26 CFR 1.62-2 - Reimbursements and other expense allowance arrangements.

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§ 1.62-2 Reimbursements and other expense allowance arrangements.
(a) Table of contents. The contents of this section are as follows:
(a) Table of contents.
(b) Scope.
(c) Reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement.
(1) Defined.
(2) Accountable plans.
(i) In general.
(ii) Special rule for failure to return excess.
(3) Nonaccountable plans.
(i) In general.
(ii) Special rule for failure to return excess.
(4) Treatment of payments under accountable plans.
(5) Treatment of payments under nonaccountable plans.
(d) Business connection.
(1) In general.
(2) Other bona fide expenses.
(3) Reimbursement requirement.
(i) In general.
(ii) Per diem allowances.
(e) Substantiation.
(1) In general.
(2) Expenses governed by section 274(d).
(3) Expenses not governed by section 274(d).
(f) Returning amounts in excess of expenses.
(1) In general.
(2) Per diem or mileage allowances.
(g) Reasonable period.
(1) In general.
(2) Safe harbors.
(i) Fixed date method.
(ii) Periodic payment method.
(3) Pattern of overreimbursements.
(h) Withholding and payment of employment taxes.
(1) When excluded from wages.
(2) When included in wages.
(i) Accountable plans.
(A) General rule.
(B) Per diem or mileage allowances.
(1) In general.
(2) Reimbursements.
(3) Advances.
(4) Special rules.
(ii) Nonaccountable plans.
(i) Application.
(j) Examples.
(k) Anti-abuse provision.
(l) Cross references.
(m) Effective dates.
(b) Scope. For purposes of determining “adjusted gross income,” section 62(a)(2)(A) allows an employee a deduction for expenses allowed by part VI (section 161 and following), subchapter B, chapter 1 of the Code, paid by the employee, in connection with the performance of services as an employee of the employer, under a reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement with a payor (the employer, its agent, or a third party). Section 62(c) provides that an arrangement will not be treated as a reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement for purposes of section 62(a)(2)(A) if—
(1) Such arrangement does not require the employee to substantiate the expenses covered by the arrangement to the payor, or
(2) Such arrangement provides the employee the right to retain any amount in excess of the substantiated expenses covered under the arrangement.
This section prescribes rules relating to the requirements of section 62(c).
(c) Reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement—
(1) Defined. For purposes of §§ 1.62-1, 1.62-1T, and 1.62-2, the phrase “reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement” means an arrangement that meets the requirements of paragraphs (d) (business connection, (e) (substantiation), and (f) (returning amounts in excess of expenses) of this section. A payor may have more than one arrangement with respect to a particular employee, depending on the facts and circumstances. See paragraph (d)(2) of this section (payor treated as having two arrangements under certain circumstances).
(2) Accountable plans—
(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, if an arrangement meets the requirements of paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, all amounts paid under the arrangement are treated as paid under an “accountable plan.”
(ii) Special rule for failure to return excess. If an arrangement meets the requirements of paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, but the employee fails to return, within a reasonable period of time, any amount in excess of the amount of the expenses substantiated in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section, only the amounts paid under the arrangement that are not in excess of the substantiated expenses are treated as paid under an accountable plan.
(3) Nonaccountable plans—
(i) In general. If an arrangement does not satisfy one or more of the requirements of paragraphs (d), (e), or (f) of this section, all amounts paid under the arrangement are treated as paid under a “nonaccountable plan.” If a payor provides a nonaccountable plan, an employee who receives payments under the plan cannot compel the payor to treat the payments as paid under an accountable plan by voluntarily substantiating the expenses and returning any excess to the payor.
(ii) Special rule for failure to return excess. If an arrangement meets the requirements of paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, but the employee fails to return, within a reasonable period of time, any amount in excess of the amount of the expenses substantiated in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section, the amounts paid under the arrangement that are in excess of the substantiated expenses are treated as paid under a nonaccountable plan.
(4) Treatment of payments under accountable plans. Amounts treated as paid under an accountable plan are excluded from the employee's gross income, are not reported as wages or other compensation on the employee's Form W-2, and are exempt from the withholding and payment of employment taxes (Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA), Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA), Railroad Retirement Tax Act (RRTA), Railroad Unemployment Repayment Tax (RURT), and income tax.) See paragraph (l) of this section for cross references.
(5) Treatment of payments under nonaccountable plans. Amounts treated as paid under a nonaccountable plan are included in the employee's gross income, must be reported as wages or other compensation on the employee's Form W-2, and are subject to withholding and payment of employment taxes (FICA, FUTA, RRTA, RURT, and income tax). See paragraph (h) of this section. Expenses attributable to amounts included in the employee's gross income may be deducted, provided the employee can substantiate the full amount of his or her expenses (i.e., the amount of the expenses, if any, the reimbursement for which is treated as paid under an accountable plan as well as those for which the employee is claiming the deduction) in accordance with §§ 1.274-5T and 1.274(d)-1 or § 1.162-17, but only as a miscellaneous itemized deduction subject to the limitations applicable to such expenses (e.g., the 80-percent limitation on meal and entertainment expenses provided in section 274(n) and the 2-percent floor provided in section 67).
(d) Business connection—
(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section, an arrangement meets the requirements of this paragraph (d) if it provides advances, allowances (including per diem allowances, allowances only for meals and incidental expenses, and mileage allowances), or reimbursements only for business expenses that are allowable as deductions by part VI (section 161 and the following), subchapter B, chapter 1 of the Code, and that are paid or incurred by the employee in connection with the performance of services as an employee of the employer. The payment may be actually received from the employer, its agent, or a third party for whom the employee performs a service as an employee of the employer, and may include amounts charged directly or indirectly to the payor through credit card systems or otherwise. In addition, if both wages and the reimbursement or other expense allowance are combined in a single payment, the reimbursement or other expense allowance must be identified either by making a separate payment or by specifically identifying the amount of the reimbursement or other expense allowance.
(2) Other bona fide expenses. If an arrangement provides advances, allowances, or reimbursements for business expenses described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section (i.e., deductible employee business expenses) and for other bona fide expenses related to the employer's business (e.g., travel that is not away from home) that are not deductible under part VI (section 161 and the following), subchapter B, chapter 1 of the Code, the payor is treated as maintaining two arrangements. The portion of the arrangement that provides payments for the deductible employee business expenses is treated as one arrangement that satisfies this paragraph (d). The portion of the arrangement that provides payments for the nondeductible employee expenses is treated as a second arrangement that does not satisfy this paragraph (d) and all amounts paid under this second arrangement will be treated as paid under a nonaccountable plan. See paragraphs (c)(5) and (h) of this section.
(3) Reimbursement requirement—
(i) In general. If a payor arranges to pay an amount to an employee regardless of whether the employee incurs (or is reasonably expected to incur) business expenses of a type described in paragraph (d)(1) or (d)(2) of this section, the arrangement does not satisfy this paragraph (d) and all amounts paid under the arrangement are treated as paid under a nonaccountable plan. See paragraphs (c)(5) and (h) of this section.
(ii) Per diem allowances. An arrangement providing a per diem allowance for travel expenses of a type described in paragraph (d)(1) or (d)(2) of this section that is computed on a basis similar to that used in computing the employee's wages or other compensation (e.g., the number of hours worked, miles traveled, or pieces produced) meets the requirements of this paragraph (d) only if, on December 12, 1989, the per diem allowance was identified by the payor either by making a separate payment or by specifically identifying the amount of the per diem allowance, or a per diem allowance computed on that basis was commonly used in the industry in which the employee is employed. See section 274(d) and § 1.274(d)-1. A per diem allowance described in this paragraph (d)(3)(ii) may be adjusted in a manner that reasonably reflects actual increases in employee business expenses occurring after December 12, 1989.
(e) Substantiation—
(1) In general. An arrangement meets the requirements of this paragraph (e) if it requires each business expense to be substantiated to the payor in accordance with paragraph (e)(2) or (e)(3) of this section, whichever is applicable, within a reasonable period of time. See § 1.274-5T or § 1.162-17.
(2) Expenses governed by section 274(d). An arrangement that reimburses travel, entertainment, use of a passenger automobile or other listed property, or other business expenses governed by section 274(d) meets the requirements of this paragraph (e)(2) if information sufficient to satisfy the substantiation requirements of section 274(d) and the regulations thereunder is submitted to the payor. See § 1.274-5. Under section 274(d), information sufficient to substantiate the requisite elements of each expenditure or use must be submitted to the payor. For example, with respect to travel away from home, § 1.274-5(b)(2) requires that information sufficient to substantiate the amount, time, place, and business purpose of the expense must be submitted to the payor. Similarly, with respect to use of a passenger automobile or other listed property, § 1.274-5(b)(6) requires that information sufficient to substantiate the amount, time, use, and business purpose of the expense must be submitted to the payor. See§ 1.274-5(g) and (j), which grant the Commissioner the authority to establish optional methods of substantiating certain expenses. Substantiation of the amount of a business expense in accordance with rules prescribed pursuant to the authority granted by § 1.274-5(g) or (j) will be treated as substantiation of the amount of such expense for purposes of this section.
(3) Expenses not governed by section 274(d). An arrangement that reimburses business expenses not governed by section 274(d) meets the requirements of this paragraph (e)(3) if information is submitted to the payor sufficient to enable the payor to identify the specific nature of each expense and to conclude that the expense is attributable to the payor's business activities. Therefore, each of the elements of an expenditure or use must be substantiated to the payor. It is not sufficient if an employee merely aggregates expenses into broad categories (such as “travel”) or reports individual expenses through the use of vague, nondescriptive terms (such as “miscellaneous business expenses”). See § 1.162-17(b).
(f) Returning amounts in excess of expenses—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section, an arrangement meets the requirements of this paragraph (f) if it requires the employee to return to the payor within a reasonable period of time may amount paid under the arrangement in excess of the expenses substantiated in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section. The determination of whether an arrangement requires an employee to return amounts in excess of substantiated expenses will depend on the facts and circumstances. An arrangement whereby money is advanced to an employee to defray expenses will be treated as satisfying the requirements of this paragraph (f) only if the amount of money advanced is reasonably calculated not to exceed the amount of anticipated expenditures, the advance of money is made on a day within a reasonable period of the day that the anticipated expenditures are paid or incurred, and any amounts in excess of the expenses substantiated in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section are required to be returned to the payor within a reasonable period of time after the advance is received.
(2) Per diem or mileage allowances. The Commissioner may, in his discretion, prescribe rules in pronouncements of general applicability under which a reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement that provides per diem allowances providing for ordinary and necessary expenses of traveling away from home (exclusive of transportation costs to and from destination) or mileage allowances providing for ordinary and necessary expenses of local travel and tranportation while traveling away from home will be treated as satisfying the requirements of this paragraph (f), even though the arrangement does not require the employee to return the portion of such an allowance that relates to the days or miles of travel substantiated and that exceeds the amount of the employee's expenses deemed substantiated pursuant to rules prescribed under section 274(d), provided the allowance is paid at a rate for each day or mile of travel that is reasonably calculated not to exceed the amount of the employee's expenses or anticipated expenses and the employee is required to return to the payor within a reasonable period of time any portion of such allowance which relates to days or miles of travel not substantiated in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section.
(g) Reasonable period—
(1) In general. The determination of a reasonable period of time will depend on the facts and circumstances.
(2) Safe harbors—
(i) Fixed date method. An advance made within 30 days of when an expense is paid or incurred, an expense substantiated to the payor within 60 days after it is paid or incurred, or an amount returned to the payor within 120 days after an expense is paid or incurred will be treated as having occurred within a reasonable period of time.
(ii) Periodic statement method. If a payor provides employees with periodic statements (no less frequently than quarterly) stating the amount, if any, paid under the arrangement in excess of the expenses the employee has substantiated in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section, and requesting the employee to substantiate any additional business expenses that have not yet been substantiated (whether or not such expenses relate to the expenses with respect to which the original advance was paid) and/or to return any amounts remaining unsubstantiated within 120 days of the statement, an expense substantiated or an amount returned within that period will be treated as being substantiated or returned within a reasonable period of time.
(3) Pattern of overreimbursements. If, under a reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement, a payor has a plan or practice to provide amounts to employees in excess of expenses substantiated in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section and to avoid reporting and withholding on such amounts, the payor may not use either of the safe harbors provided in paragraph (g)(2) of this section for any years during which such plan or practice exists.
(h) Withholding and payment of employment taxes—
(1) When excluded from wages. If an arrangement meets the requirements of paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, the amounts paid under the arrangement that are not in excess of the expenses substantiated in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section (i.e., the amounts treated as paid under an accountable plan) are not wages and are not subject to withholding and payment of employment taxes. If an arrangement provides advances, allowances, or reimbursements for meal and entertainment expenses and a portion of the payment is treated as paid under a nonaccountable plan under paragraph (d)(2) of this section due solely to section 274(n), then notwithstanding paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of this section, these nondeductible amounts are neither treated as gross income nor subject to withholding and payment of employment taxes.
(2) When included in wages—
(i) Accountable plans—
(A) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (h)(2)(i)(B) of this section, if the expenses covered under an arrangement that meets the requirements of paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section are not substantiated to the payor in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section within a reasonable period of time or if any amounts in excess of the substantiated expenses are not returned to the payor in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section within a reasonable period of time, the amount which is treated as paid under a nonaccountable plan under paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section is subject to withholding and payment of employment taxes no later than the first payroll period following the end of the reasonable period. A payor may treat any amount not substantiated or returned within the periods specified in paragraph (g)(2) of this section as not substantiated or returned within a reasonable period of time.
(B) Per diem or mileage allowances— (1) In general. If a payor pays a per diem or mileage allowance under an arrangement that meets the requirements of the paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, the portion, if any, of the allowance paid that relates to days or miles of travel substantiated in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section and that exceeds the amount of the employee's expenses deemed substantiated for such travel pursuant to rules prescribed under section 274(d) and § 1.274(d)-1 or § 1.274-5T(j) is treated as paid under a nonaccountable plan. See paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section. Because the employee is not required to return this excess portion, the reasonable period of time provisions of paragraph (g) of this section (relating to the return of excess amounts) do not apply to this excess portion.
(2) Reimbursements. Except as provided in paragraph (h)(2)(i)(B)(4) of this section, in the case of a per diem or mileage allowance paid as a reimbursement at a rate for each day or mile of travel that exceeds the amounts of the employee's expenses deemed substantiated for a day or mile of travel, the excess portion described in paragraph (h)(2)(i) of this section is subject to withholding and payment of employment taxes in the payroll period in which the payor reimburses the expenses for the days or miles of travel substantiated in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section.
(3) Advances. Except as provided in paragraph (h)(2)(i)(B)(4) of this section, in the case of a per diem or mileage allowance paid as an advance at a rate for each day or mile of travel that exceeds the amount of the employee's expenses deemed substantiated for a day or mile of travel, the excess portion described in paragraph (h)(2)(i) of this section is subject to withholding and payment of employment taxes no later than the first payroll period following the payroll period in which the expenses with respect to which the advance was paid (i.e., the days or miles of travel) are substantiated in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section. The expenses with respect to which the advance was paid must be substantiated within a reasonable period of time. See paragraph (g) of this section.
(4) Special rules. The Commissioner may, in his discretion, prescribe special rules in pronouncements of general applicability regarding the timing of withholding and payment of employment taxes on per diem and mileage allowances.
(ii) Nonaccountable plans. If an arrangement does not satisfy one or more of the requirements of paragraphs (d), (e), or (f) of this section, all amounts paid under the arrangement are wages and are subject to withholding and payment of employment taxes when paid.
(i) Application. The requirements of paragraphs (d) (business connection), (e) (substantiation), and (f) (returning amounts in excess of expenses) of this section will be applied on an employee-by-employee basis. Thus, for example, the failure by one employee to substantiate expenses under an arrangement in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section will not cause amounts paid to other employees to be treated as paid under a nonaccountable plan.
(j) Examples. The rules contained in this section may be illustrated by the following examples:
Example 1.
Reimbursement requirement. Employer S pays its engineers $200 a day. On those days that an engineer travels away from home on business for Employer S, Employer S designates $50 of the $200 as paid to reimburse the engineer's travel expenses. Because Employer S would pay an engineer $200 a day regardless of whether the engineer was traveling away from home, the arrangement does not satisfy the reimbursement requirement of paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section. Thus, no part of the $50 Employer S designated as a reimbursement is treated as paid under an accountable plan. Rather, all payments under the arrangement are treated as paid under a nonaccountable plan. Employer S must report the entire $200 as wages or other compensation on the employees' Forms W-2 and must withhold and pay employment taxes on the entire $200 when paid.
Example 2.
Reimbursement requirement, multiple arrangements. Airline T pays all its employees a salary. Airline T also pays an allowance under an arrangement that otherwise meets the requirements of paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section to its pilots and flight attendants who travel away from their home base airports, whether or not they are “away from home.” Because the allowance is paid only to those employees who incur (or are reasonably expected to incur) expenses of a type described in paragraph (d)(1) or (d)(2) of this section, the arrangement satisfies the reimbursement requirement of paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section. Under paragraph (d)(2) of this section, Airline T is treated as maintaining two arrangements. The portion of the arrangement providing the allowances for away from home travel is treated as an accountable plan. The portion of the arrangement providing the allowances for non-away from home travel is treated as a nonaccountable plan. Airline T must report the non-away from home allowances as wages or other compensation on the employees' Forms W-2 and must withhold and pay employment taxes on these payments when paid.
Example 3. Reimbursement requirement.
Corporation R pays all its salespersons a salary. Corporation R also pays a travel allowance under an arrangement that otherwise meets the requirements of paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section. This allowance is paid to all salespersons, including salespersons that Corporation R knows, or has reason to know, do not travel away from their offices on Corporation R business and would not be reasonably expected to incur travel expenses. Because the allowance is not paid only to those employees who incur (or are reasonably expected to incur) expenses of a type described in paragraph (d)(1) or (d)(2) of this section, the arrangement does not satisfy the reimbursement requirement of paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section. Thus, no part of the allowance Corporation R designated as a reimbursement is treated as paid under an accountable plan. Rather, all payments under the arrangement are treated as paid under a nonaccountable plan. Corporation R must report all payments under the arrangement as wages or other compensation on the employees' Forms W-2 and must withhold and pay employment taxes on the payments when paid.
Example 4.
Separate arrangement, miscellaneous expenses. Under an arrangement that meets the requirements of paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, County U reimburses its employees for lodging and meal expenses incurred when they travel away from home on County U business. For its own convenience, County U also separately pays certain of its employees a $25 monthly allowance to cover the cost of small miscellaneous office expenses. County U does not require its employees to substantiate these miscellaneous expenses and does not require them to return the amounts by which the monthly allowance exceeds the miscellaneous expenses. The monthly allowance arrangement is a nonaccountable plan. County U must report the monthly allowances as wages or other compensation on the employees' Forms W-2 and must withhold and pay employment taxes on the monthly allowances when paid. The nonaccountable plan providing the monthly allowances is treated as separate from the accountable plan providing reimbursements for lodging and meal expenses incurred for travel away from home on County U business.
Example 5.
Excessive advances. In anticipation of employee business expenses that Corporation V does not reasonably expect to exceed $400 in any quarter, Corporation V nonetheless advances $1,000 to Employee A for such expenses. Whenever Employee A substantiates an expense in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section, Corporation V provides an additional advance in an amount equal to the amount substantiated, thereby providing a continuing advance of $1,000. Because the amounts advanced under this arrangement are not reasonably calculated so as not to exceed the amount of anticipated expenditures and because the advance of money is not made on a day within a reasonable period of the day that the anticipated expenditures are paid or incurred, the arrangement is a nonaccountable plan. The arrangement fails to satisfy the requirements of paragraphs (d) (business connection) and (f) (reasonable calculation of advances) of this section. Thus, Corporation V must report the entire amount of each advance as wages or other compensation and must withhold and pay employment taxes on the entire amount of each advance when paid.
Example 6.
Excess mileage advance. Under an arrangement that meets the requirements of paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, Employer W pays its employees a mileage allowance at a rate of 30 cents per mile (when the amount deemed substantiated for each mile of travel substantiated is 26 cents per mile) to cover automobile business expenses. The allowance is paid at a rate for each mile of travel that is reasonably calculated not to exceed the amount of the employee's expenses or anticipated expenses. Employer W does not require the return of the portion of the mileage allowance (4 cents) that exceeds the amount deemed substantiated for each mile of travel substantiated in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section. In June, Employer W advances Employee B $150 for 500 miles to be traveled by Employee B during the month. In July, Employee B substantiates 500 miles of business travel. The amount deemed substantiated by Employee B is $130. However, Employer W does not require Employee B to return the remaining $20 of the advance. No later than the first payroll period following the payroll period in which the business miles of travel are substantiated, Employer W must withhold and pay employment taxes on $20 (500 miles × 4 cents per mile).
Example 7.
Excess per diem reimbursement. Under an arrangement that meets the requirements of paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, Employer X pays its employees a per diem allowance to cover lodging, meal, and incidental expenses incurred for travel away from home on Employer X business at a rate equal to 120 percent of the amount deemed substantiated for each day of travel to the localities to which the employees travel. Employer X does not require the employees to return the 20 percent by which the reimbursement for those expenses exceeds the amount deemed substantiated for each day of travel substantiated in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section. Employee C substantiates six days of business travel away from home: Two days in a locality for which the amount deemed substantiated is $100 a day and four days in a locality for which the amount deemed substantiated is $125 a day. Employer X reimburses Employee C $840 for the six days of travel away from home (2×(120%×$100) 4×(120%×$125)), and does not require Employee C to return the excess portion ($140 excess portion = (2 days×$20 ($120−$100) 4 days×$25 ($150-$125)). For the payroll period in which Employer X reimburses the expenses, Employer X must withhold and pay employment taxes on $140.
Example 8. Return Requirement.
Employer Y provides expense allowances to certain of its employees to cover business expenses of a type described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section under an arrangement that requires the employees to substantiate their expenses within a reasonable period of time and to return any excess amounts within a reasonable period of time. Each time an employee returns an excess amount to Employer Y, however, Employer Y pays the employee a “bonus” equal to the amount returned by the employee. The arrangement fails to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (f) (returning amounts in excess of expenses) of this section. Thus, Employer Y must report the entire amount of the expense allowance payments as wages or other compensation and must withhold and pay employment taxes on the payments when paid. Compare example (6) (where the employee is not required to return the portion of the mileage allowance that exceeds the amount deemed substantiated for each mile of travel substantiated).
Example 9.
Timely substantiation. Employer Z provides a $500 advance to Employee D for a trip away from home on Employer Z business. Employee D incurs $500 in business expenses on the trip. Employer Z uses the periodic statement method safe harbor. At the end of the quarter during which the trip occurred, Employer Z sends a quarterly statement to Employee D stating that $500 was advanced to Employee D during the quarter and that no expenses were substantiated and no excess amounts returned. The statement advises Employee D that Employee D must substantiate any additional business expenses within 120 days of the date of the statement, and must return any unsubstantiated excess within the 120-day period. Employee D fails to substantiate any expenses or to return the excess within the 120-day period. Employer Z treats the $500 as wages and withholds and pays employment taxes on the $500. After the 120-day period has expired, Employee D substantiates the $500 in travel expenses in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section. Employer Z properly reported and withheld and paid employment taxes on the $500 and no adjustments may be made. Employee D must include the $500 in gross income and may deduct the $500 of expenses as a miscellaneous itemized deduction subject to the 2-percent floor provided in section 67.
(k) Anti-abuse provision. If a payor's reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangement evidences a pattern of abuse of the rules of section 62(c) and this section, all payments made under the arrangement will be treated as made under a nonaccountable plan.
(l) Cross references. For employment tax regulations relating to reimbursement and expense allowance arrangements, see §§ 31.3121 (a)-3, 31.3231(e)-(3), 31.3306(b)-2, and 31.3401(a)-4, which generally apply to payments made under reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangements received by an employee on or after July 1, 1990 with respect to expenses paid or incurred on or after July 1, 1990. For reporting requirements, see § 1.6041-3(i), which generally applies to payments made under reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangements received by an employee on or after January 1, 1989 with respect to expenses paid or incurred on or after January 1, 1989.
(m) Effective dates. This section generally applies to payments made under reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangements received by an employee in taxable years of the employee beginning on or after January 1, 1989, with respect to expenses paid or incurred in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1989. Paragraph (h) of this section generally applies to payments made under reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangements received by an employee on or after July 1, 1990 with respect to expenses paid or incurred on or after July 1, 1990. Paragraphs (d)(3)(ii) and (h)(2)(i)(B) of this section apply to payments made under reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangements received by an employee on or after January 1, 1991 with respect to expenses paid or incurred on or after January 1, 1991. Paragraph (e)(2) of this section applies to payments made under reimbursement or other expense allowance arrangements received by an employee with respect to expenses paid or incurred after December 31, 1997.
[T.D. 8324, 55 FR 51691, Dec. 17, 1990; 56 FR 8911, Mar. 4, 1991, as amended by T.D. 8451, 57 FR 57668, Dec. 7, 1992; T.D. 8666, 61 FR 27005, May 30, 1996; T.D. 8784, 63 FR 52600, Oct. 1, 1998; T.D. 8864, 65 FR 4122, Jan. 26, 2000; T.D. 9064, 68 FR 39011, July 1, 2003]

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  • 2014-07-07; vol. 79 # 129 - Monday, July 7, 2014
    1. 79 FR 38247 - Tax Treatment of Qualified Retirement Plan Payment of Accident or Health Insurance Premiums; Correction
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      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendment.
      This correction is effective on July 7, 2014, and is applicable May 12, 2014.
      26 CFR Part 1