26 CFR 1.415(a)-1 - General rules with respect to limitations on benefits and contributions under qualified plans.

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§ 1.415(a)-1 General rules with respect to limitations on benefits and contributions under qualified plans.
(a) Trusts. Under sections 415 and 401(a)(16), a trust that forms part of a pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan will not be qualified under section 401(a) if any of the following conditions exists:
(1) In the case of a defined benefit plan, the annual benefit with respect to any participant for any limitation year exceeds the limitations of section 415(b) and § 1.415(b)-1.
(2) In the case of a defined contribution plan, the annual additions credited with respect to any participant for any limitation year exceed the limitations of section 415(c) and § 1.415(c)-1.
(3) The trust has been disqualified under section 415(g) and § 1.415(g)-1 for any year.
(b) Certain annuities and accounts—
(1) In general. Under section 415, an employee annuity plan described in section 403(a), an annuity contract described in section 403(b), or a simplified employee pension described in section 408(k) will not be considered to be described in the otherwise applicable section if any of the following conditions exists:
(i) The annual benefit under a defined benefit plan with respect to any participant for any limitation year exceeds the limitations of section 415(b) and § 1.415(b)-1.
(ii) The contributions and other additions credited under a defined contribution plan with respect to any participant for any limitation year exceed the limitations of section 415(c) and § 1.415(c)-1.
(iii) The employee annuity plan, annuity contract, or simplified employee pension has been disqualified under section 415(g) and § 1.415(g)-1 for any year.
(2) Special rule for section 403(b) annuity contracts. If the contributions and other additions under an annuity contract that otherwise satisfies the requirements of section 403(b) exceed the limitations of section 415(c) and § 1.415(c)-1 with respect to any participant for any limitation year (regardless of whether the annuity contract is a defined contribution plan or a defined benefit plan), then the portion of the contract that includes such excess annual addition fails to be a section 403(b) annuity contract, and the remaining portion of the contract is a section 403(b) annuity contract. However, the status of the remaining portion of the contract as a section 403(b) annuity contract is not retained unless, for the year of the excess and each year thereafter, the issuer of the contract maintains separate accounts for each such portion. In addition, if the benefit under an annuity contract that is a defined benefit plan and that otherwise satisfies the requirements of section 403(b) exceeds the limitations of section 415(b) and § 1.415(b)-1 with respect to any participant for any limitation year, then the contract fails to be a section 403(b) annuity contract.
(3) Section 403(b) annuity contract. For purposes of section 415 and regulations promulgated under section 415, the term section 403(b) annuity contract includes arrangements that are treated as annuity contracts for purposes of section 403(b). Thus, such term includes custodial accounts described in section 403(b)(7) and retirement income accounts described in section 403(b)(9).
(c) Regulations—
(1) In general. This section provides general rules regarding the application of section 415. For further rules regarding the application of section 415, see—
(i) Section 1.415(b)-1 (for general rules regarding the limits applicable to defined benefit plans);
(ii) Section 1.415(b)-2 (for special rules for defined benefit plans where a participant has multiple annuity starting dates);
(iii) Section 1.415(c)-1 (for general rules regarding the limits applicable to defined contribution plans);
(iv) Section 1.415(c)-2 (for rules regarding the definition of compensation for purposes of section 415);
(v) Section 1.415(d)-1 (for rules regarding cost-of-living adjustments to the various limits of section 415);
(vi) Section 1.415(f)-1 (for rules for aggregating plans for purposes of section 415);
(vii) Section 1.415(g)-1 (for rules regarding disqualification of plans that fail to satisfy the requirements of section 415); and
(viii) Section 1.415(j)-1 (for rules regarding limitation years).
(2) Cross references to special rules for section 403(b) annuity contracts. For special rules relating to section 403(b) annuity contracts, see—
(i) Section 1.415(c)-2(g)(1) and (3) (relating to the definition of compensation for section 403(b) annuity contracts);
(ii) Section 1.415(f)-1(f) (relating to rules for section 403(b) annuity contracts for purposes of aggregating plans);
(iii) Section 1.415(g)-1(b)(3)(iv)(C) (regarding disqualification of a section 403(b) annuity contract aggregated with a qualified defined contribution plan if the aggregated plans exceed the limitations of section 415(c));
(iv) Section 1.415(g)-1(c) (relating to the plan year for section 403(b) annuity contracts); and
(v) Section 1.415(j)-1(e) (relating to the limitation year for section 403(b) annuity contracts).
(3) Cross references to special rules for governmental plans. For special rules relating to governmental plans, see—
(i) Paragraph (f)(4) of this section (regarding permissive service credits);
(ii) Paragraph (g)(2) of this section (providing a delayed effective date for governmental plans);
(iii) Section 1.415(b)-1(a)(6)(i) (providing an exception from the compensation-based limit of section 415(b)(1)(B) for governmental plans);
(iv) Section 1.415(b)-1(a)(7)(ii) (regarding a special limitation for certain governmental plans making an election during 1990);
(v) Section 1.415(b)-1(b)(4) (regarding qualified governmental excess benefit arrangements);
(vi) Section 1.415(b)-1(d)(3) and (4) (regarding age adjustments to the dollar limit of section 415(b)(1)(A) for employees of police and fire departments and members of the Armed Forces of the United States, and for survivor and disability benefits);
(vii) Section 1.415(b)-1(g)(3) (regarding adjustments to applicable limitations for years of participation, and adjustments to applicable limitations for years of service for survivor and disability benefits under governmental plans);
(viii) Section 1.415(c)-1(b)(2)(ii) and (3)(iii) (regarding amounts not treated as annual additions under governmental plans); and
(ix) Section 1.415(c)-2(e)(5) (providing an alternative rule for inclusion of compensation after a severance from employment for governmental plans).
(4) Cross references to special rules for multiemployer plans. For special rules relating to multiemployer plans as defined in section 414(f), see—
(i) Paragraph (e) of this section (regarding benefits or contributions taken into account where a plan is maintained by more than one employer);
(ii) Paragraph (f)(5)(ii) of this section (providing a special definition of severance from employment for multiemployer plans);
(iii) Section 1.415(b)-1(a)(6)(ii) (providing an exception from the compensation-based limit for multiemployer plans);
(iv) Section 1.415(b)-1(f)(3) (regarding the application of the minimum $10,000 limitation on benefits in the case of a multiemployer plan);
(v) Section 1.415(f)-1(g) (providing special rules for aggregating multiemployer plans with other plans); and
(vi) Section 1.415(g)-1(b)(3)(ii) (regarding plan disqualification rules where a multiemployer plan is aggregated with a plan that is not a multiemployer plan and the aggregated plans exceed the limitations of section 415).
(5) Cross references to special rules for plans that are not subject to the requirements of section 411. For special rules relating to plans that are not subject to the requirements of section 411, see—
(i) Paragraph (d)(1) of this section and § 1.415(b)-1(a)(7)(iii) (providing that the rule limiting accruals to the section 415(b) limits does not apply to plans that are not subject to the requirements of section 411); and
(ii) Section 1.415(b)-1(b)(2)(iii) (providing rules for applying the section 411(c) factors in determining the annual benefit attributable to employee contributions for plans that are not subject to the requirements of section 411).
(6) Cross references to special rules for plans maintained by churches. For special rules relating to plans maintained by churches as defined in section 3121(w)(3)(A), see §§ 1.415(b)-1(a)(6)(iv) and 1.415(b)-1(a)(7)(iv) (providing an exception from the compensation-based limit for participants who have never been a highly compensated employee of the church).
(d) Plan provisions—
(1) In general. Although no specific plan provision is required under section 415 in order for a plan to establish or maintain its qualification, the plan provisions must preclude the possibility that any distribution under a defined benefit plan or annual addition under a defined contribution plan will exceed the limitations of section 415. In addition, a defined benefit plan that is subject to the requirements of section 411 must preclude the possibility that any accrual under the plan will exceed the limitations of section 415. A defined benefit plan may include provisions that automatically freeze or reduce the rate of benefit accrual (or limit the benefit payable in the case of a plan that is not subject to the requirements of section 411), and a defined contribution plan may include provisions that automatically limit the annual addition to a level necessary to prevent the limitations of section 415 from being exceeded with respect to any participant. For rules relating to this type of plan provision and the definitely determinable benefit requirement for pension plans, see § 1.401(a)-1(b)(1)(iii). Because § 1.401(a)-1(b)(1)(iii) requires that the operation of such a provision preclude discretion by the employer, if two defined benefit plans that are aggregated under the rules of section 415(f) would otherwise provide for aggregate benefits that might exceed the limits of section 415(b), the plan provisions must specify (without involving employer discretion) how benefits will be limited to prevent a violation of section 415(b).
(2) Special rule for profit-sharing and stock bonus plans. A provision of a profit-sharing or stock bonus plan that automatically freezes or reduces the amount of annual additions to ensure that the limitations of section 415 will not be exceeded must comply with the requirement set forth in § 1.401-1(b)(1)(ii) or (iii) (as applicable) that such plans provide a definite predetermined formula for allocating the contributions made to the plan among the participants. If the operation of a provision that automatically freezes or reduces the amount of annual additions to ensure that the limitations of section 415 are not exceeded does not involve discretionary action on the part of the employer, the definite predetermined allocation formula requirement is not violated by the provision. If the operation of such a provision involves discretionary action on the part of the employer, the definite predetermined allocation formula requirement is violated. For example, if two profit-sharing plans of one employer otherwise provide for aggregate contributions which may exceed the limits of section 415(c), the plan provisions must specify (without involving employer discretion) under which plan contributions and allocations will be reduced to prevent an excess annual addition and how the reduction will occur.
(3) Incorporation by reference—
(i) In general. A plan is permitted to incorporate by reference the limitations of section 415, and will not fail to meet the definitely determinable benefit requirement or the definite predetermined allocation formula requirement, whichever applies to the plan, merely because it incorporates the limits of section 415 by reference.
(ii) Section 415 can be applied in more than one manner, but a statutory or regulatory default rule exists. Where a provision of section 415 is permitted to be applied in more than one manner but is to be applied in a specified manner in the absence of contrary plan provisions (in other words, a default rule exists), if a plan incorporates the limitations of section 415 by reference with respect to that provision of section 415 and does not specifically vary from the default rule, then the default rule applies. With respect to a provision of section 415 for which a default rule exists, if the limitations of section 415 are to be applied in a manner other than using the default rule, the plan must specify the manner in which the limitation is to be applied in addition to generally incorporating the limitations of section 415 by reference. For example, if a plan generally incorporates the limitations of section 415 by reference and does not restrict the accrued benefits to which the amendments to section 415(b)(2)(E) made by the Uruguay Round Agreements Act of 1994, Public Law 103-465 (108 Stat. 4809) (GATT), apply (as permitted by Q&A-12 of Rev. Rul. 98-1 (1998-1 CB 249) (see § 601.601(d)(2) of this chapter), which reflects the amendments to section 767 of GATT made by section 1449 of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996, Public Law 104-188 (110 Stat. 1755)), then the amendments to section 415(b)(2)(E) made by GATT apply to all benefits under the plan.
(iii) Section 415 can be applied in more than one manner with no statutory or regulatory default. If a limitation of section 415 may be applied in more than one manner, and if there is no governing principle pursuant to which that limitation is applied in the absence of contrary plan provisions, then the plan must specify the manner in which the limitation is to be applied in addition to generally incorporating the limitations of section 415 by reference. For example, if an employer maintains two profit-sharing plans, and if any participant participates in more than one such plan, then both plans must specify (in a consistent manner) under which of the employer's two profit-sharing plans annual additions must be reduced if aggregate annual additions would otherwise exceed the limitations of section 415(c).
(iv) Former requirements. A plan is not permitted to incorporate by reference formerly applicable requirements of section 415 that are no longer in force (such as the limits of former section 415(e)).
(v) Cost-of-living adjustments—
(A) In general. A plan is permitted to incorporate by reference the annual adjustments to the limitations of section 415 that are made pursuant to section 415(d). See § 1.415(d)-1 for additional rules relating to cost-of-living adjustments under section 415(d).
(B) Cost-of-living adjustments not included in accrued benefit until effective. Notwithstanding that a plan incorporates the increases to the applicable limits under section 415(d) by reference, the accrued benefit of a participant for purposes of section 411 and any amount payable to a participant for purposes of § 1.415(b)-1(a)(1) are not permitted to reflect increases pursuant to the annual increase under section 415(d) of the dollar limitation described in section 415(b)(1)(A) or the compensation limit described in section 415(b)(1)(B) for any period before the annual increase becomes effective. See § 1.415(d)-1(a)(3) for rules relating to when the annual adjustments to the dollar and compensation limitations are effective. A plan amendment does not violate the requirements of section 411(d)(6) merely because it eliminates the incorporation by reference of the increases under section 415(d) with respect to increases that have not yet occurred.
(C) Application of increase in defined benefit dollar limit to participants who have incurred a severance from employment or commenced receiving benefits. If a plan incorporates by reference the annual adjustments to the limitations of section 415 pursuant to this paragraph (d)(3)(v), the plan will be treated as applying the section 415(d) cost-of-living adjustments to the maximum extent permitted under the safe harbor described in § 1.415(d)-1(a)(5), except to the extent provided in this paragraph (d)(3)(v)(C). Thus, such a plan is not subject to the requirements of § 1.415(b)-1(b)(1)(iii) (providing special rules for determining the annual benefit of an employee in the case of multiple annuity starting dates) with respect to benefit increases that result solely from an increase in the section 415(b) limits pursuant to section 415(d). If a plan incorporates by reference the annual adjustments to the limitations of section 415 pursuant to this paragraph (d)(3)(v), the annual increase under section 415(d) of the dollar limitation described in section 415(b)(1)(A) does not apply with respect to a participant if the increase is effective after the participant's severance from employment with the employer maintaining the plan (or, if earlier, after the annuity starting date in the case of a participant who has commenced receiving benefits), unless the plan specifies that this annual increase applies. Similarly, if a plan incorporates by reference the annual adjustments to the limitations of section 415 pursuant to this paragraph (d)(3)(v), the annual increase under section 415(d) of the compensation-based limitation described in section 415(b)(1)(B) does not apply with respect to a participant for increases that are effective after the participant's severance from employment with the employer maintaining the plan (or, if earlier, after the annuity starting date in the case of a participant who has commenced receiving benefits), unless the plan specifies that this annual increase applies.
(D) Treatment of cost-of-living adjustments for funding and deduction purposes. In general, the annual increase under section 415(d) of the dollar limitation described in section 415(b)(1)(A) and the compensation limitation described in section 415(b)(1)(B) is treated as a plan amendment, regardless of whether the plan reflects the increase automatically through operation of plan provisions in accordance with this paragraph (d)(3)(v) or the plan is amended to reflect the increase (pursuant to § 1.415(d)-1(a)(5)). However, where a plan reflects the annual increase under section 415(d) of the dollar limitation described in section 415(b)(1)(A) or the compensation limitation described in section 415(b)(1)(B) automatically through operation of plan provisions pursuant to this paragraph (d)(3)(v), the funding method for the plan is permitted to provide for this annual increase to be treated as an experience loss for purposes of applying sections 404, 412, and 431.
(e) Rules for plans maintained by more than one employer. Except as provided in § 1.415(f)-1(g)(2)(i) (regarding aggregation of multiemployer plans with plans other than multiemployer plans), for purposes of applying the limitations of section 415 with respect to a participant in a plan maintained by more than one employer, benefits and contributions attributable to such participant from all of the employers maintaining the plan must be taken into account. Furthermore, in applying the limitations of section 415 with respect to a participant in such a plan, the total compensation received by the participant from all of the employers maintaining the plan is taken into account under the plan, unless the plan specifies otherwise.
(f) Special rules—
(1) Affiliated employers. Pursuant to section 414(b) and § 1.414(b)-1, all employees of all corporations that are members of a controlled group of corporations (within the meaning of section 1563(a), as modified by section 1563(f)(5), and determined without regard to section 1563(a)(4) and (e)(3)(C)) are treated as employed by a single employer for purposes of section 415. Similarly, pursuant to section 414(c) and regulations promulgated under section 414(c), all employees of trades or businesses that are under common control are treated as employed by a single employer. Thus, any defined benefit plan or defined contribution plan maintained by any member of a controlled group of corporations (within the meaning of section 414(b)) or by any trade or business (whether or not incorporated) that is part of a group of trades or businesses that are under common control (within the meaning of section 414(c)) is deemed maintained by all such members or such trades or businesses. Pursuant to section 415(h), for purposes of section 415, sections 414(b) and 414(c) are applied by using the phrase “more than 50 percent” instead of the phrase “at least 80 percent” each place the latter phrase appears in section 1563(a)(1) and in the regulations under section 414(c) (except for purposes of determining whether two or more organizations are a brother-sister group of trades or businesses under common control under the rules in § 1.414(c)-2(c)).
(2) Affiliated service groups. Any defined benefit plan or defined contribution plan maintained by any member of an affiliated service group (within the meaning of section 414(m)) is deemed maintained by all members of that affiliated service group.
(3) Leased employees—
(i) In general. Pursuant to section 414(n), except as provided in paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of this section, with respect to any person (referred to as the recipient) for whom a leased employee (within the meaning of section 414(n)(2)) performs services, the leased employee is treated as an employee of the recipient, but contributions or benefits provided by the leasing organization that are attributable to services performed for the recipient are treated as provided under a plan maintained by the recipient.
(ii) Exception for leased employees covered by safe harbor plans. Pursuant to section 414(n)(5), the rule of paragraph (f)(3)(i) of this section does not apply to a leased employee with respect to services performed for a recipient if—
(A) The leased employee is covered by a plan that is maintained by the leasing organization and that meets the requirements of section 414(n)(5)(B); and
(B) Leased employees (determined without regard to this paragraph (f)(3)(ii)) do not constitute more than 20 percent of the recipient's nonhighly compensated workforce.
(4) Permissive service credit under governmental plans. See section 415(n) for rules regarding the application of the limitations of sections 415(b) and (c) where a participant makes contributions (including a transfer described in section 403(b)(13) or section 457(e)(17)) to a defined benefit governmental plan to purchase permissive service credit under the plan.
(5) Definition of severance from employment—
(i) General rule. For purposes of this section and §§ 1.415(b)-1, 1.415(b)-2, 1.415(c)-1, 1.415(c)-2, 1.415(d)-1, 1.415(f)-1, 1.415(g)-1, and 1.415(j)-1, whether an employee has a severance from employment with the employer that maintains a plan is determined in the same manner as under § 1.401(k)-1(d)(2) except that, for purposes of determining the employer of an employee, the modifications provided under section 415(h) (described in paragraph (f)(1) of this section) to the employer aggregation rules apply. Thus, an employee has a severance from employment when the employee ceases to be an employee of the employer maintaining the plan, and an employee does not have a severance from employment if, in connection with a change of employment, the employee's new employer maintains such plan with respect to the employee. The determination of whether an employee ceases to be an employee of the employer maintaining the plan is based on all of the relevant facts and circumstances.
(ii) Multiemployer plans. A participant in a multiemployer plan (within the meaning of section 414(f)) is not treated as having incurred a severance from employment with the employer maintaining the multiemployer plan for purposes of this section and §§ 1.415(b)-1, 1.415(b)-2, 1.415(c)-1, 1.415(c)-2, 1.415(d)-1, 1.415(f)-1, 1.415(g)-1, and 1.415(j)-1 if the participant continues to be an employee of another employer maintaining the multiemployer plan.
(6) Qualified domestic relations orders. A benefit provided to an alternate payee (as defined in section 414(p)(8)) of a participant pursuant to a qualified domestic relations order (as defined in section 414(p)(1)(A)) is treated as if it were provided to the participant for purposes of applying the limitations of section 415. See § 1.401(a)-13(g)(4)(iv).
(7) Effect on other requirements. Except as provided in § 1.417(e)-1(d)(1), the application of section 415 does not relieve a plan from the obligation to satisfy other applicable qualification requirements. Accordingly, the terms of the plan must provide for the plan to satisfy section 415 as well as all other applicable requirements. For example, if a defined benefit plan has a normal retirement age of 62, and if a participant's benefit remains unchanged between the ages of 62 and 65 because of the application of the section 415(b)(1)(A) dollar limit, the plan satisfies the requirements of section 411 only if the plan either commences distribution of the participant's benefit at normal retirement age (without regard to severance from employment) or provides for a suspension of benefits at normal retirement age that satisfies the requirements of section 411(a)(3)(B) and 29 CFR 2530.203-3. Similarly, if the increase to a participant's benefit under a defined benefit plan in a year after the participant has attained normal retirement age is less than the actuarial increase to the participant's previously accrued benefit because of the application of the section 415(b)(1)(B) compensation limitation (which is not adjusted for commencement after age 65), the plan satisfies the requirements of section 411 only if the plan either commences distribution of the participant's benefit at normal retirement age (without regard to severance from employment) or provides for a suspension of benefits at normal retirement age that satisfies the requirements of section 411(a)(3)(B) and 29 CFR 2530.203-3.
(g) Effective date—
(1) General rule. Except as otherwise provided, this section and §§ 1.415(b)-1, 1.415(c)-1, 1.415(c)-2, 1.415(d)-1, 1.415(f)-1, 1.415(g)-1, and 1.415(j)-1 apply to limitation years beginning on or after July 1, 2007.
(2) Governmental plans. In the case of a governmental plan as defined in section 414(d), this section and §§ 1.415(b)-1, 1.415(c)-1, 1.415(c)-2, 1.415(d)-1, 1.415(f)-1, 1.415(g)-1, and 1.415(j)-1 apply to limitation years that begin more than 90 days after the close of the first regular legislative session of the legislative body with authority to amend the plan that begins on or after July 1, 2007. A governmental plan is permitted to apply the provisions of this section and §§ 1.415(b)-1, 1.415(c)-1, 1.415(c)-2, 1.415(d)-1, 1.415(f)-1, 1.415(g)-1, and 1.415(j)-1 to limitation years beginning on or after July 1, 2007, provided the plan applies all the applicable provisions of this section and §§ 1.415(b)-1, 1.415(c)-1, 1.415(c)-2, 1.415(d)-1, 1.415(f)-1, 1.415(g)-1, and 1.415(j)-1 for such limitation years.
(3) Option to apply regulations earlier. A plan may apply the rules in § 1.415(c)-2(e) regarding post-severance compensation payments for limitation years prior to the effective date described in paragraphs (g)(1) and (2) of this section. This early application affects the rules relating to the definition of compensation in § 1.401(k)-1(e)(8) and § 1.457-4(d).
(4) Grandfather rule for preexisting benefits. A defined benefit plan is considered to satisfy the limitations of section 415(b) for a participant with respect to benefits accrued or payable under the plan as of the end of the limitation year that is immediately prior to the effective date of final regulations under this section and §§ 1.415(b)-1, 1.415(c)-1, 1.415(c)-2, 1.415(d)-1, 1.415(f)-1, 1.415(g)-1, and 1.415(j)-1 (as provided under paragraph (g)(1) or (2) of this section) pursuant to plan provisions (including plan provisions relating to the plan's limitation year) that were both adopted and in effect before April 5, 2007, but only if such plan provisions meet the applicable requirements of statutory provisions, regulations, and other published guidance relating to section 415 in effect immediately before the effective date of final regulations under this section and §§ 1.415(b)-1, 1.415(c)-1, 1.415(c)-2, 1.415(d)-1, 1.415(f)-1, 1.415(g)-1, and 1.415(j)-1 (as provided under paragraph (g)(1) or (2) of this section). Plan provisions will not be treated as failing to satisfy these requirements merely because the plan has not been amended to reflect changes to section 415(b) made by the Pension Funding Equity Act of 2004, Public Law 108-218 (118 Stat. 596), and the Pension Protection Act of 2006, Public Law 109-280 (120 Stat. 780). In addition, plan provisions will not be treated as failing to satisfy these requirements merely because the plan's definition of compensation for a limitation year that is used for purposes of applying the limitations of section 415(b)(1)(B) reflects compensation for a plan year that is in excess of the limitation under section 401(a)(17) that applies to that plan year. If benefits under a plan are accrued after the applicable effective date under paragraph (g)(1) or (2) of this section, then the sum of the benefits grandfathered under the first sentence of this paragraph (g)(4) and benefits accrued after the applicable effective date must satisfy the requirements of section 415, taking into account the requirements of this section and §§ 1.415(b)-1, 1.415(c)-1, 1.415(c)-2, 1.415(d)-1, 1.415(f)-1, 1.415(g)-1, and 1.415(j)-1.
[T.D. 9319, 72 FR 16895, Apr. 5, 2007]

Title 26 published on 2013-04-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 26.

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  • 2014-10-01; vol. 79 # 190 - Wednesday, October 1, 2014
    1. 79 FR 59112 - Local Lodging Expenses
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      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Final regulations.
      Effective Date: These regulations are effective on October 1, 2014. Applicability Dates: For dates of applicability, see §§ 1.162-32(d) and 1.262-1(b)(5).
      26 CFR Part 1

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

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United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 1 - Tax imposed

§ 21 - Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

§ 23 - Adoption expenses

§ 25 - Interest on certain home mortgages

§ 25A - Hope and Lifetime Learning credits

§ 28

§ 30 - Certain plug-in electric vehicles

§ 36B - Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan

§ 38 - General business credit

§ 40 - Alcohol, etc., used as fuel

§ 41 - Credit for increasing research activities

§ 42 - Low-income housing credit

§ 43 - Enhanced oil recovery credit

§ 45D - New markets tax credit

§ 46 - Amount of credit

§ 47 - Rehabilitation credit

§ 52 - Special rules

§ 56 - Adjustments in computing alternative minimum taxable income

§ 58 - Denial of certain losses

§ 61 - Gross income defined

§ 62 - Adjusted gross income defined

§ 66 - Treatment of community income

§ 67 - 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions

§ 72 - Annuities; certain proceeds of endowment and life insurance contracts

§ 101 - Certain death benefits

§ 103 - Interest on State and local bonds

§ 103A - Repealed.

§ 108 - Income from discharge of indebtedness

§ 110 - Qualified lessee construction allowances for short-term leases

§ 129 - Dependent care assistance programs

§ 132 - Certain fringe benefits

§ 148 - Arbitrage

§ 149 - Bonds must be registered to be tax exempt; other requirements

§ 150 - Definitions and special rules

§ 152 - Dependent defined

§ 162 - Trade or business expenses

§ 163 - Interest

§ 165 - Losses

§ 166 - Bad debts

§ 168 - Accelerated cost recovery system

§ 170 - Charitable, etc., contributions and gifts

§ 171 - Amortizable bond premium

§ 179 - Election to expense certain depreciable business assets

§ 179A - Deduction for clean-fuel vehicles and certain refueling property

§ 197 - Amortization of goodwill and certain other intangibles

§ 199 - Income attributable to domestic production activities

§ 216 - Deduction of taxes, interest, and business depreciation by cooperative housing corporation tenant-stockholder

§ 221 - Interest on education loans

§ 263A - Capitalization and inclusion in inventory costs of certain expenses

§ 267 - Losses, expenses, and interest with respect to transactions between related taxpayers

§ 274 - Disallowance of certain entertainment, etc., expenses

§ 280C - Certain expenses for which credits are allowable

§ 280F - Limitation on depreciation for luxury automobiles; limitation where certain property used for personal purposes

§ 280G - Golden parachute payments

§ 301 - Distributions of property

§ 304 - Redemption through use of related corporations

§ 305 - Distributions of stock and stock rights

§ 324

§ 336 - Gain or loss recognized on property distributed in complete liquidation

§ 337 - Nonrecognition for property distributed to parent in complete liquidation of subsidiary

§ 338 - Certain stock purchases treated as asset acquisitions

§ 351 - Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor

§ 355 - Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

§ 357 - Assumption of liability

§ 358 - Basis to distributees

§ 362 - Basis to corporations

§ 367 - Foreign corporations

§ 382 - Limitation on net operating loss carryforwards and certain built-in losses following ownership change

§ 383 - Special limitations on certain excess credits, etc.

§ 401 - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 401 note - Qualified pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans

§ 402A - Optional treatment of elective deferrals as Roth contributions

§ 403 - Taxation of employee annuities

§ 404 - Deduction for contributions of an employer to an employees’ trust or annuity plan and compensation under a deferred-payment plan

§ 408 - Individual retirement accounts

§ 408A - Roth IRAs

§ 409 - Qualifications for tax credit employee stock ownership plans

§ 410 - Minimum participation standards

§ 411 - Minimum vesting standards

§ 414 - Definitions and special rules

§ 417 - Definitions and special rules for purposes of minimum survivor annuity requirements

§ 419A - Qualified asset account; limitation on additions to account

§ 420 - Transfers of excess pension assets to retiree health accounts

§ 441 - Period for computation of taxable income

§ 442 - Change of annual accounting period

§ 444 - Election of taxable year other than required taxable year

§ 446 - General rule for methods of accounting

§ 453 - Installment method

§ 453A - Special rules for nondealers

§ 458 - Magazines, paperbacks, and records returned after the close of the taxable year

§ 460 - Special rules for long-term contracts

§ 461 - General rule for taxable year of deduction

§ 465 - Deductions limited to amount at risk

§ 466 - Repealed.

§ 467 - Certain payments for the use of property or services

§ 468A - Special rules for nuclear decommissioning costs

§ 468B - Special rules for designated settlement funds

§ 469 - Passive activity losses and credits limited

§ 471 - General rule for inventories

§ 472 - Last-in, first-out inventories

§ 475 - Mark to market accounting method for dealers in securities

§ 481 - Adjustments required by changes in method of accounting

§ 482 - Allocation of income and deductions among taxpayers

§ 483 - Interest on certain deferred payments

§ 493

§ 504 - Status after organization ceases to qualify for exemption under

§ 514 - Unrelated debt-financed income

§ 527 - Political organizations

§ 585 - Reserves for losses on loans of banks

§ 597 - Treatment of transactions in which Federal financial assistance provided

§ 642 - Special rules for credits and deductions

§ 643 - Definitions applicable to subparts A, B, C, and D

§ 645 - Certain revocable trusts treated as part of estate

§ 663 - Special rules applicable to

§ 664 - Charitable remainder trusts

§ 672 - Definitions and rules

§ 679 - Foreign trusts having one or more United States beneficiaries

§ 701 - Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

§ 702 - Income and credits of partner

§ 703 - Partnership computations

§ 704 - Partner’s distributive share

§ 705 - Determination of basis of partner’s interest

§ 706 - Taxable years of partner and partnership

§ 707 - Transactions between partner and partnership

§ 708 - Continuation of partnership

§ 709 - Treatment of organization and syndication fees

§ 721 - Nonrecognition of gain or loss on contribution

§ 722 - Basis of contributing partner’s interest

§ 723 - Basis of property contributed to partnership

§ 724 - Character of gain or loss on contributed unrealized receivables, inventory items, and capital loss property

§ 731 - Extent of recognition of gain or loss on distribution

§ 732 - Basis of distributed property other than money

§ 733 - Basis of distributee partner’s interest

§ 734 - Adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property where

§ 735 - Character of gain or loss on disposition of distributed property

§ 736 - Payments to a retiring partner or a deceased partner’s successor in interest

§ 737 - Recognition of precontribution gain in case of certain distributions to contributing partner

§ 741 - Recognition and character of gain or loss on sale or exchange

§ 742 - Basis of transferee partner’s interest

§ 743 - Special rules where

§ 751 - Unrealized receivables and inventory items

§ 752 - Treatment of certain liabilities

§ 753 - Partner receiving income in respect of decedent

§ 754 - Manner of electing optional adjustment to basis of partnership property

§ 755 - Rules for allocation of basis

§ 761 - Terms defined

§ 809 - Repealed.

§ 817A - Special rules for modified guaranteed contracts

§ 832 - Insurance company taxable income

§ 845 - Certain reinsurance agreements

§ 846 - Discounted unpaid losses defined

§ 848 - Capitalization of certain policy acquisition expenses

§ 852 - Taxation of regulated investment companies and their shareholders

§ 860E - Treatment of income in excess of daily accruals on residual interests

§ 860G - Other definitions and special rules

§ 863 - Special rules for determining source

§ 864 - Definitions and special rules

§ 865 - Source rules for personal property sales

§ 874 - Allowance of deductions and credits

§ 882 - Tax on income of foreign corporations connected with United States business

§ 883 - Exclusions from gross income

§ 884 - Branch profits tax

§ 892 - Income of foreign governments and of international organizations

§ 894 - Income affected by treaty

§ 897 - Disposition of investment in United States real property

§ 901 - Taxes of foreign countries and of possessions of United States

§ 902 - Deemed paid credit where domestic corporation owns 10 percent or more of voting stock of foreign corporation

§ 904 - Limitation on credit

§ 907 - Special rules in case of foreign oil and gas income

§ 911 - Citizens or residents of the United States living abroad

§ 924

§ 925

§ 927 - Repealed.

§ 934 - Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

§ 936 - Puerto Rico and possession tax credit

§ 937 - Residence and source rules involving possessions

§ 954 - Foreign base company income

§ 956 - Investment of earnings in United States property

§ 957 - Controlled foreign corporations; United States persons

§ 960 - Special rules for foreign tax credit

§ 963 - Repealed.

§ 985 - Functional currency

§ 987 - Branch transactions

§ 988 - Treatment of certain foreign currency transactions

§ 989 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1017 - Discharge of indebtedness

§ 1032 - Exchange of stock for property

§ 1059 - Corporate shareholder’s basis in stock reduced by nontaxed portion of extraordinary dividends

§ 1060 - Special allocation rules for certain asset acquisitions

§ 1092 - Straddles

§ 1202 - Partial exclusion for gain from certain small business stock

§ 1221 - Capital asset defined

§ 1244 - Losses on small business stock

§ 1248 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of stock in certain foreign corporations

§ 1254 - Gain from disposition of interest in oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral properties

§ 1275 - Other definitions and special rules

§ 1286 - Tax treatment of stripped bonds

§ 1291 - Interest on tax deferral

§ 1293 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds

§ 1294 - Election to extend time for payment of tax on undistributed earnings

§ 1295 - Qualified electing fund

§ 1296 - Election of mark to market for marketable stock

§ 1297 - Passive foreign investment company

§ 1298 - Special rules

§ 1301 - Averaging of farm income

§ 1361 - S corporation defined

§ 1368 - Distributions

§ 1374 - Tax imposed on certain built-in gains

§ 1377 - Definitions and special rule

§ 1378 - Taxable year of S corporation

§ 1397D - Qualified zone property defined

§ 1397E - Credit to holders of qualified zone academy bonds

§ 1402 - Definitions

§ 1441 - Withholding of tax on nonresident aliens

§ 1443 - Foreign tax-exempt organizations

§ 1445 - Withholding of tax on dispositions of United States real property interests

§ 1471 - Withholdable payments to foreign financial institutions

§ 1472 - Withholdable payments to other foreign entities

§ 1473 - Definitions

§ 1474 - Special rules

§ 1502 - Regulations

§ 1503 - Computation and payment of tax

§ 1504 - Definitions

§ 1561 - Limitations on certain multiple tax benefits in the case of certain controlled corporations

§ 3401 - Definitions

§ 5000 - Certain group health plans

§ 5000A - Requirement to maintain minimum essential coverage

§ 6001 - Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns

§ 6011 - General requirement of return, statement, or list

§ 6015 - Relief from joint and several liability on joint return

§ 6033 - Returns by exempt organizations

§ 6035 - Repealed.

§ 6038 - Information reporting with respect to certain foreign corporations and partnerships

§ 6038A - Information with respect to certain foreign-owned corporations

§ 6038B - Notice of certain transfers to foreign persons

§ 6038D - Information with respect to foreign financial assets

§ 6039I - Returns and records with respect to employer-owned life insurance contracts

§ 6041 - Information at source

§ 6043 - Liquidating, etc., transactions

§ 6045 - Returns of brokers

§ 6046A - Returns as to interests in foreign partnerships

§ 6049 - Returns regarding payments of interest

§ 6050E - State and local income tax refunds

§ 6050H - Returns relating to mortgage interest received in trade or business from individuals

26 U.S. Code § 5521 to 5523 - Repealed.

§ 6050K - Returns relating to exchanges of certain partnership interests

§ 6050M - Returns relating to persons receiving contracts from Federal executive agencies

§ 6050P - Returns relating to the cancellation of indebtedness by certain entities

§ 6050S - Returns relating to higher education tuition and related expenses

§ 6060 - Information returns of tax return preparers

§ 6061 - Signing of returns and other documents

§ 6065 - Verification of returns

§ 6081 - Extension of time for filing returns

§ 6103 - Confidentiality and disclosure of returns and return information

§ 6109 - Identifying numbers

§ 6302 - Mode or time of collection

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6411 - Tentative carryback and refund adjustments

§ 6655 - Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax

§ 6662 - Imposition of accuracy-related penalty on underpayments

§ 6695 - Other assessable penalties with respect to the preparation of tax returns for other persons

§ 6851 - Termination assessments of income tax

§ 7520 - Valuation tables

§ 7654 - Coordination of United States and certain possession individual income taxes

§ 7701 - Definitions

§ 7702 - Life insurance contract defined

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations

§ 7872 - Treatment of loans with below-market interest rates

§ 7874 - Rules relating to expatriated entities and their foreign parents

U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
Statutes at Large
Public Laws
Presidential Documents

Reorganization ... 1978 Plan No. 4

Title 26 published on 2013-04-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR 1 after this date.

  • 2014-10-01; vol. 79 # 190 - Wednesday, October 1, 2014
    1. 79 FR 59112 - Local Lodging Expenses
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Final regulations.
      Effective Date: These regulations are effective on October 1, 2014. Applicability Dates: For dates of applicability, see §§ 1.162-32(d) and 1.262-1(b)(5).
      26 CFR Part 1