supplies.
(c) Definitions—
(1) Materials and supplies. For purposes of this section, materials and supplies means tangible property that is used or consumed in the taxpayer's operations that is not inventory and that—
(i) Is a component acquired to maintain, repair, or improve a unit of tangible property (as determined under § 1.263(a)-3(e)) owned, leased, or serviced by the taxpayer and that is not acquired as part of any single unit of tangible property;
(ii) Consists of fuel, lubricants, water, and similar items, reasonably expected to be consumed in 12 months or less, beginning when used in the taxpayer's operations;
(iii) Is a unit of property as determined under § 1.263(a)-3(e) that has an economic useful life of 12 months or less, beginning when the property is used or consumed in the taxpayer's operations;
(iv) Is a unit of property as determined under § 1.263(a)-3(e) that has an acquisition cost or production cost (as determined under section 263A) of $200 or less (or other amount as identified in published guidance in the Federal Register or in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter); or
(v) Is identified in published guidance in the Federal Register or in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter) as materials and supplies for which treatment is permitted under this section.
(2) Rotable and temporary spare parts. For purposes of this section, rotable spare parts are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section that are acquired for installation on a unit of property, removable from that unit of property, generally repaired or improved, and either reinstalled on the same or other property or stored for later installation. Temporary spare parts are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section that are used temporarily until a new or repaired part can be installed and then are removed and stored for later installation.
(3) Standby emergency spare parts. Standby emergency spare parts are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section that are—
(i) Acquired when particular machinery or equipment is acquired (or later acquired and set aside for use in particular machinery or equipment);
(ii) Set aside for use as replacements to avoid substantial operational time loss caused by emergencies due to particular machinery or equipment failure;
(iii) Located at or near the site of the installed related machinery or equipment so as to be readily available when needed;
(iv) Directly related to the particular machinery or piece of equipment they serve;
(v) Normally expensive;
(vi) Only available on special order and not readily available from a vendor or manufacturer;
(vii) Not subject to normal periodic replacement;
(viii) Not interchangeable in other machines or equipment;
(ix) [Reserved]
(x) Not acquired in quantity (generally only one is on hand for each piece of machinery or equipment); and
(xi) Not repaired and reused.
(4) Economic useful life—
(i) General rule. The economic useful life of a unit of property is not necessarily the useful life inherent in the property but is the period over which the property may reasonably be expected to be useful to the taxpayer or, if the taxpayer is engaged in a trade or business or an activity for the production of income, the period over which the property may reasonably be expected to be useful to the taxpayer in its trade or business or for the production of income, as applicable. See § 1.167(a)-1(b) for the factors to be considered in determining this period.
(ii) Taxpayers with an applicable financial statement. For taxpayers with an applicable financial statement (as defined in paragraph (c)(4)(iii) of this section), the economic useful life of a unit of property, solely for the purposes of applying the provisions of paragraph (c)(4)(iii) of this section, is the useful life initially used by the taxpayer for purposes of determining depreciation in its applicable financial statement, regardless of any salvage value of the property. If a taxpayer does not have an applicable financial statement for the taxable year in which a unit of property was originally acquired or produced, the economic useful life of the unit of property must be determined under paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section. Further, if a taxpayer treats amounts paid for a unit of property as an expense in its applicable financial statement on a basis other than the useful life of the property or if a taxpayer does not depreciate the unit of property on its applicable financial statement, the economic useful life of the unit of property must be determined under paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section. For example, if a taxpayer has a policy of treating as an expense on its applicable financial statement amounts paid for a unit of property costing less than a certain dollar amount, notwithstanding that the unit of property has a useful life of more than one year, the economic useful life of the unit of property must be determined under paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section.
(iii) Definition of applicable financial statement. The taxpayer's applicable financial statement is the taxpayer's financial statement listed in paragraphs (c)(4)(iii)(A) through (C) of this section that has the highest priority (including within paragraph (c)(4)(iii)(B) of this section). The financial statements are, in descending priority—
(A) A financial statement required to be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) (the 10-K or the Annual Statement to Shareholders);
(B) A certified audited financial statement that is accompanied by the report of an independent certified public accountant (or in the case of a foreign entity, by the report of a similarly qualified independent professional), that is used for—
(1) Credit purposes;
(2) Reporting to shareholders, partners, or similar persons; or
(3) Any other substantial non-tax purpose; or
(C) A financial statement (other than a tax return) required to be provided to the federal or a state government or any federal or state agency (other than the SEC or the Internal Revenue Service).
(5) Amount paid. For purposes of this section, in the case of a taxpayer using an accrual method of accounting, the terms amount paid and payment mean a liability incurred (within the meaning of § 1.446-1(c)(1)(ii)). A liability may not be taken into account under this section prior to the taxable year during which the liability is incurred.
(6) Produce. For purposes of this section, produce means construct, build, install, manufacture, develop, create, raise, or grow. This definition is intended to have the same meaning as the definition used for purposes of section 263A(g)(1) and § 1.263A-2(a)(1)(i), except that improvements are excluded from the definition in this paragraph (c)(6) and are separately defined and addressed in § 1.263(a)-3. Amounts paid to produce materials and supplies are subject to section 263A.
(d) Election to capitalize and depreciate certain materials and supplies—
(1) In general. A taxpayer may elect to treat as a capital expenditure and to treat as an asset subject to the allowance for depreciation the cost of any rotable spare part, temporary spare part, or standby emergency spare part as defined in paragraph (c)(3) or (c)(4) of this section. Except as specified in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, an election made under this paragraph (d) applies to amounts paid during the taxable year to acquire or produce any rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare part to which paragraph (a) of this section would apply (but for the election under this paragraph (d)). Any property for which this election is made shall not be treated as a material or a supply.
(2) Exceptions. A taxpayer may not elect to capitalize and depreciate under paragraph (d) of this section any amount paid to acquire or produce a rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare part defined in paragraph (c)(3) or (c)(4) of this section if—
(i) The rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare part is intended to be used as a component of a unit of property under paragraph (c)(1)(iii), (iv), or (v) of this section;
(ii) The rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare part is intended to be used as a component of a property described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) and the taxpayer cannot or has not elected to capitalize and depreciate that property under this paragraph (d); or
(iii) The amount is paid to acquire or produce a rotable or temporary spare part and the taxpayer uses the optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts under paragraph (e) to of this section.
(3) Manner of electing. A taxpayer makes the election under paragraph (d) of this section by capitalizing the amounts paid to acquire or produce a rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare part in the taxable year the amounts are paid and by beginning to recover the costs when the asset is placed in service by the taxpayer for the purposes of determining depreciation under the applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code and the Treasury Regulations. See § 1.263(a)-2 for the treatment of amounts paid to acquire or produce real or personal tangible property. A taxpayer must make this election in its timely filed original Federal tax return (including extensions) for the taxable year the asset is placed in service by the taxpayer for purposes of determining depreciation. See §§ 301.9100-1 through 301.9100-3 of this chapter for the provisions governing extensions of time to make regulatory elections. In the case of an S corporation or a partnership, the election is made by the S corporation or partnership, and not by the shareholders or partners. A taxpayer may make an election for each rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare part that qualifies for the election under this paragraph (d). A taxpayer may revoke an election made under this paragraph (d) with respect to a rotable, temporary, or standby emergency spare part only by filing a request for a private letter ruling and obtaining the Commissioner's consent to revoke the election. The Commissioner may grant a request to revoke this election if the taxpayer acted reasonably and in good faith and the revocation will not prejudice the interests of the Government. See generally § 301.9100-3 of this chapter. The manner of electing and revoking the election to capitalize under this paragraph (d) may be modified through guidance of general applicability (see §§ 601.601(d)(2) and 601.602 of this chapter). An election may not be made or revoked through the filing of an application for change in accounting method or, before obtaining the Commissioner's consent to make the late election or to revoke the election, by filing an amended Federal tax return.
(e) Optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts—
(1) In general. This paragraph (e) provides an optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts (the optional method for rotable parts). A taxpayer may use the optional method for rotable parts, instead of the general rule under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, to account for its rotable and temporary spare parts as defined in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. A taxpayer that uses the optional method for rotable parts must use this method for all of its pools of rotable and temporary spare parts used in the same trade or business and for which it uses this method for its books and records. If a taxpayer uses the optional method for rotable and temporary spare parts for pools of rotable or temporary spare parts for which the taxpayer does not use the optional method for its book and records, then the taxpayer must use the optional method for all its pools of rotable spare parts in the same trade or business. The optional method for rotable parts is a method of accounting under section 446(a). Under the optional method for rotable parts, the taxpayer must apply the rules in this paragraph (e) to each rotable or temporary spare part (part) upon the taxpayer's initial installation, removal, repair, maintenance or improvement, reinstallation, and disposal of each part.
(2) Description of optional method for rotable parts—
(i) Initial installation. The taxpayer must deduct the amount paid to acquire or produce the part in the taxable year that the part is first installed on a unit of property for use in the taxpayer's operations.
(ii) Removal from unit of property. In each taxable year in which the part is removed from a unit of property to which it was initially or subsequently installed, the taxpayer must—
(A) Include in gross income the fair market value of the part; and
(B) Include in the basis of the part the fair market value of the part included in income under paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(A) of this section and the amount paid to remove the part from the unit of property.
(iii) Repair, maintenance, or improvement of part. The taxpayer may not currently deduct and must include in the basis of the part any amounts paid to maintain, repair, or improve the part in the taxable year these amounts are paid.
(iv) Reinstallation of part. The taxpayer must deduct the amounts paid to reinstall the part and those amounts included in the basis of the part under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii)(B) and (e)(2)(iii) of this section, to the extent that those amounts have not been previously deducted under this paragraph (e)(2)(iv), in the taxable year that the part is reinstalled on a unit of property.
(v) Disposal of the part. The taxpayer must deduct the amounts included in the basis of the part under paragraphs (e)(2)(ii)(B) and (e)(2)(iii) of this section, to the extent that those amounts have not been previously deducted under paragraph (e)(2)(iv) of this section, in the taxable year in which the part is disposed of by the taxpayer.
(f) Application of de minimis safe harbor. If a taxpayer elects to apply the de minimis safe harbor under § 1.263(a)-1(f) to amounts paid for the production or acquisition of tangible property, then the taxpayer must apply the de minimis safe harbor to amounts paid for all materials and supplies that meet the requirements of § 1.263(a)-1(f), except for those materials and supplies that the taxpayer elects to capitalize and depreciate under paragraph (d) of this section or for which the taxpayer properly uses the optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts under paragraph (e) of this section. If the taxpayer properly applies the de minimis safe harbor under § 1.263(a)-1(f) to amounts paid for materials and supplies, then these amounts are not treated as amounts paid for materials and supplies under this section. See § 1.263(a)-1(f)(5) for the time and manner of electing the de minimis safe harbor and § 1.263(a)-1(f)(3)(iv) for the treatment of safe harbor amounts.
(g) Sale or disposition of materials and supplies. Upon sale or other disposition, materials and supplies as defined in this section are not treated as a capital asset under section 1221 or as property used in the trade or business under section 1231. Any asset for which the taxpayer makes the election to capitalize and depreciate under paragraph (d) of this section shall not be treated as a material or supply, and the recognition and character of the gain or loss for such depreciable asset are determined under other applicable provisions of the Code.
(h) Examples. The rules of this section are illustrated by the following examples, in which it is assumed, unless otherwise stated, that the property is not an incidental material or supply, that the taxpayer computes its income on a calendar year basis, that the taxpayer does not make the election to apply paragraph (d) of this section, or use the method of accounting described in paragraph (e) of this section, and that the taxpayer has not elected to apply the de minimis safe harbor under § 1.263(a)-1(f). The following examples illustrate only the application of this section and, unless otherwise stated, do not address the treatment under other provisions of the Code (for example, section 263A).
Example 1 Non-rotable components.
A owns a fleet of aircraft that it operates in its business. In Year 1, A purchases a stock of spare parts, which it uses to maintain and repair its aircraft. A keeps a record of consumption of these spare parts. In Year 2, A uses the spare parts for the repair and maintenance of one of its aircraft. Assume each aircraft is a unit of property under § 1.263(a)-3(e) and that spare parts are not rotable or temporary spare parts under paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Assume these repair and maintenance activities do not improve the aircraft under § 1.263(a)-3. These parts are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section because they are components acquired and used to maintain and repair A's aircraft. Under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the amounts that A paid for the spare parts in Year 1 are deductible in Year 2, the taxable year in which the spare parts are first used to repair and maintain the aircraft.
Example 2 Rotable spare parts; disposal method.
B operates a fleet of specialized vehicles that it uses in its service business. Assume that each vehicle is a unit of property under § 1.263(a)-3(e). At the time that it acquires a new type of vehicle, B also acquires a substantial number of rotable spare parts that it will keep on hand to quickly replace similar parts in B's vehicles as those parts break down or wear out. These rotable parts are removable from the vehicles and are repaired so that they can be reinstalled on the same or similar vehicles. In Year 1, B acquires several vehicles and a number of rotable spare parts to be used as replacement parts in these vehicles. In Year 2, B repairs several vehicles by using these rotable spare parts to replace worn or damaged parts. In Year 3, B removes these rotable spare parts from its vehicles, repairs the parts, and reinstalls them on other similar vehicles. In Year 5, B can no longer use the rotable parts it acquired in Year 1 and disposes of them as scrap. Assume that B does not improve any of the rotable spare parts under § 1.263(a)-3. Under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, the rotable spare parts acquired in Year 1 are materials and supplies. Under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, rotable spare parts are generally used or consumed in the taxable year in which the taxpayer disposes of the parts. Therefore, under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the amounts that B paid for the rotable spare parts in Year 1 are deductible in Year 5, the taxable year in which B disposes of the parts.
Example 3 Rotable spare parts; application of optional method of accounting.
C operates a fleet of specialized vehicles that it uses in its service business. Assume that each vehicle is a unit of property under § 1.263(a)-3(e). At the time that it acquires a new type of vehicle, C also acquires a substantial number of rotable spare parts that it will keep on hand to replace similar parts in C's vehicles as those parts break down or wear out. These rotable parts are removable from the vehicles and are repaired so that they can be reinstalled on the same or similar vehicles. C uses the optional method of accounting for all its rotable and temporary spare parts under paragraph (e) of this section. In Year 1, C acquires several vehicles and a number of rotable spare parts (the “Year 1 rotable parts”) to be used as replacement parts in these vehicles. In Year 2, C repairs several vehicles and uses the Year 1 rotable parts to replace worn or damaged parts. In Year 3, C pays amounts to remove these Year 1 rotable parts from its vehicles. In Year 4, C pays amounts to maintain, repair, or improve the Year 1 rotable parts. In Year 5, C pays amounts to reinstall the Year 1 rotable parts on other similar vehicles. In Year 8, C removes the Year 1 rotable parts from these vehicles and stores these parts for possible later use. In Year 9, C disposes of the Year 1 rotable parts. Under paragraph (e) of this section, C must deduct the amounts paid to acquire and install the Year 1 rotable parts in Year 2, the taxable year in which the rotable parts are first installed by C in C's vehicles. In Year 3, when C removes the Year 1 rotable parts from its vehicles, C must include in its gross income the fair market value of each part. Also, in Year 3, C must include in the basis of each Year 1 rotable part the fair market value of the rotable part and the amount paid to remove the rotable part from the vehicle. In Year 4, C must include in the basis of each Year 1 rotable part the amounts paid to maintain, repair, or improve each rotable part. In Year 5, the year that C reinstalls the Year 1 rotable parts (as repaired or improved) in other vehicles, C must deduct the reinstallation costs and the amounts previously included in the basis of each part. In Year 8, the year that C removes the Year 1 rotable parts from the vehicles, C must include in income the fair market value of each rotable part removed. In addition, in Year 8, C must include in the basis of each part the fair market value of that part and the amount paid to remove each rotable part from the vehicle. In Year 9, the year that C disposes of the Year 1 rotable parts, C may deduct the amounts remaining in the basis of each rotable part.
Example 4 Rotable part acquired as part of a single unit of property; not material or supply.
D operates a fleet of aircraft. In Year 1, D acquires a new aircraft, which includes two new aircraft engines. The aircraft costs $500,000 and has an economic useful life of more than 12 months, beginning when it is placed in service. In Year 5, after the aircraft is operated for several years in D's business, D removes the engines from the aircraft, repairs or improves the engines, and either reinstalls the engines on a similar aircraft or stores the engines for later reinstallation. Assume the aircraft purchased in Year 1, including its two engines, is a unit of property under § 1.263(a)-3(e). Because the engines were acquired as part of the aircraft, a single unit of property, the engines are not materials or supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section nor rotable or temporary spare parts under paragraph (c)(2) of this section. Accordingly, D may not apply the rules of this section to the aircraft engines upon the original acquisition of the aircraft nor after the removal of the engines from the aircraft for use in the same or similar aircraft. Rather, D must apply the rules under §§ 1.263(a)-2 and 1.263(a)-3 to the aircraft, including its engines, to determine the treatment of amounts paid to acquire, produce, or improve the unit of property.
Example 5 Consumable property.
E operates a fleet of aircraft that carries freight for its customers. E has several storage tanks on its premises, which hold jet fuel for its aircraft. Assume that once the jet fuel is placed in E's aircraft, the jet fuel is reasonably expected to be consumed within 12 months or less. On December 31, Year 1, E purchases a two-year supply of jet fuel. In Year 2, E uses a portion of the jet fuel purchased on December 31, Year 1, to fuel the aircraft used in its business. The jet fuel that E purchased in Year 1 is a material or supply under paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section because it is reasonably expected to be consumed within 12 months or less from the time it is placed in E's aircraft. Under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, E may deduct in Year 2 the amounts paid for the portion of jet fuel used in the operation of E's aircraft in Year 2.
Example 6 Unit of property that costs $200 or less.
F operates a business that rents out a variety of small individual items to customers (rental items). F maintains a supply of rental items on hand. In Year 1, F purchases a large quantity of rental items to use in its rental business. Assume that each rental item is a unit of property under § 1.263(a)-3(e) and costs $200 or less. In Year 2, F begins using all the rental items purchased in Year 1 by providing them to customers of its rental business. F does not sell or exchange these items on established retail markets at any time after the items are used in the rental business. The rental items are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section. Under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the amounts that F paid for the rental items in Year 1 are deductible in Year 2, the taxable year in which the rental items are first used in F's business.
Example 7 Unit of property that costs $200 or less.
G provides billing services to its customers. In Year 1, G pays amounts to purchase 50 scanners to be used by its employees. Assume each scanner is a unit of property under § 1.263(a)-3(e) and costs less than $200. In Year 1, G's employees begin using 35 of the scanners, and F stores the remaining 15 scanners for use in a later taxable year. The scanners are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section. Under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the amounts G paid for 35 of the scanners are deductible in Year 1, the taxable year in which G first uses each of those scanners. The amounts that G paid for each of the remaining 15 scanners are deductible in the taxable year in which each machine is first used in G's business.
Example 8 Materials and supplies that cost less than $200; de minimis safe harbor.
Assume the same facts as in Example 7 except that G's scanners qualify for the de minimis safe harbor under § 1.263(a)-1(f), and G properly elects to apply the de minimis safe harbor under § 1.263(a)-1(f) to amounts paid in Year 1. G must apply the de minimis safe harbor under § 1.263(a)-1(f) to amounts paid for the scanners, rather than treat these amounts as costs of materials and supplies under this section. In accordance with § 1.263(a)-1(f)(3)(iv), G may deduct the amounts paid for all 50 scanners under § 1.162-1 in the taxable year the amounts are paid.
Example 9 Unit of property that costs $200 or less; bulk purchase.
H provides consulting services to its customers. In Year 1, H pays $500 to purchase one box of 10 toner cartridges to use as needed for H's printers. Assume each toner cartridge is a unit of property under § 1.263(a)-3(e). In Year 1, H's employees place 8 of the toner cartridges in printers in H's office, and store the remaining 2 cartridges for use in a later taxable year. The toner cartridges are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section because even though purchased in one box costing more than $200, the allocable cost of each unit of property equals $50. Therefore, under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the $400 paid by H for 8 of the cartridges is deductible in Year 1, the taxable year in which H first uses each of those cartridges. The amounts paid by H for each of the remaining 2 cartridges ($50 each) are deductible in the taxable year in which each cartridge is first used in H's business.
Example 10 Materials and supplies used in improvements; coordination with § 1.263(a)-3.
J owns various machines that are used in its business. Assume that each machine is a unit of property under § 1.263(a)-3(e). In Year 1, J purchases a supply of spare parts for its machines. J acquired the parts to use in the repair or maintenance of the machines under § 1.162-4 or in the improvement of the machines under § 1.263(a)-3. The spare parts are not rotable or temporary spare parts under paragraph (c)(2) of this section. In Year 2, J uses all of these spare parts in an activity that improves a machine under § 1.263(a)-3. Under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, the spare parts purchased by J in Year 1 are materials and supplies. Under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the amounts paid for the spare parts are otherwise deductible as materials and supplies in Year 2, the taxable year in which J uses those parts. However, because these materials and supplies are used to improve J's machine, J is required to capitalize the amounts paid for those spare parts under § 1.263(a)-3.
Example 11 Cost of producing materials and supplies; coordination with section 263A.
K is a manufacturer that produces liquid waste as part of its operations. K determines that its current liquid waste disposal process is inadequate. To remedy the problem, in Year 1, K constructs a leaching pit to provide a draining area for the liquid waste. Assume the leaching pit is a unit of property under § 1.263(a)-3(e) and has an economic useful life of 12 months or less, starting on the date that K begins to use the leaching pit as a draining area. At the end of this period, K's factory will be connected to the local sewer system. In Year 2, K starts using the leaching pit in its operations. The amounts paid to construct the leaching pit (including the direct and allocable indirect costs of property produced under section 263A) are amounts paid for a material or supply under paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section. However, the amounts paid to construct the leaching pit may be subject to capitalization under section 263A if these amounts comprise the direct or allocable indirect costs of property produced by K.
Example 12 Costs of acquiring materials and supplies for production of property; coordination with section 263A.
In Year 1, L purchases jigs, dies, molds, and patterns for use in the manufacture of L's products. Assume each jig, die, mold, and pattern is a unit of property under § 1.263(a)-3(e). The economic useful life of each jig, die, mold, and pattern is 12 months or less, beginning when each item is used in the manufacturing process. The jigs, dies, molds, and patterns are not components acquired to maintain, repair, or improve any of L's equipment under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. L begins using the jigs, dies, molds and patterns in Year 2 to manufacture its products. These items are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section. Under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the amounts paid for the items are otherwise deductible in Year 2, the taxable year in which L first uses those items. However, the amounts paid for these materials and supplies may be subject to capitalization under section 263A if these amounts comprise the direct or allocable indirect costs of property produced by L.
Example 13 Election to capitalize and depreciate.
M is in the mining business. M acquires certain temporary spare parts, which it keeps on hand to avoid operational time loss in the event it must make temporary repairs to a unit of property that is subject to depreciation. These parts are not used to improve property under § 1.263(a)-3(d). These temporary spare parts are used until a new or repaired part can be installed and then are removed and stored for later temporary installation. M does not use the optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts in paragraph (e) of this section for any of its rotable or temporary spare parts. The temporary spare parts are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. Under paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(3) of this section, the amounts paid for the temporary spare parts are deductible in the taxable year in which they are disposed of by M. However, because it is unlikely that the temporary spare parts will be disposed of in the near future, M would prefer to treat the amounts paid for the spare parts as capital expenditures subject to depreciation. M may elect under paragraph (d) of this section to treat the cost of each temporary spare part as a capital expenditure and as an asset subject to an allowance for depreciation. M makes this election by capitalizing the amounts paid for each spare part in the taxable year that M acquires the spare parts and by beginning to recover the costs of each part on its timely filed Federal tax return for the taxable year in which the part is placed in service for purposes of determining depreciation under the applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code and the Treasury Regulations. See § 1.263(a)-2(g) for the treatment of capital expenditures.
Example 14 Election to apply de minimis safe harbor.
(i) N provides consulting services to its customers. In Year 1, N pays amounts to purchase 50 laptop computers. Each laptop computer is a unit of property under § 1.263(a)-3(e), costs $400, and has an economic useful life of more than 12 months. Also in Year 1, N purchases 50 office chairs to be used by its employees. Each office chair is a unit of property that costs $100. N has an applicable financial statement (as defined in § 1.263(a)-1(f)(4)) and N has a written accounting policy at the beginning Year 1 to expense amounts paid for units of property costing $500 or less. N treats amounts paid for property costing $500 or less as an expense on its applicable financial statement in Year 1.
(ii) The laptop computers are not materials or supplies under paragraph (c) of this section. Therefore, the amounts N pays for the computers must generally be capitalized under § 1.263(a)-2(d) as amounts paid for the acquisition of tangible property. The office chairs are materials and supplies under paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section. Thus, under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the amounts paid for the office chairs are deductible in the taxable year in which they are first used in N's business. However, under paragraph (f) of this section, if N properly elects to apply the de minimis safe harbor under § 1.263(a)-1(f) to amounts paid in Year 1, then N must apply the de minimis safe harbor under § 1.263(a)-1(f) to amounts paid for the computers and the office chairs, rather than treat the office chairs as the costs of materials and supplies under § 1.162-3. Under the de minimis safe harbor, N may not capitalize the amounts paid for the computers under § 1.263(a)-2 nor treat the office chairs as materials and supplies under § 1.162-3. Instead, in accordance with § 1.263(a)-1(f)(3)(iv), under § 1.162-1, N may deduct the amounts paid for the computers and the office chairs in the taxable year paid.
(i) Accounting method changes. Except as otherwise provided in this section, a change to comply with this section is a change in method of accounting to which the provisions of sections 446 and 481 and the accompanying regulations apply. A taxpayer seeking to change to a method of accounting permitted in this section must secure the consent of the Commissioner in accordance with § 1.446-1(e) and follow the administrative procedures issued under § 1.446-1(e)(3)(ii) for obtaining the Commissioner's consent to change its accounting method.
(j) Effective/applicability date—
(1) In general. This section generally applies to amounts paid or incurred in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. However, a taxpayer may apply paragraph (e) of this section (the optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts) to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2014. Except as provided in paragraphs (j)(2) and (j)(3) of this section, § 1.162-3 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 edition revised as of April 1, 2011, applies to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014.
(2) Early application of this section—
(i) In general. Except for paragraph (e) of this section, a taxpayer may choose to apply this section to amounts paid or incurred in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012. A taxpayer may choose to apply paragraph (e) of this section (the optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts) to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012.
(ii) Transition rule for election to capitalize materials and supplies on 2012 and 2013 returns. If under paragraph (j)(2)(i) of this section, a taxpayer chooses to make the election to capitalize and depreciate certain materials and supplies under paragraph (d) of this section for its taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and ending on or before September 19, 2013 (applicable taxable year), and the taxpayer did not make the election specified in paragraph (d)(3) of this section on its timely filed original Federal tax return for the applicable taxable year, the taxpayer must make the election specified in paragraph (d)(3) of this section for the applicable taxable year by filing an amended Federal tax return for the applicable taxable year on or before 180 days from the due date including extensions of the taxpayer's Federal tax return for the applicable taxable year, notwithstanding that the taxpayer may not have extended the due date.
(3) Optional application of TD 9564. Except for section 1.162-3T(e), a taxpayer may choose to apply § 1.162-3T as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to amounts paid or incurred (to acquire or produce property) in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014. A taxpayer may choose to apply section 1.162-3T(e) (the optional method of accounting for rotable and temporary spare parts) as contained in TD 9564 (76 FR 81060) December 27, 2011, to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2012, and before January 1, 2014.
[T.D. 9636, 78 FR 57701, Sept. 19, 2013]

Title 26 published on 2013-04-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 26.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2014-12-12; vol. 79 # 239 - Friday, December 12, 2014
    1. 79 FR 73817 - Reporting of Specified Foreign Financial Assets
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Final regulations and removal of temporary regulations.
      Effective Date: These regulations are effective on December 12, 2014. Applicability Date: For dates of applicability, see §§ 1.6038D-1(b), 1.6038D-2(g), 1.6038D-3(e), 1.6038D-4(b), 1.6038D-5(g), 1.6038D-7(d), and 1.6038D-8(g).
      26 CFR Part 1

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28

§ 30 - Certain plug-in electric vehicles

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed.

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Deduction for clean-fuel vehicles and certain refueling property

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed.

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed.

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927 - Repealed.

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed.

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Repealed.

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

26 U.S. Code § 5521 to 5523 - Repealed.

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 2013-04-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR 1 after this date.

  • 2014-12-12; vol. 79 # 239 - Friday, December 12, 2014
    1. 79 FR 73817 - Reporting of Specified Foreign Financial Assets
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Final regulations and removal of temporary regulations.
      Effective Date: These regulations are effective on December 12, 2014. Applicability Date: For dates of applicability, see §§ 1.6038D-1(b), 1.6038D-2(g), 1.6038D-3(e), 1.6038D-4(b), 1.6038D-5(g), 1.6038D-7(d), and 1.6038D-8(g).
      26 CFR Part 1