26 CFR 1.274-5T - Substantiation requirements (temporary).

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§ 1.274-5T Substantiation requirements (temporary).
(a) In general. For taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1986, no deduction or credit shall be allowed with respect to—
(1) Traveling away from home (including meals and lodging),
(2) Any activity which is of a type generally considered to constitute entertainment, amusement, or recreation, or with respect to a facility used in connection with such an activity, including the items specified in section 274(e),
(3) Gifts defined in section 274(b), or
(4) Any listed property (as defined in section 280F(d)(4) and § 1.280F-6T(b)), unless the taxpayer substantiates each element of the expenditure or use (as described in paragraph (b) of this section) in the manner provided in paragraph (c) of this section. This limitation supersedes the doctrine found in Cohan v. Commissioner,39 F. 2d 540 (2d Cir. 1930). The decision held that, where the evidence indicated a taxpayer incurred deductible travel or entertainment expenses but the exact amount could not be determined, the court should make a close approximation and not disallow the deduction entirely. Section 274(d) contemplates that no deduction or credit shall be allowed a taxpayer on the basis of such approximations or unsupported testimony of the taxpayer. For purposes of this section, the term entertainment means entertainment, amusement, or recreation, and use of a facility therefor; and the term expenditure includes expenses and items (including items such as losses and depreciation).
(b) Elements of an expenditure or use—
(1) In general. Section 274(d) and this section contemplate that no deduction or credit shall be allowed for travel, entertainment, a gift, or with respect to listed property unless the taxpayer substantiates the requisite elements of each expenditure or use as set forth in this paragraph (b).
(2) Travel away from home. The elements to be provided with respect to an expenditure for travel away from home are—
(i) Amount. Amount of each separate expenditure for traveling away from home, such as cost of transportation or lodging, except that the daily cost of the traveler's own breakfast, lunch, and dinner and of expenditures incidental to such travel may be aggregated, if set forth in reasonable categories, such as for meals, for gasoline and oil, and for taxi fares;
(ii) Time. Dates of departure and return for each trip away from home, and number of days away from home spent on business;
(iii) Place. Destinations or locality of travel, described by name of city or town or other similar designation; and
(iv) Business purpose. Business reason for travel or nature of the business benefit derived or expected to be derived as a result of travel.
(3) Entertainment in general. The elements to be proved with respect to an expenditure for entertainment are—
(i) Amount. Amount of each separate expenditure for entertainment, except that such incidental items as taxi fares or telephone calls may be aggregated on a daily basis;
(ii) Time. Date of entertainment;
(iii) Place. Name, if any, address or location, and destination of type of entertainment, such as dinner or theater, if such information is not apparent from the designation of the place;
(iv) Business purpose. Business reason for the entertainment or nature of business benefit derived or expected to be derived as a result of the entertainment and, except in the case of business meals described in section 274(e)(1), the nature of any business discussion or activity;
(v) Business relationship. Occupation or other information relating to the person or persons entertained, including name, title, or other designation, sufficient to establish business relationship to the taxpayer.
(4) Entertainment directly preceding or following a substantial and bona fide business discussion. If a taxpayer claims a deduction for entertainment directly preceding or following a substantial and bona fide business discussion on the ground that such entertainment was associated with the active conduct of the taxpayer's trade or business, the elements to be proved with respect to such expenditure, in addition to those enumerated in paragraph (b)(3) (i), (ii), (iii), and (v) of this section are—
(i) Time. Date and duration of business discussion;
(ii) Place. Place of business discussion;
(iii) Business purpose. Nature of business discussion, and business reason for the entertainment or nature of business benefit derived or expected to be derived as the result of the entertainment.
(iv) Business relationship. Identification of those persons entertained who participated in the business discussion.
(5) Gifts. The elements to be proved with respect to an expenditure for a gift are—
(i) Amount. Cost of the gift to the taxpayer;
(ii) Time. Date of the gift;
(iii) Description. Description of the gift;
(iv) Business purpose. Business reason for the gift or nature of business benefit derived or expected to be derived as a result of the gift; and
(v) Business relationship. Occupation or other information relating to the recipient of the gift, including name, title, or other designation, sufficient to establish business relationship to the taxpayer.
(6) Listed property. The elements to be proved with respect to any listed property are—
(i) Amount—
(A) Expenditures. The amount of each separate expenditure with respect to an item of listed property, such as the cost of acquisition, the cost of capital improvements, lease payments, the cost of maintenance and repairs, or other expenditures, and
(B) Uses. The amount of each business/investment use (as defined in § 1.280F-6T (d)(3) and (e)), based on the appropriate measure (i.e., mileage for automobiles and other means of transportation and time for other listed property, unless the Commissioner approves an alternative method), and the total use of the listed property for the taxable period.
(ii) Time. Date of the expenditure or use with respect to listed property, and
(iii) Business or investment purpose. The business purpose for an expenditure or use with respect to any listed property (see § 1.274-5T(c)(6)(i) (B) and (C) for special rules for the aggregation of expenditures and business use and § 1.280F-6T(d)(2) for the distinction between qualified business use and business/investment use).
See also § 1.274-5T(e) relating to the substantiation of business use of employer-provided listed property and § 1.274-6T for special rules for substantiating the business/investment use of certain types of listed property.
(c) Rules of substantiation—
(1) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section and § 1.274-6T, a taxpayer must substantiate each element of an expenditure or use (described in paragraph (b) of this section) by adequate records or by sufficient evidence corroborating his own statement. Section 274(d) contemplates that a taxpayer will maintain and produce such substantiation as will constitute proof of each expenditure or use referred to in section 274. Written evidence has considerably more probative value than oral evidence alone. In addition, the probative value of written evidence is greater the closer in time it relates to the expenditure or use. A contemporaneous log is not required, but a record of the elements of an expenditure or of a business use of listed property made at or near the time of the expenditure or use, supported by sufficient documentary evidence, has a high degree of credibility not present with respect to a statement prepared subsequent thereto when generally there is a lack of accurate recall. Thus, the corroborative evidence required to support a statement not make at or near the time of the expenditure or use must have a high degree of probative value to elevate such statement and evidence to the level of credibility reflected by a record made at or near the time of the expenditure or use supported by sufficient documentary evidence. The substantiation requirements of section 274(d) are designed to encourage taxpayers to maintain the records, together with documentary evidence, as provided in paragraph (c)(2) of this section.
(2) Substantiation by adequate records—
(i) In general. To meet the “adequate records” requirements of section 274(d), a taxpayer shall maintain an account book, diary, log, statement of expense, trip sheets, or similar record (as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section), and documentary evidence (as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section) which, in combination, are sufficient to establish each element of an expenditure or use specified in paragraph (b) of this section. It is not necessary to record information in an account book, diary, log, statement of expense, trip sheet, or similar record which duplicates information reflected on a receipt so long as the account book, etc. and receipt complement each other in an orderly manner.
(ii) Account book, diary, etc. An account book, diary, log, statement of expense, trip sheet, or similar record must be prepared or maintained in such manner that each recording of an element of an expenditure or use is made at or near the time of the expenditure or use.
(A) Made at or near the time of the expenditure or use. For purposes of this section, the phrase made at or near the time of the expenditure or use means the element of an expenditure or use are recorded at a time when, in relation to the use or making of an expenditure, the taxpayer has full present knowledge of each element of the expenditure or use, such as the amount, time, place, and business purpose of the expenditure and business relationship. An expense account statement which is a transcription of an account book, diary, log, or similar record prepared or maintained in accordance with the provisions of this paragraph (c)(2)(ii) shall be considered a record prepared or maintained in the manner prescribed in the preceding sentence if such expense account statement is submitted by an employee to his employer or by an independent contractor to his client or customer in the regular course of good business practice. For example, a log maintained on a weekly basis, which accounts for use during the week, shall be considered a record made at or near the time of such use.
(B) Substantiation of business purpose. In order to constitute an adequate record of business purpose within the meaning of section 274(d) and this paragraph (c)(2), a written statement of business purpose generally is required. However, the degree of substantiation necessary to establish business purpose will vary depending upon the facts and circumstances of each case. Where the business purpose is evident from the surrounding facts and circumstances, a written explanation of such business purpose will not be required. For example, in the case of a salesman calling on customers on an established sales route, a written explanation of the business purpose of such travel ordinarily will not be required. Similarly, in the case of a business meal described in section 274(e)(1), if the business purpose of such meal is evident from the business relationship to the taxpayer of the persons entertained and other surrounding circumstances, a written explanation of such business purpose will not be required.
(C) Substantiation of business use of listed property— (1) Degree of substantiation. In order to constitute an adequate record (within the meaning of section 274(d) and this paragraph (c)(2)(ii)), which substantiates business/investment use of listed property (as defined in § 1.280F-6T(d)(3)), the record must contain sufficient information as to each element of every business/investment use. However, the level of detail required in an adequate record to substantiate business/investment use may vary depending upon the facts and circumstances. For example, a taxpayer who uses a truck for both business and personal purposes and whose only business use of a truck is to make deliveries to customers on an established route may satisfy the adequate record requirement by recording the total number miles driven during the taxable year, the length of the delivery route once, and the date of each trip at or near the time of the trips. Alternatively, the taxpayer may establish the date of each trip with a receipt, record of delivery, or other documentary evidence.
(2) Written record. Generally, an adequate record must be written. However, a record of the business use of listed property, such as a computer or automobile, prepared in a computer memory device with the aid of a logging program will constitute an adequate record.
(D) Confidential information. If any information relating to the elements of an expenditure or use, such as place, business purpose, or business relationship, is of a confidential nature, such information need not be set forth in the account book, diary, log, statement of expense, trip sheet, or similar record, provided such information is recorded at or near the time of the expenditure or use and is elsewhere available to the district director to substantiate such element of the expenditure or use.
(iii) [Reserved]. For further guidance, see § 1.274-5(c)(2)(iii).
(iv) Retention of written evidence. The Commissioner may, in his discretion, prescribe rules under which an employer may dispose of the adequate records and documentary evidence submitted to him by employees who are required to, and do, make an adequate accounting to the employer (within the meaning of paragraph (f)(4) of this section) if the employer maintains adequate accounting procedures with respect to such employees (within the meaning of paragraph (f)(5) of this section.
(v) Substantial compliance. If a taxpayer has not fully substantiated a particular element of an expenditure or use, but the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the district director that he has substantially complied with the “adequate records” requirements of this paragraph (c)(2) with respect to the expenditure or use, the taxpayer may be permitted to establish such element by evidence which the district director shall deem adequate.
(3) Substantiation by other sufficient evidence—
(i) In general. If a taxpayer fails to establish to the satisfaction of the district director that he has substantially complied with the “adequate records” requirements of paragraph (c)(2) of this section with respect to an element of an expenditure or use, then, except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the taxpayer must establish such element—
(A) By his own statement, whether written or oral, containing specific information in detail as to such element; and
(B) By other corrobative evidence sufficient to establish such element.
If such element is the description of a gift, or the cost or amount, time, place, or date of an expenditure or use, the corrobative evidence shall be direct evidence, such as a statement in writing or the oral testimony of persons entertained or other witnesses setting forth detailed information about such element, or the documentary evidence described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. If such element is either the business relationship to the taxpayer of persons entertained, or the business purpose of an expenditure, the corrobative evidence may be circumstantial evidence.
(ii) Sampling—
(A) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(3)(ii)(B) of this section, a taxpayer may maintain an adequate record for portions of a taxable year and use that record to substantiate the business/investment use of listed property for all or a portion of the taxable year if the taxpayer can demonstrate by other evidence that the periods for which an adequate record is maintained are representative of the use for the taxable year or a portion thereof.
(B) Exception for pooled vehicles. The sampling method of paragraph (c)(3)(ii)(A) of this section may not be used to substantiate the business/investment use of an automobile or other vehicle of an employer that is made available for use by more than one employee for all or a portion of a taxable year.
(C) Examples. The following examples illustrate this paragraph (c)(3)(ii).
Example 1.
A, a sole proprietor and calendar year taxpayer, operates an interior decorating business out of her home. A uses an automobile for local business travel to visit the homes or offices of clients, to meet with suppliers and other subcontractors, and to pick up and deliver certain items to clients when feasible. There is no other business use of the automobile but A and other members of her family also use the automobile for personal purposes. A maintains adequate records for the first three months of 1986 that indicate that 75 percent of the use of the automobile was in A's business. Invoices from subcontractors and paid bills indicate that A's business continued at approximately the same rate for the remainder of 1986. If other circumstances do not change (e.g., A does not obtain a second car for exclusive use in her business), the determination that the business/investment use of the automobile for the taxable year is 75 percent is based on sufficient corroborative evidence.
Example 2.
The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that A maintains adequate records during the first week of every month, which indicate that 75 percent of the use of the automobile is in A's business. The invoices from A's business indicate that A's business continued at the same rate during the subsequent weeks of each month so that A's weekly records are representative of each month's business use of the automobile. Thus, the determination that the business/investment use of the automobile for the taxable year is 75 percent is based on sufficient corroborative evidence.
Example 3.
B, a sole proprietor and calendar year taxpayer, is a salesman in a large metropolitan area for a company that manufactures household products. For the first three weeks of each month, B uses his own automobile occasionally to travel within the metropolitan area on business. During these three weeks, B's use of the automobile for business purposes does not follow a consistent pattern from day to day or week to week. During the fourth week of each month, B delivers to his customers all the orders taken during the previous month. B's use of his automobile for business purposes, as substantiated by adequate records, is 70 percent of the total use during that fourth week. In this example, a determination based on the records maintained during that fourth week that the business/investment use of the automobile for the taxable year is 70 percent is not based on sufficient corroborative evidence because use during this week is not representative of use during other periods.
(iii) Special rules. See § 1.274-6T for special rules for substantiation by sufficient corroborating evidence with respect to certain listed property.
(4) Substantiation in exceptional circumstances. If a taxpayer establishes that, by reason of the inherent nature of the situation—
(i) He was unable to obtain evidence with respect to an element of the expenditure or use which conforms fully to the “adequate records” requirements of paragraph (c)(2) of this section,
(ii) He is unable to obtain evidence with respect to such element which conforms fully to the “other sufficient evidence” requirements of paragraph (c)(3) of this section, and
(iii) He has presented other evidence, with respect to such element, which possesses the highest degree of probative value possible under the circumstances, such other evidence shall be considered to satisfy the substantiation requirements of section 274(d) and this paragraph.
(5) Loss of records due to circumstances beyond control of the taxpayer. Where the taxpayer establishes that the failure to produce adequate records is due to the loss of such records through circumstances beyond the taxpayer's control, such as destruction by fire, flood, earthquake, or other casualty, the taxpayer shall have a right to substantiate a deduction by reasonable reconstruction of his expenditures or use.
(6) Special rules—
(i) Separate expenditure or use—
(A) In general. For the purposes of this section, each separate payment or use by the taxpayer shall ordinarily be considered to constitute a separate expenditure. However, concurrent or repetitious expenses or uses may be substantiated as a single item. To illustrate the above rules, where a taxpayer entertains a business guest at dinner and thereafter at the theater, the payment for dinner shall be considered to constitute one expenditure and the payment for the tickets for the theater shall be considered to constitute a separate expenditure. Similarly, if during a day of business travel a taxpayer makes separate payments for breakfast, lunch, and dinner, he shall be considered to have made three separate expenditures. However, if during entertainment at a cocktail lounge the taxpayer pays separately for each serving of refreshments, the total amount expended for the refreshments will be treated as a single expenditure. A tip may be treated as a separate expenditure.
(B) Aggregation of expenditures. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the account book, diary, log, statement of expense, trip sheet, or similar record required by paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section shall be maintained with respect to each separate expenditure and not with respect to aggregate amounts for two or more expenditures. Thus, each expenditure for such items as lodging and air or rail travel shall be recorded as a separate item and not aggregated. However, at the option of the taxpayer, amounts expended for breakfast, lunch, or dinner, may be aggregated. A tip or gratuity which is related to an underlying expense may be aggregated with such expense. In addition, amounts expended in connection with the use of listed property during a taxable year, such as for gasoline or repairs for an automobile, may be aggregated. If these expenses are aggregated, the taxpayer must establish the date and amount, but need not prove the business purpose of each expenditure. Instead, the taxpayer may prorate the expenses based on the total business use of the listed property. For other provisions permitting recording of aggregate amounts in an account book, diary, log, statement of expense, trip sheet, or similar record, see paragraphs (b)(2)(i) and (b)(3) of this section (relating to incidental costs of travel and entertainment).
(C) Aggregation of business use. Uses which may be considered part of a single use, for example, a round trip or uninterrupted business use, may be accounted for by a single record. For example, use of a truck to make deliveries at several different locations which begins and ends at the business premises and which may include a stop at the business premises in between two deliveries may be accounted for by a single record of miles driven. In addition, use of a passenger automobile by a salesman for a business trip away from home over a period of time may be accounted for by a single record of miles traveled. De minimis personal use (such as a stop for lunch on the way between two business stops) is not an interruption of business use.
(ii) Allocation of expenditure. For purposes of this section, if a taxpayer has established the amount of an expenditure, but is unable to establish the portion of such amount which is attributable to each person participating in the event giving rise to the expenditure, such amount shall ordinarily be allocated to each participant on a pro rata basis, if such determination is material. Accordingly, the total number of persons for whom a travel or entertainment expenditure is incurred must be established in order to compute the portion of the expenditure allocable to such person.
(iii) Primary use of a facility. Section 274(a) (1)(B) and (2)(C) deny a deduction for any expenditure paid or incurred before January 1, 1979, with respect to a facility, or paid or incurred before January 1, 1994, with respect to a club, used in connection with an entertainment activity unless the taxpayer establishes that the facility (including a club) was used primarily for the furtherance of the taxpayer's trade or business. A determination whether a facility before January 1, 1979, or a club before January 1, 1994, was used primarily for the furtherance of the taxpayer's trade or business will depend upon the facts and circumstances of each case. In order to establish that a facility was used primarily for the furtherance of his trade or business, the taxpayer shall maintain records of the use of the facility, the cost of using the facility, mileage or its equivalent (if appropriate), and such other information as shall tend to establish such primary use. Such records of use shall contain—
(A) For each use of the facility claimed to be in furtherance of the taxpayer's trade or business, the elements of an expenditure specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, and
(B) For each use of the facility not in furtherance of the taxpayer's trade or business, an appropriate description of such use, including cost, date, number of persons entertained, nature of entertainment and, if applicable, information such as mileage or its equivalent. A notation such as “personal use” or “family use” would, in the case of such use, be sufficient to describe the nature of entertainment.
If a taxpayer fails to maintain adequate records concerning a facility which is likely to serve the personal purposes of the taxpayer, it shall be presumed that the use of such facility was primarily personal.
(iv) Additional information. In a case where it is necessary to obtain additional information, either—
(A) To clarify information contained in records, statements, testimony, or documentary evidence submitted by a taxpayer under the provisions of paragraph (c)(2) or (c)(3) of this section, or
(B) To establish the reliability or accuracy of such records, statements, testimony, or documentary evidence, the district director may, notwithstanding any other provision of this section, obtain such additional information by personal interview or otherwise as he determines necessary to implement properly the provisions of section 274 and the regulations thereunder.
(7) Specific exceptions. Except as otherwise prescribed by the Commissioner, substantiation otherwise required by this paragraph is not required for—
(i) Expenses described in section 274(e)(2) relating to food and beverages for employees, section 274(e)(3) relating to expenses treated as compensation, section 274(e)(8) relating to items available to the public, and section 274(e)(9) relating to entertainment sold to customers, and
(ii) Expenses described in section 274(e)(5) relating to recreational, etc., expenses for employees, except that a taxpayer shall keep such records or other evidence as shall establish that such expenses were for activities (or facilities used in connection therewith) primarily for the benefit of employees other than employees who are officers, shareholders or other owners (as defined in section 274(e)(5)), or highly compensated employees.
(d) Disclosure on returns—
(1) In general. The Commissioner may, in his discretion, prescribe rules under which any taxpayer claiming a deduction or credit for entertainment, gifts, travel, or with respect to listed property, or any other person receiving advances, reimbursements, or allowances for such items, shall make disclosure on his tax return with respect to such items. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (f) of this section.
(2) Business use of passenger automobiles and other vehicles.
(i) On returns for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1984, taxpayers that claim a deduction or credit with respect to any vehicle are required to answer certain questions providing information about the use of the vehicle. The information required on the tax return relates to mileage (total, business, commuting, and other personal mileage), percentage of business use, date placed in service, use of other vehicles, after-work use, whether the taxpayer has evidence to support the business use claimed on the return, and whether or not the evidence is written.
(ii) Any employer that provides the use of a vehicle to an employee must obtain information from the employee sufficient to complete the employer's tax return. Any employer that provides more than five vehicles to its employees need not include any information on its return. The employer, instead, must obtain the information from its employees, indicate on its return that it has obtained the information, and retain the information received. Any employer—
(A) That can satisfy the requirements of § 1.274-6T(a)(2), relating to vehicles not used for personal purposes,
(B) That can satisfy the requirements of § 1.274-6T(a)(3), relating to vehicles not used for personal purposes other than commuting, or
(C) That treats all use of vehicles by employees as personal use need not obtain information with respect to those vechicles, but instead must indicate on its return that it has vehicles exempt from the requirements of this paragraph (d)(2).
(3) Business use of other listed property. On returns for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1984, taxpayers that claim a deduction or credit with respect to any listed property other than a vehicle (for example, a yacht, airplane, or certain computers) are required to provide the following information:
(i) The date that the property was placed in service,
(ii) The percentage of business use,
(iii) Whether evidence is available to support the percentage of business use claimed on the return, and
(iv) Whether the evidence is written.
(e) Substantiation of the business use of listed property made available by an employer for use by an employee—
(1) Employee—
(i) In general. An employee may not exclude from gross income as a working condition fringe any amount of the value of the availability of listed property provided by an employer to the employee, unless the employee substantiates for the period of availability the amount of the exclusion in accordance with the requirements of section 274(d) and either this section or § 1.274-6T.
(ii) Vehicles treated as used entirely for personal purposes. If an employer includes the value of the availability of a vehicle (as defined in § 1.61-21(e)(2)) in an employee's gross income without taking into account any exclusion for a working condition fringe allowable under section 132 and the regulations thereunder with respect to the vehicle, the employee must substantiate any deduction claimed under §§ 1.162-25 and 1.162-25T for the business/investment use of the vehicle in accordance with the requirements of section 274(d) and either this section or § 1.274-6T.
(2) Employer—
(i) In general. An employer substantiates its business/investment use of listed property by showing either—
(A) That, based on evidence that satisfies the requirements of section 274(d) or statements submitted by employees that summarize such evidence, all or a portion of the use of the listed property is by employees in the employer's trade or business and, if any employee used the property for personal purposes, the employer included an appropriate amount in the employee's income, or
(B) In the case of a vehicle, the employer treats all use by employees as personal use and includes an appropriate amount in the employees' income.
(ii) Reliance on employee records. For purposes of substantiating the business/investment use of listed property that an employer provides to an employee and for purposes of the information required by paragraph (d)(2) and (3) of this section, the employer may rely on adequate records maintained by the employee or on the employee's own statement if corroborated by other sufficient evidence unless the employer knows or has reason to know that the statement, records, or other evidence are not accurate. The employer must retain a copy of the adequate records maintained by the employee or the other sufficient evidence, if available. Alternatively, the employer may rely on a statement submitted by the employee that provides sufficient information to allow the employer to determine the business/investment use of the property unless the employer knows or has reason to know that the statement is not based on adequate records or on the employee's own statement corroborated by other sufficient evidence. If the employer relies on the employee's statement, the employer must retain only a copy of the statement. The employee must retain a copy of the adequate records or other evidence.
(f) Reporting and substantiation of expenses of certain employees for travel, entertainment, gifts, and with respect to listed property—
(1) In general. The purpose of this paragraph is to provide rules for reporting and substantiation of certain expenses paid or incurred by employees in connection with the performance of services as employees. For purposes of this paragraph, the term business expenses means ordinary and necessary expenses for travel, entertainment, gifts, or with respect to listed property which are deductible under section 162, and the regulations thereunder, to the extent not disallowed by section 262, 274(c), and 280F. Thus, the term business expenses does not include personal, living, or family expenses disallowed by section 262, travel expenses disallowed by section 274(c), or cost recovery deductions and credits with respect to listed property disallowed by section 280F(d)(3) because the use of such property is not for the convenience of the employer and required as a condition of employment. Except as provided in paragraph (f)(2), advances, reimbursements, or allowances for such expenditures must be reported as income by the employee.
(2) Reporting of expenses for which the employee is required to make an adequate accounting to his employer—
(i) Reimbursements equal to expenses. For purposes of computing tax liability, an employee need not report on his tax return business expenses for travel, transportation, entertainment, gifts, or with respect to listed property, paid or incurred by him solely for the benefit of his employer for which he is required to, and does, make an adequate accounting to his employer (as defined in paragraph (f)(4) of this section) and which are charged directly or indirectly to the employer (for example, through credit cards) or for which the employee is paid through advances, reimbursements, or otherwise, provided that the total amount of such advances, reimbursements, and charges is equal to such expenses.
(ii) Reimbursements in excess of expenses. In case the total of the amounts charged directly or indirectly to the employer or received from the employer as advances, reimbursements, or otherwise, exceeds the business expenses paid or incurred by the employee and the employee is required to, and does, make an adequate accounting to his employer for such expenses, the employee must include such excess (including amounts received for expenditures not deductible by him) in income.
(iii) Expenses in excess of reimbursements. If an employee incurs deductible business expenses on behalf of his employer which exceed the total of the amounts charged directly or indirectly to the employer and received from the employer as advances, reimbursements, or otherwise, and the employee makes an adequate accounting to his employer, the employee must be able to substantiate any deduction for such excess with such records and supporting evidence as will substantiate each element of an expenditure (described in paragraph (b) of this section) in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.
(3) Reporting of expenses for which the employee is not required to make an adequate accounting to his employer. If the employee is not required to make an adequate accounting to his employer for his business expenses or, though required, fails to make an adequate accounting for such expenses, he must submit, as a part of his tax return, the appropriate form issued by the Internal Revenue Service for claiming deductions for employee business expenses (e.g., Form 2106, Employee Business Expenses, for 1985) and provide the information requested on that form, including the information required by paragraph (d)(2) and (3) of this section if the employee's business expenses are with respect to the use of listed property. In addition, the employee must maintain such records and supporting evidence as will substantiate each element of an expenditure or use (described in paragraph (b) of this section) in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.
(4) [Reserved]. For further guidance, see § 1.274-5(f)(4).
(5) Substantiation of expenditures by certain employees. An employee who makes an adequate accounting to his employer within the meaning of this paragraph will not again be required to substantiate such expense account information except in the following cases:
(i) An employee whose business expenses exceed the total of amounts charged to his employer and amounts received through advances, reimbursements or otherwise and who claims a deduction on his return for such excess,
(ii) An employee who is related to his employer within the meaning of section 267(b), but for this purpose the percentage referred to in section 267(b)(2) shall be 10 percent, and
(iii) Employees in cases where it is determined that the accounting procedures used by the employer for the reporting and substantiation of expenses by such employees are not adequate, or where it cannot be determined that such procedures are adequate. The district director will determine whether the employer's accounting procedures are adequate by considering the facts and circumstances of each case, including the use of proper internal controls. For example, an employer should require that an expense account be verified and approved by a reasonable person other than the person incurring such expenses. Accounting procedures will be considered inadequate to the extent that the employer does not require an adequate accounting from his employees as defined in paragraph (f)(4) of this section, or does not maintain such substantiation. To the extent an employer fails to maintain adequate accounting procedures he will thereby obligate his employees to substantiate separately their expense account information.
(g) [Reserved]. For further guidance, see § 1.274-5(g).
(h) Reporting and substantiation of certain reimbursements of persons other than employees—
(1) In general. The purpose of this paragraph is to provide rules for the reporting and substantiation of certain expenses for travel, entertainment, gifts, or with respect to listed property paid or incurred by one person (hereinafter termed “independent contractor”) in connection with services performed for another person other than an employer (hereinafter termed “client or customer”) under a reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement with such client or customer. For purposes of this paragraph, the term business expenses means ordinary and necessary expenses for travel, entertainment, gifts, or with respect to listed property which are deductible under section 162, and the regulations thereunder, to the extent not disallowed by sections 262 and 274(c). Thus, the term business expenses does not include personal, living, or family expenses disallowed by section 262 or travel expenses disallowed by section 274(c), and reimbursements for such expenditures must be reported as income by the independent contractor. For purposes of this paragraph, the term reimbursements means advances, allowances, or reimbursements received by an independent contractor for travel, entertainment, gifts, or with respect to listed property in connection with the performance by him of services for his client or customer, under a reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement with his client or customer, and includes amounts charged directly or indirectly to the client or customer through credit card systems or otherwise. See paragraph (j) of this section relating to the substantiation of meal expenses while traveling away from home.
(2) Substantiation by independent contractors. An independent contractor shall substantiate, with respect to his reimbursements, each element of an expenditure (described in paragraph (b) of this section) in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section; and, to the extent he does not so substantiate, he shall include such reimbursements in income. An independent contractor shall so substantiate a reimbursement for entertainment regardless of whether he accounts (within the meaning of paragraph (h)(3) of this section) for such entertainment.
(3) Accounting to a client or customer under section 274(e)(4)(B). Section 274(e)(4)(B) provides that section 274(a) (relating to disallowance of expenses for entertainment) shall not apply to expenditures for entertainment for which an independent contractor has been reimbursed if the independent contractor accounts to his client or customer, to the extent provided by section 274(d). For purposes of section 274(e)(4)(B), an independent contractor shall be considered to account to his client or customer for an expense paid or incurred under a reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement with his client or customer if, with respect to such expense for entertainment, he submits to his client or customer adequate records or other sufficient evidence conforming to the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.
(4) Substantiation by client or customer. A client or customer shall not be required to substantiate, in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section, reimbursements to an independent contractor for travel and gifts, or for entertainment unless the independent contractor has accounted to him (within the meaning of section 274(e)(4)(B) and paragraph (h)(3) of this section) for such entertainment. If an independent contractor has so accounted to a client or customer for entertainment, the client or customer shall substantiate each element of the expenditure (as described in paragraph (b) of this section) in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.
(i) [Reserved]
(j) [Reserved]. For further guidance, see§ 1.274-5(j).
(k) and (l) [Reserved] For further guidance, see § 1.274-5(k) and (l).
(m) Effective date. Section 274(d), as amended by the Tax Reform Act of 1984 and Public Law 99-44, and this section (except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) and (3) of this section) apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1985. Section 274(d) and this section apply to any deduction or credit claimed in a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1985, with respect to any listed property, regardless of the taxable year in which the property was placed in service. However, except as provided in § 1.132-5(h) with respect to qualified nonpersonal use vehicles, the substantiation requirements of section 274(d) and this section do not apply to the determination of an employee's working condition fringe exclusion or to the determination under § 1.162-25(b) of an employee's deduction before the date that those requirements apply, under this paragraph (m), to the employer, if the employer is taxable. Paragraph (j)(3) of this section applies to expenses paid or incurred after September 30, 2002.
[T.D. 8061, 50 FR 46014, Nov. 6, 1985; as amended by T.D. 8063, 50 FR 52312, Dec. 23, 1985; T.D. 8276, 54 FR 51027, Dec. 12, 1989; T.D. 8451, 57 FR 57669, Dec. 7, 1992; T.D. 8601, 60 FR 36995, July 19, 1995; T.D. 8715, 62 FR 13990, Mar. 25, 1997; T.D. 8864, 65 FR 4123, Jan. 26, 2000; T.D. 9020, 67 FR 68513, Nov. 12, 2002; T.D. 9020, 67 FR 72273, Dec. 4, 2002; T.D. 9064, July 1, 2003; T.D. 9483, 75 FR 27937, May 19, 2010]

Title 26 published on 2013-04-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 26.

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  • 2014-09-23; vol. 79 # 184 - Tuesday, September 23, 2014
    1. 79 FR 56892 - The $500,000 Deduction Limitation for Remuneration Provided by Certain Health Insurance Providers
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      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Final regulations.
      Effective date: These regulations are effective on September 23, 2014. Applicability date: For dates of applicability, see § 1.162-31(j).
      26 CFR Part 1

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United States Code
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Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 2013-04-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR 1 after this date.

  • 2014-09-23; vol. 79 # 184 - Tuesday, September 23, 2014
    1. 79 FR 56892 - The $500,000 Deduction Limitation for Remuneration Provided by Certain Health Insurance Providers
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Final regulations.
      Effective date: These regulations are effective on September 23, 2014. Applicability date: For dates of applicability, see § 1.162-31(j).
      26 CFR Part 1