26 CFR 1.169-2 - Definitions.

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§ 1.169-2 Definitions.
(a) Certified pollution control facility—
(1) In general. Under section 169 (d), the term “certified pollution control facility” means a facility which—
(i) The Federal certifying authority certifies, in accordance with the rules prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, is a “treatment facility” described in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, and
(ii) Is “a new identifiable facility” (as defined in paragraph (b) of this section).
For profitmaking abatement works limitation, see paragraph (d) of this section.
(2) Treatment facility. For purposes of subparagraph (1)(i) of this paragraph, a “treatment facility” is a facility which (i) is used to abate or control water or atmospheric pollution or contamination by removing, altering, disposing, or storing of pollutants, contaminants, wastes, or heat and (ii) is used in connection with a plant or other property in operation before January 1, 1969. Determinations under subdivision (i) of this subparagraph shall be made solely by the Federal certifying authority. See subparagraph (3) of this paragraph. For meaning of the phrases “plant or other property” and “in operation before January 1, 1969,” see subparagraphs (4) and (5), respectively, of this paragraph.
(3) Facilities performing multiple functions or used in connection with several plants, etc.
(i) If a facility is designed to perform or does perform a function in addition to abating or controlling water or atmospheric pollution or contamination by removing, altering, disposing or storing pollutants, contaminants, wastes, or heat, such facility shall be a treatment facility only with respect to that part of the cost thereof which is certified by the Federal certifying authority as attributable to abating of controlling water or atmospheric pollution or contamination. For example, if a machine which performs a function in addition to abating water pollution is installed at a cost of $100,000 in, and is used only in connection with, a plant which was in operation before January 1, 1969, and if the Federal certifying authority certifies that $30,000 of the cost of such machine is allocable to its function of abating water pollution, such $30,000 will be deemed to be the adjusted basis for purposes of determining gain for purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.169-3.
(ii) If a facility is used in connection with more than one plant or other property, and at least one such plant or other property was not in operation before January 1, 1969, such facility shall be a treatment facility only to the extent of that part of the cost thereof certified by the Federal certifying authority as attributable to abating or controlling water or atmospheric pollution in connection with plants or other property in operation before January 1, 1969. For example, if a machine is constructed after December 31, 1968, at a cost of $100,000 and is used in connection with a number of plants only some of which were in operation before January 1, 1969, and if the Federal certifying authority certifies that $20,000 of the cost of such machine is allocable to its function of abating or controlling water pollution in connection with the plants or other property in operation before January 1, 1969, such $20,000 will be deemed to be the adjusted basis for purposes of determining gain for purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.169-3. In a case in which the Federal certifying authority certifies the percentage of a facility which is used in connection with plants or other property in operation before January 1, 1969, the adjusted basis for the purposes of determining gain for purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.169-3 of the portion of the facility so used shall be the adjusted basis for determining gain of the entire facility multiplied by such percentage.
(4) Plant or other property. As used in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, the phrase “plant or other property” means any tangible property whether or not such property is used in the trade or business or held for the production of income. Such term includes, for example, a papermill, a motor vehicle, or a furnace in an apartment house.
(5) In operation before January 1, 1969.
(i) For purposes of subparagraph (2) of this paragraph and section 169 (d), a plant or other property will be considered to be in operation before January 1, 1969, if prior to that date such plant or other property was actually performing the function for which it was constructed or acquired. For example, a papermill which is completed in July 1968, but which is not actually used to produce paper until 1969 would not be considered to be in operation before January 1, 1969. The fact that such plant or other property was only operating at partial capacity prior to January 1, 1969, or was being used as a standby facility prior to such date, shall not prevent its being considered to be in operation before such date.
(ii) (a) A piece of machinery which replaces one which was in operation prior to January 1, 1969, and which was a part of the manufacturing operation carried on by the plant but which does not substantially increase the capacity of the plant will be considered to be in operation prior to January 1, 1969. However, an additional machine that is added to a plant which was in operation before January 1, 1969, and which represents a substantial increase in the plant's capacity will not be considered to have been in operation before such date. There shall be deemed to be a substantial increase in the capacity of a plant or other property as of the time its capacity exceeds by more than 20 percent its capacity on December 31, 1968.
(b) In addition, if the total replacements of equipment in any single taxable year beginning after December 31, 1968, represents the replacement of a substantial portion of a manufacturing plant which had been in operation before such date, such replacement shall be considered to result in a new plant which was not in operation before such date. Thus, if a substantial portion of a plant which was in existence before January 1, 1969, is subsequently destroyed by fire and such substantial portion is replaced in a taxable year beginning after that date, such replacement property shall not be considered to have been in operation before January 1, 1969. The replacement of a substantial portion of a plant or other property shall be deemed to have occurred if, during a single taxable year, the taxpayer replaces manufacturing or production facilities or equipment which comprises such plant or other property and which has an adjusted basis (determined without regard to the adjustments provided in section 1016(a) (2) and (3)) in excess of 20 percent of the adjusted basis (so determined) of such plant or other property determined as of the first day of such taxable year.
(6) Useful life. For purposes of section 169 and the regulations thereunder, the terms “useful life” and “actual useful life” shall mean the shortest period authorized under section 167 and the regulations thereunder if an election were not made under section 169.
(b) New identifiable facility—
(1) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section, the term “new identifiable facility” includes only tangible property (not including a building and its structural components referred to in subparagraph (2)(i) of this paragraph, other than a building and its structural components which under subparagraph (2)(ii) of this paragraph is exclusively a treatment facility) which—
(i) Is of a character subject to the allowance for depreciation provided in section 167,
(ii) (a) Is property the construction, reconstruction, or erection (as defined in subparagraph (2)(iii) of this paragraph) of which is completed by the taxpayer after December 31, 1968, or
(b) Is property acquired by the taxpayer after December 31, 1968, if the original use of the property commences with the taxpayer and commences after such date (see subparagraph (2)(iii) of this paragraph), and
(iii) Is placed in service (as defined in subparagraph (2)(v) of this paragraph) prior to January 1, 1975.
(2) Meaning of terms.
(i) For purposes of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, the terms “building” and “structural component” shall be construed in a manner consistent with the principles set forth in paragraph (e) of § 1.48-1. Thus, for example, the following rules are applicable:
(a) The term “building” generally means any structure or edifice enclosing a space within its walls, and usually covered by a roof, the purpose of which is, for example, to provide shelter or housing, or to provide working, office, parking, display, or sales space. The term includes, for example, structures such as apartment houses, factory and office buildings, warehouses, barns, garages, railway or bus stations, and stores. Such term includes any such structure constructed by, or for, a lessee even if such structure must be removed, or ownership of such structure reverts to the lessor, at the termination of the lease. Such term does not include (1) a structure which is essentially an item of machinery or equipment, or (2) an enclosure which is so closely combined with the machinery or equipment which it supports, houses, or serves that it must be replaced, retired, or abandoned contemporaneously with such machinery or equipment, and which is depreciated over the life of such machinery or equipment. Thus, the term “building” does not include such structures as oil and gas storage tanks, grain storage bins, silos, fractioning towers, blast furnaces, coke ovens, brick kilns, and coal tipples.
(b) The term “structural components” includes, for example, chimneys, and other components relating to the operating or maintenance of a building. However, the term “structural components” does not include machinery or a device which serves no function other than the abatement or control of water or atmospheric pollution.
(ii) For purposes of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, a building and its structural components will be considered to be exclusively a treatment facility if its only function is the abatement or control of air or water pollution. However, the incidental recovery of profits from wastes or otherwise shall not be deemed to be a function other than the abatement or control of air or water pollution. A building and its structural components which serve no function other than the treatment of wastes will be considered to be exclusively a treatment facility even if it contains areas for employees to operate the treatment facility, rest rooms for such workers, and an office for the management of such treatment facility. However, for example, if a portion of a building is used for the treatment of sewage and another portion of the building is used for the manufacture of machinery, the building is not exclusively a treatment facility. The Federal certifying authority will not certify as to what is a building and its structural components within the meaning of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph.
(iii) For purposes of subparagraph (1)(ii) (a) and (b) of this paragraph (relating to construction, reconstruction, or erection after December 31, 1968, and original use after December 31, 1968) and paragraph (b)(1) of § 1.169-3 (relating to definition of amortizable basis), the principles set forth in paragraph (a) (1) and (2) of § 1.167(c)-1 and in paragraphs (b) and (c) of § 1.48-2 shall be applied. Thus, for example, the following rules are applicable:
(a) Property is considered as constructed, reconstructed, or erected by the taxpayer if the work is done for him in accordance with his specifications.
(b) The portion of the basis of property attributable to construction, reconstruction, or erection after December 31, 1968, consists of all costs of construction, reconstruction, or erection allocable to the period after December 31, 1968, including the cost or other basis of materials entering into such work (but not including, in the case of reconstruction of property, the adjusted basis of the property as of the time such reconstruction is commenced).
(c) It is not necessary that materials entering into construction, reconstruction or erection be acquired after December 31, 1968, or that they be new in use.
(d) If construction or erection by the taxpayer began after December 31, 1968, the entire cost or other basis of such construction or erection may be taken into account for purposes of determining the amortizable basis under section 169.
(e) Construction, reconstruction, or erection by the taxpayer begins when physical work is started on such construction, reconstruction, or erection.
(f) Property shall be deemed to be acquired when reduced to physical possession or control.
(g) The term “original use” means the first use to which the property is put, whether or not such use corresponds to the use of such property by the taxpayer. For example, a reconditioned or rebuilt machine acquired by the taxpayer after December 31, 1968, for pollution control purposes will not be treated as being put to original use by the taxpayer regardless of whether it was used for purposes other than pollution control by its previous owner. Whether property is reconditioned or rebuilt property is a question of fact. Property will not be treated as reconditioned or rebuilt merely because it contains some used parts.
(iv) For purposes of subparagraph (1)(iii) of this paragraph (relating to property placed in service prior to January 1, 1975), the principles set forth in paragraph (d) of § 1.46-3 are applicable. Thus, property shall be considered placed in service in the earlier of the following taxable years:
(a) The taxable year in which, under the taxpayer's depreciation practice, the period for depreciation with respect to such property begins or would have begun; or
(b) The taxable year in which the property is placed in a condition or state of readiness and availability for the abatement or control of water or atmospheric pollution.
Thus, if property meets the conditions of (b) of this subdivision in a taxable year, it shall be considered placed in service in such year notwithstanding that the period for depreciation with respect to such property begins or would have begun in a succeeding taxable year because, for example, under the taxpayer's depreciation practice such property is or would have been accounted for in a multiple asset account and depreciation is or would have been computed under an “averaging convention” (§ 1.167(a)-10), or depreciation with respect to such property would have been computed under the completed contract method, the unit of production method, or the retirement method. In the case of property acquired by a taxpayer for use in his trade or business (or in the production of income), property shall be considered in a condition or state of readiness and availability for the abatement or control of water or atmospheric pollution if, for example, equipment is acquired for the abatement or control of water or atmospheric pollution and is operational but is undergoing testing to eliminate any defects. However, materials and parts acquired to be used in the construction of an item of equipment shall not be considered in a condition or state of readiness and availability for the abatement or control of water or atmospheric pollution.
(c) Certification—
(1) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a)(1) of this section, a facility is certified in accordance with the rules prescribed in this paragraph if—
(i) The State certifying authority (as defined in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph) having jurisdiction with respect to such facility has certified to the Federal certifying authority (as defined in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph) that the facility was constructed, reconstructed, erected, or acquired in conformity with the State program or requirements for the abatement or control of water or atmospheric pollution or contamination applicable at the time of such certification, and
(ii) The Federal certifying authority has certified such facility to the Secretary or his delegate as (a) being in compliance with the applicable regulations of Federal agencies (such as, for example, the Atomic Energy Commission's regulations pertaining to radiological discharge (10 CFR Part 20)) and (b) being in furtherance of the general policy of the United States for cooperation with the States in the prevention and abatement of water pollution under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1151-1175) or in the prevention and abatement of atmospheric pollution and contamination under the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 1857 et seq.).
(2) State certifying authority. The term “state certifying authority” means—
(i) In the case of water pollution, the State water pollution control agency as defined in section 23(a) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1173(a)),
(ii) In the case of air pollution, the air pollution control agency designated pursuant to section 302(b)(1) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 1857h(b)), and
(iii) Any interstate agency authorized to act in place of a certifying authority of a State. See section 23(a) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1173(b)) and section 302(c) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 1857h(c)).
(3) Federal certifying authority. The term “Federal certifying authority” means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (see Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970, 35 FR 15623).
(d) Profitmaking abatement works, etc.—
(1) In general. Section 169(e) provides that the Federal certifying authority shall not certify any property to the extent it appears that by reason of estimated profits to be derived through the recovery of wastes or otherwise in the operation of such property its costs will be recovered over the period referred to in paragraph (a) (6) of this section for such property. The Federal certifying authority need not certify the amount of estimated profits to be derived from such recovery of wastes or otherwise with respect to such facility. Such estimated profits shall be determined pursuant to subparagraph (2) of this paragraph. However, the Federal certifying authority shall certify—
(i) Whether, in connection with any treatment facility so certified, there is potential cost recovery through the recovery of wastes or otherwise, and
(ii) A specific description of the wastes which will be recovered, or the nature of such cost recovery if otherwise than through the recovery of wastes.
For effect on computation of amortizable basis, see paragraph (c) of § 1.169-3.
(2) Estimated profits. For purpose of this paragraph, the term “estimated profits” means the estimated gross receipts from the sale of recovered wastes reduced by the sum of the (i) estimated average annual maintenance and operating expenses, including utilities and labor, allocable to that portion of the facility which is certified as a treatment facility pursuant to paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section which produces the recovered waste from which the gross receipts are derived, and (ii) estimated selling expenses. However, in determining expenses to be subtracted neither depreciation nor amortization of the facility is to be taken into account. Estimated profits shall not include any estimated savings to the taxpayer by reason of the taxpayer's reuse or recycling of wastes or other items recovered in connection with the operation of the plant or other property served by the treatment facility.
(3) Special rules. The estimates of cost recovery required by subparagraph (2) of this paragraph shall be based on the period referred to in paragraph (a)(6) of this section. Such estimates shall be made at the time the election provided for by section 169 is made and shall also be set out in the application for certification made to the Federal certifying authority. There shall be no redetermination of estimated profits due to unanticipated fluctuations in the market price for wastes or other items, to an unanticipated increase or decrease in the costs of extracting them from the gas or liquid released, or to other unanticipated factors or events occurring after certification.
[T.D. 7116, 36 FR 9013, May 18, 1971; 36 FR 9770, May 28, 1971]

Title 26 published on 2014-04-01

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  • 2014-09-19; vol. 79 # 182 - Friday, September 19, 2014
    1. 79 FR 56442 - Additional Rules Regarding Hybrid Retirement Plans
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      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Final regulations.
      Effective Date: These regulations are effective on September 19, 2014. Applicability Date: These regulations generally apply to plan years that begin on or after January 1, 2016. However, see the “Effective/Applicability Dates” section in this preamble for additional information regarding the applicability of these regulations.
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Title 26 published on 2014-04-01

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  • 2014-09-19; vol. 79 # 182 - Friday, September 19, 2014
    1. 79 FR 56305 - Transitional Amendments To Satisfy the Market Rate of Return Rules for Hybrid Retirement Plans
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      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Notice of proposed rulemaking and notice of public hearing.
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