26 CFR 145.4052-1 - Special rules and definitions.

§ 145.4052-1 Special rules and definitions.
(a) First retail sale—
(1) General rule. For purposes of section 4051(a)(1) and § 145.4051-1, the term “first retail sale” means a taxable sale described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.
(2) Taxable sale. The sale of an article is a taxable sale unless—
(i) The sale is a tax-free sale under section 4221,
(ii) [Reserved]. For sales after June 30, 1998, see § 48.4052-1 of this chapter.
(iii) There has been a prior taxable sale of the article. Notwithstanding the preceding clause, the sale of a chassis or body of a trailer or semitrailer (“trailer or semitrailer”) less than six months after a taxable sale of the article shall be treated as a taxable sale.
(3) Computation of tax—
(i) In general. If the sale of an article is a taxable sale under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the tax shall be computed on the price as determined under paragraph (d) of this section.
(ii) Exception. If the taxable sale of an article is a taxable use of such article under paragraph (c) of this section, the tax shall be computed on the price as determined under paragraph (c) of this section.
(4) Special rule for tax-paid trailer and semitrailer. In the case of a taxable sale of a trailer or semitrailer less than six months after a taxable sale of the article, the seller in the subsequent sale (“the subsequent seller”) may claim a credit equal to the amount of tax previously paid by another person (“the previous taxpayer”) under section 4051(a)(1) with respect to the prior taxable sale of the article. The credit for such tax will be allowed to the subsequent seller only if the form on which the credit is claimed is accompanied by a statement, signed by the subsequent seller, indicating the amount of the credit being claimed under this paragraph (a)(4) and stating that—
(i) The subsequent seller has not been repaid any portion of such tax by the previous taxpayer,
(ii) The subsequent seller has not provided the previous taxpayer with written consent to allow the previous taxpayer to claim a credit or refund of such tax under section 6416 (a), and
(iii) The subsequent seller has records (e.g., invoices) substantiating the amount of tax paid by the previous taxpayer with respect to the prior taxable sale of such article.
In no case shall the amount of the credit allowable under this paragraph (a)(4) with respect to an article exceed the tax liability of the subsequent seller with respect to the sale of such article.
(5) No installment payments of tax. If a lease or an installment sale (or another form of sale under which the sales price is paid in installments) is, or is deemed to be, a taxable sale under this section, then the liability for the entire tax arises at the time of the lease or installment sale. No portion of the tax is deferred by reason of the fact that the sales price is paid in installments.
(6) Certificate. A certificate signed by the purchaser, or an officer or employee authorized by the purchaser to sign the certificate, may be accepted by a seller in support of a nontaxable sale to the purchaser. If it is impracticable to furnish a separate certificate for each sale because of the frequency of sales to such purchaser, a certificate covering all orders between given dates (such period not to exceed 12 calendar quarters) will be acceptable. The purchaser may revoke the certificate by sending a written revocation to the seller. The certificate and proper records of invoices, orders, etc., relating to sales made pursuant to such certificate, must be retained by the seller as provided in section 6001 and the regulations thereunder. The certificate shall be substantially in the following form:
Exemption Certificate
I hereby certify that I am ______ (Title) of ______, (Name of purchaser) that I am authorized to execute this certificate, and that:
(Check appropriate line)
___ the article or articles specified in the accompanying order, or on the reverse side hereof, (or)
___ all orders placed by the purchaser for the period commencing _______ (Date) (period not to exceed 12 calendar quarters), are purchased either for resale or for lease on a long-term basis.
I have filed Form 637 and have received registration number ____.
I understand that the fraudulent use of this certificate to secure exemption will subject me and all parties making such fraudulent use to a fine of not more than $10,000, or to imprisonment for not more than 5 years, or both, together with costs of prosecution.
(Signature)
(Address)
(b) Tax treatment of leases—
(1) Long-term lease. For purposes of this section and § 145.4051-1, the leasing of an article on a long-term basis (as defined in paragraph (d)(6) of this section) will be deemed to be a sale of the article and will be deemed to be a taxable sale unless one of the exceptions contained in paragraph (a)(2) of this section applies. Thus, if a dealer purchases an article tax-free under an exception contained in paragraph (a)(2) of this section and then leases the article on a long-term basis, the leasing of the article will be treated as a taxable sale.
(2) Short-term lease. For purposes of this section and § 145.4051-1, the leasing of an article on a short-term basis (as defined in paragraph (d)(6) of this section) will be deemed to be a taxable use of such article under paragraph (c) of this section and will be deemed to be a taxable sale unless one of the exceptions contained in paragraph (a)(2) of this section applies.
(3) Computation of tax—
(i) Long-term lease by manufacturer, producer, or importer. When a manufacturer, producer, or importer is the lessor of an article on a long-term basis (as defined in paragraph (d)(6) of this section) and such lease is deemed to be a taxable sale under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the tax shall be computed on a presumptive retail sales price as determined under paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section. The manufacturer, producer, or importer shall be liable for the tax as if the article were sold at retail by such manufacturer, importer, or retailer.
(ii) Long-term lease by persons other than manufacturer, producer, or importer. When a person other than a manufacturer, producer, or importer is the lessor of an article on a long-term basis (as defined in paragraph (d)(6) of this section) and such lease is deemed to be a taxable sale under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the tax shall be computed on a presumptive retail sales price as determined under paragraph (d)(5) (i) of this section. Such person shall be liable for the tax as if the article were sold at retail by such person.
(c) Use treated as sale—
(1) In general. For purposes of this section and § 145.4051-1, the use of an article will be deemed to be a sale of the article. Furthermore, if a person purchases a vehicle for which no tax was imposed under section 4051(a)(1) and thereafter converts such vehicle into an article which would have been taxable under section 4051(a)(1) and uses it, such person shall be liable for the tax as if such article were sold at retail by such person. For example, a truck having a gross vehicle weight rating of 24,000 pounds is sold at retail. The purchaser adds a lift axle, thereby increasing the gross vehicle weight rating to 34,000 pounds. If the purchaser thereafter uses the vehicle the purchaser shall be liable for the tax as if such article were sold at retail.
(2) Exemption for use in further manufacture. The tax on the use of an article to which paragraph (c)(1) of this section applies shall not apply to use of the article by such person as material in the manufacture or production of, or as a component part of, another article to be manufactured or produced by the same user.
(3) Time of application of tax. In the case of taxable use of an article by the seller, the tax attaches at the time such use begins. It tax applies by reason of the sale of an article on or in connection with, or with the sale of another article, the tax attaches at the time of the sale of such other article.
(4) Events subsequent to taxable use of article. Liability for tax incurred on the use of an article is not extinguished or reduced because of any subsequent sale or lease of the article even if such sale or lease would have been exempt if the article had been sold or leased prior to use. If a seller of an article incurs liability for tax on his or her use of an article, and thereafter sells or leases the article in a transaction which otherwise would be subject to tax, liability for tax is not incurred on such sale or lease.
(5) Computation of tax.
(i) Except as provided in paragraphs (c)(5)(ii) and (c)(5)(iii) of this section.
(ii) If the seller of an article regularly sells such articles at retail in arm's length transactions, tax liability on its use of any such article shall be computed on its lowest established retail price for such articles in effect at the time of the taxable use. In establishing such price, there shall be included and excluded, as applicable, the charges and readjustments specified in sections 4216(a), 4216(f), and 6416(b)(1) as in effect at the time the tax liability on the use of the article is incurred. If the seller of an article does not regularly sell such articles at retail in arm's length transactions, a constructive price on which the tax shall be computed will be determined by the Commissioner. This price will be established after considering the selling practices and price structures of sellers of similar articles.
(iii) In the case of any short-term lease (as defined in paragraph (d)(6) of this section) by any person other than a manufacturer, producer, or importer (or related person as defined in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section) of an article that is deemed to be a taxable use of such article under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the tax imposed by section 4051(a)(1) shall be computed on a price equal to the sum of—
(A) The price (as determined under paragraph (d) of this section) at which such article was sold to the lessor plus the cost of any parts and accessories installed by the lessor (or an agent of the lessor) on such article before the first use or lease by the lessor, plus
(B) The product of the sum described in paragraph (c)(5)(iii)(A) of this section and the presumed markup percentage (as defined in paragraph (d)(7) of this section).
(d) Determination of price—
(1) In general. The price for which an article is sold includes the total consideration paid for the article whether that consideration is paid in money, services, or other forms. In addition, there shall be included any charge incident to placing the article in condition ready for use. Similar rules to section 4216(a) and the regulations thereunder, relating to charges to be included in the price and excluded from the price, shall apply. For example, charges for transportation, delivery, insurance, and installatioin (other than installation charges to which section 4051(b) applies), and other expenses actually incurred in connection with the delivery of an article to a purchaser pursuant to a bona fide sale shall be excluded from the price in computing the tax.
(2) Presumptive retail sales price where tax paid by manufacturer, producer, or importer—
(i) In general. In the case of a taxable sale (other than a taxable sale described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) where a manufacturer, producer, importer, or related person is liable for the tax imposed by section 4051, such tax shall be computed on a price equal to the sum of—
(A) The price that would (but for this paragraph (d)(2)) be determined under this paragraph (d), and
(B) The product of the price determined under paragraph (d)(2)(i)(A) of this section and the presumed markup percentage (as defined in paragraph (d)(7) of this section).
(ii) Related person defined—
(A) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, the term “related person” means any person that is a member of the same controlled group (within the meaning of section 5061(e)(3)) as the manufacturer, producer, or importer.
(B) Exception for permanent retail establishment. A person shall not be treated as a related person with respect to the sale of any article if—
(1) Such person sells the article through a permanent retail establishment in the normal course of business of being a retailer, and
(2) Such person has records (e.g., invoices) that substantiate that the article was sold for a price that included a markup equal to or greater than the presumed markup percentage (as defined in paragraph (d)(7) of this section).
(3) Retail sales price where tax paid by person other than a manufacturer, producer, importer, or related person—
(i) In general. In the case of a taxable sale (other than a taxable sale defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) where a person other than a manufacturer, producer, importer, or related person is liable for the tax imposed by section 4051, such tax shall be computed on a price determined under paragraph (d)(1) of this section.
(ii) Exception. When a person other than a manufacturer, producer, importer, or related person is liable for the tax imposed by section 4051, such tax shall be computed on a price determined under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section if—
(A) Such person does not perform any significant activities relating to the processing of the sale of an article,
(B) The principal purpose for processing the sale through such person is to avoid or evade the presumed markup under paragraph (d)(2)(i)(B) of this section, and
(C) Such person does not have records (e.g., invoices) substantiating that the article was sold for a price that included a markup equal to or greater than the presumed markup percentage as defined in paragraph (d)(7) of this section.
(4) Presumptive retail sales price in the case of a lease by a manufacturer, producer, or importer. In the case of any long-term lease (as defined in paragraph (d)(6) of this section) by a manufacturer, producer, importer, or a related person (as defined in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section) of an article that is deemed to be a taxable sale of such article under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the tax imposed by section 4051(a)(1) shall be computed on a price equal to the sum of—
(i) A constructive sales price established by the Commissioner based on the price at which such article would be sold by a manufacturer, producer, or importer in a sale other than a taxable sale (e.g., a sale to which the exceptions contained in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section applies) on the date the lease is made, and
(ii) The product of the constructive sales price referred to in paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section and the presumed markup percentage as defined in paragraph (d)(7) of this section.
(5) Presumptive retail sales price in the case of a long-term lease by any other person. In the case of any long-term lease (as defined in paragraph (d)(6) of this section) of an article in which any person other than a manufacturer, producer, or importer (or related person as defined in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section) is the lessor and the long-term lease is deemed to be a taxable sale of such article under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the tax imposed by section 4051(a)(1) shall be computed on a price equal to the sum of—
(i) The price (as determined under this paragraph (d)) at which such article was sold to the lessor plus the cost of any parts and accessories installed by the lessor (or an agent of the lessor) on such article before the first use by the lessee or leased in connection with such long-term lease, and
(ii) The product of the sum described in paragraph (d)(5)(i) of this section and the presumed markup percentage as defined in paragraph (d)(7) of this section.
(6) Long-term and short-term lease defined. For purposes of this section, the term “long-term lease” means any lease with a term of one year or more. The term “short-term lease” means any lease with a term of less than one year. In determining a lease term, options to renew shall be taken into account. In addition, two or more successive leases that are part of the same transaction (or a series of related transactions) with respect to the same or substantially similar article, shall be treated as one lease.
(7) Presumed markup percentage—
(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(7)(ii) of this section, for purposes of this section the term “presumed markup percentage” shall be four percent.
(ii) Exceptions. For purposes of this section the “presumed markup percentage” for trailers, semitrailers, and remanufactured automobile truck chassis and bodies and tractors shall be zero percent. For purposes of this section an article is a remanufactured article if—
(A) The refurbishing, renovation, or repair of the article causes it to be subject to the tax imposed by section 4051, and
(B) Before remanufacture, such article was previously subject to the tax imposed by section 4051 (or section 4061 prior to its repeal).
(8) Items excluded from price. There shall be excluded from the price:
(i) The amount ot tax imposed under sections 4051(a)(1) and (b)(1);
(ii) If stated as a separate charge, the amount of any retail sales tax imposed by any state or political subdivision thereof or the District of Columbia, whether the liability for such tax is imposed on the vendor or vendee; and
(iii) The fair market value (including any tax imposed by section 4071) at retail of any tires (not including any metal rim or rim base). For purposes of this paragraph (d)(8)(iii), fair market value at retail shall be determined by the lowest established price for which the vehicle retailer would sell such tires at retail in the ordinary course of trade. The lowest established price is the lowest price for which the vehicle retailer sells, or offers to sell, a single tire to an independent purchaser who would not ordinarily be expected to buy more than one. If the vehicle retailer has no lowest established price the Commissioner will accept any price provided, under the facts and circumstances, such price is not unreasonable. For vehicles sold on or after April 1, 1983, and before October 13, 1985, a price will not be considered unreasonable if it is no more than an amount equal to 50 percent of the manufacturer's suggested retail price.
(9) Trade-ins. If, in connection with the sale of an article subject to the tax imposed under section 4051(a)(1) or (b)(1) on the price for which sold, a vendor receives from its vendee another article in exchange, the tax on the vendor's sale shall be computed on the basis of the full price of the article sold, unreduced by any amount allowed for the article received from the vendee. For example, where a vehicle costing $20,000 is purchased for $16,000 cash plus a used vehicle valued at $4,000, tax is $2,400 (12 percent × $20,000).
(10) Sales not at arm's length. For purposes of § 145.4051-1 and this section, a sale is considered to be made under circumstances otherwise than at “arm's length” if:
(i) One of the parties is controlled (in law or in fact) by the other, or there is common control, whether or not such control is actually exercised to influence the sale price, or
(ii) The sale is made pursuant to special arrangements between a seller and a purchaser.
In the case of an article sold otherwise than at arm's length, and sold at less than the fair market price, the tax imposed under section 4051(a)(1) or (b)(1) shall be computed on the price for which similar articles are sold at retail in the ordinary course of trade, as determined by the Commissioner. Once such a price has been determined, no further adjustment of such price shall be made.
(e) Examples. The provisions of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:
Example 1.
M manufactures trucks that are taxable under section 4051. On July 11, 1988, D, a corporation that is a dealer, purchases one truck from M for $50,000. M does not own any stock in D. Prior to this transaction, D gave M a certificate that meets the specifications detailed in paragraph (a)(6) of this section. The certificate states that the truck will be resold or leased on a long-term basis. M's sale to D is not a taxable sale of the truck (within the meaning of paragraph (a)(2) of this section). On July 20, 1988, D resells the truck to a purchaser, P, for $52,000. The additional $2,000 includes the dealer's mark-up, costs of transporting the truck from M to D, and overhead. No parts or accessories were added to the truck. P did not give D a certificate and did not have an agreement with D under which all vehicles purchased were to be resold. The sale of the truck by D to P is a taxable sale within the meaning of paragraph (a)(3) of this section. Therefore, D has a tax liability of $6,240 (12%×$52,000).
Example 2.
Assume the same facts as in example (1) except that M owns 80 percent of D's stock. D and M are members of the same controlled group (within the meaning of section 5061(e)(3)). Therefore, D is a related person under paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. On July 20, 1988, D sells the truck to P for $51,000. D does not have records substantiating that the truck was sold for a price that included a markup equal to or greater than the presumed markup percentage. The tax on the sale of the truck to P is determined under paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section. Therefore, D has a tax liability of $6,240 [(12%×($50,000 ($50,000×4%))].
Example 3.
Assume the same facts as in example (1) except that D does not perform any significant activities relating to the sale. Assume further that the principal purpose for processing the sale through D is to avoid the presumed markup and that D did not sell the truck for a price that included a markup equal to or greater than the presumed markup percentage. D, however, is designated the seller of the truck on the invoice. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section, the price of the truck shall be computed on a price determined under paragraph (d)(2)(i). Therefore, D, the taxpayer, has a tax liability of $6,240 [12%×($50,000 ($50,000×4%))].
Example 4.
Assume the same facts as in example (1) except that on July 20, 1988, D leases the truck for a two-year period (i.e., on a long-term basis) to L, a lessee. D's leasing of the truck to L is treated as a taxable sale under paragraph (b)(1) of this section and the tax is computed on the price as determined under paragraph (d)(5)(i) of this section. D has a tax liability of $6,240 [12%×($50,000 ($50,000×4%))].
Example 5.
Assume the same facts as in example (1) except that on July 20, 1988. D leases the truck to L for a six-month period (i.e., a short-term lease). The lease is treated as a use under paragraph (b)(2) of this section. The tax is computed on the price as determined under paragraph (c)(5) of this section. D has a tax liability of $6,240 [12%×($50,000 ($50,000×4%))].
Example 6.
Assume the same facts as in example (1) except that D does not give M a certificate. The sale by M to D is a taxable sale of the truck under paragraph (a)(2) of this section. M's tax liability is $6,240 [12%×($50,000 ($50,000×4%))]. On July 20, 1988, D leases the truck to L, a lessee. The lease has a two-year term. Since the lease to L occurred after a taxable sale of the truck, paragraph (b)(1) of this section does not apply, and the lease is not treated as a taxable sale under this section.
Example 7.
M manufactures trucks that are taxable under section 4051. On July 11, 1988, M leases a truck to a lessee, L. The lease has a two-year term. The lease is treated as a taxable sale under paragraph (b)(1) of this section and the tax is computed on the price as determined under paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section. The constructive sales price established by the Commissioner, pursuant to paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section, is $50,000. M has a tax liability of $6,240 [12%×($50,000 ($50,000×4%))].
Example 8.
Assume the same facts as in example (7) except that the lease has a six-month term. The lease is treated as a taxable use under paragraph (b)(2) of this section and the tax is computed under paragraph (c)(5) of this section. The constructive sales price established by the Commissioner, pursuant to paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section, is $52,000. M has a tax liability of $6,240 (12%×$52,000).
Example 9.
M manufactures truck trailers and semitrailers that are taxable under section 4051. On July 5, 1988, D, a dealer, purchases a trailer from M for $10,000. Prior to this transaction, D did not give M a certificate and D did not have an agreement with M to resell all articles purchased. The sale by M to D is a taxable sale of the trailer under paragraph (a)(2) of this section. M has a tax liability of $1,200 (12%×$10,000 ($10,000×0%)).
Example 10.
Assume the same facts as in example (9) except that on July 12, 1988, D resells the trailer to P, a purchaser, for $10,500 (the additional $500 includes the dealer's markup, costs of transporting the trailer from M to D, and overhead). P did not give D a certificate and P did not have an agreement with D that stipulates that all articles purchased were to be leased on a long-term basis or resold. The sale of the trailer by D to P is a taxable sale within the meaning of paragraph (a)(3) of this section. Therefore, D has a tax liability of $1,260(12%×$10,500). D, however, may file for a credit of $1,200 under section 6402 provided that the requirements of paragraph (a)(4) of this section are met.
(f) Other rules made applicable. For purposes of § 145.4051-1 and this section, rules similar to the following provisions shall apply:
(1) Section 48.0-2, relating to general definitions and attachment of tax;
(2) Paragraphs (a) (2) and (3) of § 48.4061 (a)-1;
(3) The exemptions provided by sections 4063 (a) and (d) and the regulations thereunder;
(4) Section 4216(f) and the regulations thereunder, relating to the incorporation of used components; and
(5) Section 4221 and the regulations thereunder, relating to certain tax-free sales.
(g) Effective date—
(1) In general. Except as provided below, the provisions of this section shall be effective for articles sold or leased on or after April 1, 1983.
(2) Certain sales made prior to November 12, 1985. If a sale to a lessor before November 12, 1985, was not taxable under § 145.4052-1 of the temporary regulations contained in 26 CFR part 145 revised as of April 1, 1983, (the “prior regulations”) and it was so treated by the parties, a subsequent sale or lease that was or would have been treated as the first retail sale of the article under the prior regulations will be treated as a taxable sale for purposes of this section. The tax on such subsequent sale will be based on a price determined under paragraph (d) of this section. For example, if an article was sold to a purchaser who intended to lease such article long-term, the sale would not have been taxable under the prior regulations even though the seller did not receive a certificate of the purchaser's intent to lease the vehicle. If such a sale was treated as nontaxable by the parties, and the purchaser leases it long-term on or after October 1, 1987, the lease will be treated as a taxable sale of the article. The tax is to be computed under paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section and the price will be computed under paragraph (d)(5).
(3) Certain sales made after November 11, 1985, and before October 1, 1987—
(i) Sales not treated as taxable by purchaser and seller. If a sale to a purchaser after November 11, 1985, and before October 1, 1987, was not treated as taxable by the parties, a subsequent sale or lease that was or would have been treated as the first retail sale of the article under the temporary regulations published in the September 13, 1985, issue of the Federal Register (50 FR 37350) (“the interim regulations”) will be treated as a taxable sale for purposes of this section. The tax on a sale or lease after September 30, 1987, will be based on a price determined under paragraph (d) of this section. For example, if a vehicle was sold on January 3, 1987, to a purchaser who intended to resell the article and who was not in the business of leasing to any extent, the sale would not have been taxable under the interim regulations even though the seller did not receive a certificate indicating the purchaser's intent to resell the article. If such a sale was not treated as a taxable sale by the parties, and the purchaser resells the article, the resale will be treated as a taxable sale of the article under paragraph (a)(2) of this section.
(ii) Sales treated as first retail sale by purchaser and seller. If the sale of an article after November 11, 1985, and before October 1, 1987, was treated as a taxable sale by the parties and tax was paid with respect to the article under the interim regulations, the subsequent sale of the article by the purchaser will not be treated as a taxable sale under paragraph (a)(2) of this section.
[T.D. 7882, 48 FR 14362, Apr. 4, 1983, as amended by T.D. 8050, 50 FR 37351, Sept. 13, 1985; T.D. 8200, 53 FR 16869, May 12, 1988; T.D. 8774, 63 FR 35804, July 1, 1998; T.D. 8879, 65 FR 17164, Mar. 31, 2000]

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