26 CFR 20.6166A-3 - Acceleration of payment.

§ 20.6166A-3 Acceleration of payment.
(a) In general. Under the circumstances described in this section all or a part of the tax which the executor has elected to pay in installments shall be paid before the dates fixed for payment of the installments. Upon an estate's having undistributed net income described in paragraph (b) of this section for any taxable year after its fourth taxable year, the executor shall pay an amount equal to such undistributed net income in liquidation of the unpaid portion of the tax payable in installments. Upon the happening of any of the events described in paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of this section, any unpaid portion of the tax payable in installments shall be paid upon notice and demand from the district director.
(b) Undistributed net income of estate.
(1) If an estate has undistributed net income for any taxable year after its fourth taxable year, the executor shall pay an amount equal to such undistributed net income in liquidation of the unpaid portion of the tax payable in installments. The amount shall be paid to the district director on or before the time prescribed for the filing of the estate's income tax return for such taxable year. For this purpose extensions of time granted for the filing of the income tax return are taken into consideration in determining the time prescribed for filing the return and making such payment. In determining the number of taxable years, a short taxable year is counted as if it were a full taxable year.
(2) The term “undistributed net income” of the estate for any taxable year for purposes of this section is the amount by which the distributable net income of the estate, as defined in section 643, exceeds the sum of—
(i) The amount for such year specified in section 661(a) (1) and (2),
(ii) The amount of the Federal income tax imposed on the estate for such taxable year under Chapter I of the Code, and
(iii) The amount of the Federal estate tax, including interest thereon, paid for the estate during such taxable year (other than any amount paid by reason of the application of this acceleration rule).
(3) The payment described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall be applied against the total unpaid portion of the tax which the executor elected to pay in installments, and shall be divided equally among the installments due after the date of such payment. The application of this subparagraph may be illustrated by the following example:
Example.
The decedent died on January 1, 1959. The executor elects under section 6166 to pay tax in the amount of $100,000 in 10 installments of $10,000. The first installment is due on April 1, 1960. The estate files its income tax returns on a calendar year basis. For its fifth taxable year (calendar year 1963) it has undistributed net income of $6,000. If the prepayment of $6,000 required by section 6166(h)(2)(A), and due on or before April 15, 1964, is paid before the fifth installment (due April 1, 1964), the $6,000 is apportioned equally among installments 5 through 10, leaving $9,000 as the amount due on each of such installments. However, if the prepayment of $6,000 is paid after the fifth installment, it is apportioned equally among installments 6 through 10, leaving $8,800 as the amount due on each of such installments.
(c) Failure to pay installment on or before due date. If any installment of tax is not paid on or before the date fixed for its payment (including any extension of time for the payment thereof), the whole of the unpaid portion of the tax which is payable in installments becomes due and shall be paid upon notice and demand from the district director. See paragraph (c) of § 20.6166-1 for the dates fixed for the payment of installments. See also § 20.6161-1 for the circumstances under which an extension of time for the payment of an installment will be granted.
(d) Withdrawal of funds from business.
(1) In any case where money or other property is withdrawn from the trade or business and the aggregate withdrawals of money or other property equal or exceed 50 percent of the value of the trade or business, the privilege of paying the tax in installments terminates and the whole of the unpaid portion of the tax which is payable in installments becomes due and shall be paid upon notice and demand from the district director. The withdrawals of money or other property from the trade or business must be in connection with the interest therein included in the gross estate, and must equal or exceed 50 percent of the value of the entire trade or business (and not just 50 percent of the value of the interest therein included in the gross estate). The withdrawal must be a withdrawal of money or other property which constitutes “included property” within the meaning of that term as used in paragraph (d) of § 20.2032-1. The provisions of this section do not apply to the withdrawal of money or other property which constitutes “excluded property” within the meaning of that term as used in such paragraph (d).
(2) If a distribution in redemption of stock is (by reason of the provisions of section 303 or so much of section 304 as relates to section 303) treated for income tax purposes as a distribution in full payment in exchange for the stock so redeemed, the amount of such distribution is not counted as a withdrawal of money or other property made with respect to the decedent's interest in the trade or business for purposes of determining whether the withdrawals of money or other property made with respect to the decedent's interest in the trade or business equal or exceed 50 percent of the value of the trade or business. However, in the case described in the preceding sentence the value of the trade or business for purposes of applying the rule set forth in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph is the value thereof reduced by the proportionate part thereof which such distribution represents. The proportionate part of the value of the trade or business which the distribution represents is determined at the time of the distribution, but the reduction in the value of the trade or business represented by it relates back to the time of the decedent's death, or the alternate valuation date if an election is made under section 2032, for purposes of determining whether other withdrawals with respect to the decedent's interest in the trade or business constitute withdrawals equaling or exceeding 50 percent of the value of the trade or business. See example (3) of paragraph (e)(6) of this section for illustration of this principle. The rule stated in the first sentence of this subparagraph does not apply unless after the redemption, but on or before the date prescribed for payment of the first installment which becomes due after the redemption, there is paid an amount of estate tax not less than the amount of money or other property distributed. Where there are a series of section 303 redemptions, each redemption is treated separately and the failure of one redemption to qualify under the rule stated in the first sentence of this subparagraph does not necessarily mean that another redemption will not qualify.
(3) The application of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples, in each of which the executor elected to pay the estate tax in installments:
Example (1).
A, who died on July 1, 1957, owned an 80 percent interest in a partnership which qualified as an interest in a closely held business. B owned the other 20 percent interest in the partnership. On the date of A's death the value of the business was $200,000 and the value of A's interest therein was included in his gross estate at $160,000. On October 1, 1958, when the value of the business was the same as at A's death, the executor withdrew $80,000 from the business. On December 1, 1958, when the value of the remaining portion of the business was $160,000, the executor withdrew $20,000 from the business and B withdrew $10,000. On February 1, 1959, when the value of the then remaining portion of the business was $150,000 the executor withdrew $15,000. The withdrawals of money or other property from the trade or business with respect to the interest therein included in the gross estate are considered as not having equaled or exceeded 50 percent of the value of the trade or business until February 1, 1959. The executor is considered as having withdrawn 40 percent of the value of the trade or business on October 1, 1958, computed as follows:
$80,000 (withdrawal) ÷ $200,000 (value of trade or business at time of withdrawal) × 100 percent = 40 percent
Immediately following the October withdrawal the remaining portion of the business represents 60 percent of the value of the trade or business in existence at the time of A's death (100 percent less 40 percent withdrawn). The executor is considered as having withdrawn 7.5 percent of the value of the trade or business on December 1, 1958, and B as having withdrawn 3.75 percent of the value thereof at that time, computed as follows:
Executor's withdrawal—
$20,000 (withdrawal) ÷ $160,000 (value of trade or business at time of withdrawal) × 60 percent = 7.5 percent
B's withdrawal—
$10,000 (withdrawal) ÷ $160,000 (value of trade or business at time of withdrawal) × 60 percent = 3.75 percent
Immediately following the December withdrawal the then remaining portion of the business represented 48.75 percent of the value of the trade or business in existence at the time of A's death (100 percent less 40 percent withdrawn by executor in October, 7.5 percent withdrawn by executor in December, and 3.75 percent withdrawn by B in December). It should be noted that while at this point the total withdrawals by the executor and B from the trade or business exceed 50 percent of the value thereof, the aggregate of the withdrawals by the executor were less than 50 percent of the value of the trade or business. Also it should be noted that while the total withdrawals by the executor exceeded 50 percent of the value of A's interest in the trade or business, they did not exceed 50 percent of the value of the entire trade or business. The executor is considered as having withdrawn 4.875 percent of the value of the trade or business on February 1, 1959, computed as follows:
$15,000 (withdrawal) ÷ $150,000 (value of trade or business at time of withdrawal) × 48.75 percent = 4.875 percent
As of February 1, 1959, the total withdrawals from the trade or business made with respect to A's interest therein was 52.375 percent of the value of the trade or business.
Example (2).
The decedent's 40-percent interest in the XYZ partnership constituted an interest in a closely held business. Since the decedent's interest in the closely held business amounted to less than 50 percent of the value of the business, money or other property equaling or exceeding 50 percent of the value of the business could not be withdrawn from the decedent's interest in the business. Therefore, withdrawals of money or other property from this trade or business never would accelerate the payment of the tax under the provisions of this paragraph.
Example (3).
The decedent died on September 1, 1957. He owned 100 shares of B Corporation (the total number of shares outstanding at the time of his death) and a 75 percent interest in a partnership of which C was the other partner. The B Corporation stock and the interest in the partnership together make up the interest in the closely held business which was included in the decedent's gross estate. The B Corporation stock was included in the gross estate at a value of $400,000 and the interest in the partnership was included at a value of $300,000. On November 1, 1957, at which time the value of the corporation's assets had not changed, in a section 303 redemption the executor surrendered 26 shares of B Corporation stock for $104,000. On December 1, 1957, at which time the value of the partnership's assets had not changed, the partners withdrew 90 percent of the assets of the partnership, with the executor receiving $270,000 and C receiving $90,000. The estate tax amounts to $240,000, of which the executor elected under section 6166 to pay $140,000 in 10 installments of $14,000 each. On December 1, 1958, the due date for paying the estate tax which was not payable in installments and for paying the first installment under section 6166, the executor paid estate tax of $114,000, of which $100,000 represented the tax not payable in installments and $14,000 represented the first installment. Inasmuch as after the section 303 distribution and on or before the due date of the first installment (December 1, 1958) after the section 303 distribution the executor paid as estate tax an amount not less than the amount of the distribution, the section 303 distribution does not constitute a withdrawal of money or other property from the business for purposes of section 6166(h)(1). Therefore, the value of the trade or business is reduced by the amount of the section 303 distribution. Accordingly, the value of the entire trade or business is $696,000, of which $400,000 represents the value of the partnership and $296,000 represents the value of the B Corporation stock. Since the executor is considered as having withdrawn only $270,000 (the withdrawal from the partnership) from the trade or business, the withdrawal of money or other property from the trade or business made with respect to the decedent's interest therein was 270,000/696,000 of the value of the entire trade or business, or less than 50 percent thereof.
(e) Disposition of interest in business.
(1) In any case where in the aggregate 50 percent or more of the decedent's interest in a closely held business has been distributed, sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of, the privilege of paying the tax in installments terminates and the whole of the unpaid portion of the tax which is payable in installments becomes due and shall be paid upon notice and demand from the district director. A transfer by the executor of an interest in the closely held business to a beneficiary or trustee named in the decedent's will or to an heir who is entitled to receive it under the applicable intestacy law does not constitute a distribution thereof for purposes of determining whether 50 percent or more of an interest in a closely held business has been distributed, sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of. However, a subsequent transfer of the interest by the beneficiary, trustee, or heir will constitute a distribution, sale, exchange, or other disposition thereof for such purposes. The disposition must be a disposition of an interest which constitutes “included property” within the meaning of that term as used in paragraph (d) of § 20.2032-1. The provisions of this section do not apply to the disposition of an interest which constitutes “excluded property” within the meaning of that term as used in such paragraph (d).
(2) The phrase “distributed, sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of” comprehends all possible ways by which an interest in a closely held business ceases to form a part of the gross estate. The term includes the surrender of a stock certificate for corporate assets in complete or partial liquidation of a corporation pursuant to section 331. The term also includes the surrender of stock for stock pursuant to a transaction described in subparagraphs (A), (B), or (C) of section 368(a)(1). In general the term does not, however, extend to transactions which are mere changes in form. It does not include a transfer of assets to a corporation in exchange for its stock in a transaction with respect to which no gain or loss would be recognizable for income tax purposes under section 351. It does not include an exchange of stock in a corporation for stock in the same corporation or another corporation pursuant to a plan of reorganization described in subparagraph (D), (E), or (F) of section 368(a)(1), nor to an exchange to which section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) applies. However, any stock received in an exchange to which the two preceding sentences apply shall for purposes of this paragraph be treated as an interest in a closely held business.
(3) An interest in a closely held business may be “distributed” by either a trustee who received it from the executor, or a trustee of an interest which is included in the gross estate under sections 2035 through 2038, or section 2041. See subparagraph (1) of this paragraph relative to the distribution of an interest by the executor to the person entitled to receive it under the decedent's will or an intestacy law.
(4) An interest in a closely held business may be “sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of” by (i) the executor; (ii) a trustee or other donee to whom the decedent in his lifetime transferred the interest included in his gross estate under section 2035 through 2038, or section 2041; (iii) a beneficiary, trustee, or heir entitled to receive the property from the executor under the decedent's will or under the applicable law of descent and distribution, or to whom title to the interest passed directly under local law; (iv) a surviving joint tenant or tenant by the entirety; or (v) any other person.
(5) If a distribution in redemption of stock is (by reason of the provisions of section 303 or so much of section 304 as relates to section 303) treated for income tax purposes as a distribution in full payment in exchange for the stock redeemed, the stock so redeemed is not counted as distributed, sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of for purposes of determining whether 50 percent or more of the decedent's interest in a closely held business has been distributed, sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of. However, in the case described in the preceding sentence the interest in the closely held business for purposes of applying the rule set forth in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph is such interest reduced by the proportionate part thereof which the redeemed stock represents. The proportionate part of the interest which the redeemed stock represents is determined at the time of the redemption, but the reduction in the interest represented by it relates back to the time of the decedent's death, or the alternate valuation date if an election is made under section 2032, for purposes of determining whether other distributions, sales, exchanges, and dispositions of the decedent's interest in the closely held business equal or exceed in the aggregate 50 percent of such interest. See example (3) of subparagraph (6) of this paragraph for illustration of this principle. The rule stated in the first sentence of this subparagraph does not apply unless after the redemption, but on or before the date prescribed for payment of the first installment which becomes due after the redemption, there is paid an amount of estate tax not less than the amount of money or other property distributed. Where there are a series of section 303 redemptions, each redemption is treated separately and the failure of one redemption to qualify under the rule stated in the first sentence of this subparagraph does not necessarily mean that another redemption will not qualify.
(6) The application of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples, in each of which the executor elected to pay the tax in installments:
Example (1).
The decedent died on October 1, 1957. He owned 8,000 of the 12,000 shares of D Corporation outstanding at the time of his death and 3,000 of the 5,000 shares of E Corporation outstanding at that time. The D Corporation stock was included in the gross estate at $50 per share, or a total of $400,000. The E Corporation stock was included in the gross estate at $100 per share, or a total of $300,000. On November 1, 1958, the executor sold the 3,000 shares of E Corporation and on February 1, 1959, he sold 1,000 shares of D Corporation. Since the decedent's shares of D Corporation and E Corporation together constituted the interest in a closely held business, the value of such interest was $700,000 ($400,000 plus $300,000) and the D Corporation stock represented 400,000/700,000 thereof and the E Corporation stock represented 300,000/700,000 thereof. While the sale of 3,000 shares of E Corporation on November 1, 1958, was a sale of the decedent's entire interest in E Corporation and a sale of more than 50 percent of the outstanding stock of E Corporation, nevertheless it constituted a sale of only 300,000/700,000 of the interest in the closely held business. The sale of 1,000 shares of D Corporation stock on February 1, 1959, represented a sale of 50,000/700,000 of the interest in the closely held business. The numerator of $50,000 is determined as follows:
1,000 (shares sold) ÷ 8,000 (shares owned) × $400,000 (value of shares owned, as included in gross estate)
Taken together the two sales represented a sale of 50 percent (350,000/700,000) of the interest in the closely held business. Therefore, as of February 1, 1959 (the date of the sale of 1,000 shares of E Corporation), 50 percent or more in value of the interest in the closely held business is considered as distributed, sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of.
Example (2).
The decedent died on September 1, 1958. The interest owned by him in a closely held business consisted of 100 shares of the M Corporation. On February 1, 1959, in a section 303 redemption, 20 shares were redeemed for cash and an amount equivalent to the proceeds was paid on the Federal estate tax before the date of the next installment. On July 1, 1959, the executor sold 40 of the remaining shares of the stock. The section 303 redemption is not considered to be a distribution, sale, exchange, or other disposition of the portion of the interest represented by the 20 shares redeemed. As a result of the section 303 redemption the remaining 80 shares represent the decedent's entire interest in the closely held business for purposes of determining whether in the aggregate 50 percent or more of the interest in the closely held business has been distributed, sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of. The sale on July 1, 1959, of the 40 shares represents a sale of 50 percent of the interest in the closely held business.
Example (3).
The facts are the same as in example (2) except that the 40 shares were sold on December 1, 1958 (before the section 303 redemption was made) instead of on July 1, 1959 (after the section 303 redemption was made). The sale of the 40 shares in December represents, as of that date, a sale of 40 percent of the interest in the closely held business. However, the section 303 redemption of 20 shares does not count as a distribution, sale, exchange, or other disposition of the interest, but it does reduce the interest to 80 shares (100 shares less 20 shares redeemed) for purposes of determining whether other distributions, sales, exchanges, and dispositions in the aggregate equal or exceed 50 percent of the interest in the closely held business. Since the reduction of the interest to 80 shares relates back to the time of the decedent's death, or the alternate valuation date if an election is made under section 2032, the sale of the 40 shares, as recomputed represents a sale of 50 percent of the interest. However, since the sale of the 40 shares did not represent a sale of 50 percent of the interest until the section 303 distribution was made, February 1, 1959 (the date of the section 303 distribution) is considered the date on which 50 percent of the interest was distributed, sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of.
(f) Information to be furnished by executor.
(1) If the executor acquires knowledge of the happening of any transaction described in paragraph (d) or (e) of this section which, in his opinion, standing alone or when taken together with other transactions of which he has knowledge, would result in—
(i) Aggregate withdrawals of money or other property from the trade or business equal to or exceeding 50 percent of the value of the entire trade or business, or
(ii) Aggregate distributions, sales, exchanges, and other dispositions equal to or exceeding 50 percent of the interest in the closely held business which was included in the gross estate, the executor shall so notify the district director, in writing, within 30 days of acquiring such knowledge.
(2) On the date fixed for payment of each installment of tax (determined without regard to any extension of time for the payment thereof), other than the final installment, the executor shall furnish the district director, in writing, with either—
(i) A complete disclosure of all transactions described in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section of which he has knowledge and which have not previously been made known by him to the district director, or
(ii) A statement that to the best knowledge of the executor all transactions described in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section which have occurred have not produced a result described in subparagraph (1) (i) or (ii) of this paragraph.
(3) The district director may require the submission of such additional information as is deemed necessary to establish the estate's right to continue payment of the tax in installments.
[T.D. 6522, 25 FR 13888, Dec. 29, 1960. Redesignated by T.D. 7710, 45 FR 50745, July 31, 1980]

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