Collection and administration of qualified taxes.
(a) In general.
In the case of any State which has in effect a State agreement (as defined in paragraph (a) of § 301.6361-4 ), the Commissioner of Internal Revenue shall collect and administer each qualified tax (as defined in paragraph (b) of § 301.6361-4) of such State. No fee or other charge shall be imposed upon any State for the collection or administration of any qualified tax of such State or any other State. In any such case of collection and administration of qualified taxes, the provisions of subtitle F (relating to procedure and administration), subtitle G (relating to the Joint Committee on Taxation), and chapter 24 (relating to the collection of income tax at source on wages), and the provisions of regulations thereunder, insofar as such provisions relate to the collection and administration of the taxes imposed on the income of individuals by chapter 1 (and the civil and criminal sanctions provided by subtitle F, or by title 18 of the United States Code (relating to crimes and criminal procedure), with respect to such collection and administration) shall apply to the collection and administration of qualified taxes as if such taxes were imposed by chapter 1, except to the extent that the application of such provisions (and sanctions) are modified by regulations issued under subchapter E (as defined in paragraph (d) of § 301.6361-4 ). Any extension of time which is granted for the making of a payment, or for the filing of any return, which relates to any Federal tax imposed by subtitle A (or by subtitle C with respect to filing a return) shall constitute automatically an extension of the same amount of time for the making of the corresponding payment or for the filing of the corresponding return relating to any qualified tax.
(b) Returns of qualified taxes.
Every individual, estate, or trust which has liability for one or more qualified taxes for a taxable year—
Shall file a Federal income tax return at the time prescribed pursuant to section 6072(a) (whether or not such return is required by section 6012 ), and shall file therewith on the prescribed form a return under penalties of perjury for each tax which is—
A qualified resident tax imposed by a State of which the taxpayer was a resident, as defined in § 301.6362-6, for any part of the taxable year;
A qualified nonresident tax imposed by a State within which was located the source or sources from which the taxpayer derived, while not a resident of such State and while not exempt from liability for the tax by reason of a reciprocal agreement between such State and the State of which he is a resident, 25 percent or more of his aggregate wage and other business income, as defined in paragraph (c) of § 301.6362-5, for the taxable year; or
A qualified resident or nonresident tax with respect to which any amount was currently collected from the taxpayer's income (including collection by withholding on wages or by payment of estimated income tax), as provided in paragraph (f) of § 301.6362-6, for any part of the taxable year; and
Shall declare (in addition to the declaration required with respect to the return of the Federal income tax and in the place and manner prescribed by form or instructions thereto) under penalties of perjury that, to the best of the knowledge and belief of the taxpayer (or, in the case of an estate or trust, of the fiduciary who executes the Federal income tax return), he has no liability for any qualified tax for the taxable year other than any such liabilities returned with the Federal income tax return (pursuant to subparagraph (1) of this paragraph (b)). Such declaration shall constitute a return indicating no liability with respect to each qualified tax other than any such tax for which liability is so returned. A Federal income tax return form which is filed but which does not contain such declaration shall constitute a Federal income tax return only if the taxpayer in fact has no liability for any qualified State tax for the taxable year.
(1) Credit for tax of another State or political subdivision—
A credit allowable under a qualified tax law against the tax imposed by such law for a taxpayer's tax liability to another State or a political subdivision of another State shall be allowed if the requirements of subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph are met, and if the credit meets the requirements of paragraph (c) of § 301.6362-4. Such credit shall be allowed without regard to whether the tax imposed by the other State or subdivision thereof is a qualified tax, and without regard to whether such tax has been paid.
(ii) Substantiation of tax liability for which a credit is allowed.
If the liability which gives rise to a credit of the type described in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph is with respect to a qualified tax, then the fact of such liability shall be substantiated by filing the return on which such liability is reported. If such liability is not with respect to a qualified tax, then the Commissioner may require a taxpayer who claims entitlement to such a credit to complete a form to be submitted with his return of the qualified tax against which the credit is claimed. On such form the taxpayer shall identify each of the other States (the liabilities to which were not substantiated as provided in the first sentence of this subdivision) or political subdivisions to which the taxpayer reported a liability for a tax giving rise to the credit, furnish the name or description of each such tax, state the amount of the liability so reported with respect to each such tax and the beginning and ending dates of the taxable period for which such liability was reported, and provide such other information as is requested in the form or in the instructions thereto. In addition, the taxpayer shall agree on such form to notify the Commissioner in the event that the amount of any tax liability (or portion thereof) which is claimed as giving rise to a credit of the type described in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph is changed or adjusted, whether as a result of an amended return filed by the taxpayer, a determination by the jurisdiction imposing the tax, or in any other manner.
(2) Credit or withheld qualified tax.
An individual from whose wages an amount is withheld on account of a qualified tax shall receive a credit for such amount against his aggregate liability for all such qualified taxes and the Federal income tax for the taxable year, whether or not such tax has been paid over to the Federal Government by the employer. The credit shall operate in the manner provided by section 31(a) of the Code and the regulations thereunder with respect to Federal income tax withholding.
(d) Collection of qualified taxes at source on wages—
(1) In general.
Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, every employer making payment of wages to an employee described in such subparagraph shall deduct and withhold upon such wages the amount prescribed with respect to the qualified tax designated in such subparagraph. The amounts prescribed for withholding with respect to each such qualified tax shall be published in Circular E (Employer's Tax Guide) or other appropriate Internal Revenue Service publications. See paragraph (f)(1) of § 301.6362-7 with respect to civil and criminal penalties to which an employer shall be subject with respect to his responsibilities relating to qualified taxes.
(2) Specific withholding requirements.
An employer shall deduct and withhold upon an employee's wages the amount prescribed with respect to a qualified tax with respect to which such employee is subject to the current collection provisions pursuant to paragraph (f) of § 301.6362-6, unless:
In the case of a qualified resident tax, the employee's services giving rise to the wages are performed in another State, and such other State or a political subdivision thereof imposes a nonresident tax on such employee with respect to which the withholding amount exceeds the prescribed withholding amount with respect to such qualified resident tax, and the State imposing such qualified resident tax grants a credit against it for such nonresident tax.
In the case of a qualified nonresident tax, either:
Residents of the State in which the employee resides are exempt from liability for the qualified nonresident tax imposed by the State from sources within which his wage income is derived, by reason of an interstate compact or agreement to which the two States are parties, or
The State in which the employee resides imposes a qualified resident tax on such employee with respect to which the prescribed withholding amounts exceed the prescribed withholding amounts with respect to the qualified nonresident tax imposed by the State from sources within which his wage income is derived, and the State in which he resides grants a credit against its qualifed resident tax for such qualified nonresident tax.
If the nonresident tax described in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph is a qualified nonresident tax imposed by a State, then the reference in such subdivision to the State in which the services are performed shall be construed as a reference to the State from sources within which the wage income is derived, within the meaning of paragraph (d)(1) of § 301.6362-5
(3) Forms, procedures, and returns relating to withholding with respect to qualified taxes—
(i) Forms W-4 and W-4P.
Forms W-4 (Employee's Withholding Allowance Certificate) and W-4P (Annuitant's Request for Income Tax Withholding), shall include information as to the State in which the employee resides, and shall be used for purposes of withholding with respect to both Federal and qualified taxes. An employee shall show on his Form W-4 the State in which he resides for purposes of this paragraph, and shall file a new Form W-4 within 10 days after he changes his State of residence. An employee who fails to meet either of the requirements set forth in the preceding sentence, with the intent to evade the withholding tax imposed with respect to a qualifed tax, shall be subject to the penalty provided in section 7205 of the Code. An employer shall be responsible for determining the State within which are located the sources from which the employee's wage income is derived for purposes of this paragraph; and, if the employee does not file a Form W-4, the employer shall assume for such purposes that the employee resides in that State. When an employer and an employee enter into a voluntary withholding agreement pursuant to § 31.3402(p)-1, the employer shall withhold the amount prescribed with respect to the qualified resident tax imposed by the State in which the employee resides, as indicated on Form W-4. Similarly, if an annuitant requests withholding with respect to his annuity payments pursuant to section 3402 (o)(1)(B) of the Code, the payer shall withhold the whole dollar amount specified by the annuitant with respect to a qualified resident tax, provided that the combined withholding with respect to Federal and qualified taxes on each annuity payment shall be a whole dollar amount not less than $5, and that the net amount of any annuity payment received by the payee shall not be reduced to less than $10.
(ii) Forms W-2 and W-2P.
Forms W-2 (Wage and Tax Statement) and W-2P (the corresponding form for annuities) shall show:
The total amount withheld with respect to the Federal income tax;
The total amount withheld with respect to qualified taxes;
The name of each State imposing a qualified tax in which the employee (or annuitant) resided during the taxable year, as shown on Form W-4 (or W-4P);
The name of each State imposing a qualified nonresident tax within which were located sources from which the employee's wage income was derived during a period of the taxable year in which he was not shown as a resident of such State on Form W-4, and the amount of the employee's wage income so derived; and
The name of each State or locality that imposes an income tax which is not a qualified tax and with respect to which the employer withheld on the employee's wage income for the taxable year, and the amount of wage income with respect to which the employer so withheld.
(iii) Requirements relating to deposit and payment of withheld tax.
Rules relating to the deposit and remittance of withheld Federal income and FICA taxes, including those prescribed in section 6302 of the Code and the regulations thereunder, shall apply also to amounts withheld with respect to qualified taxes. Thus, an employer's liability with respect to the deposit and payment of withheld taxes shall be for the combined amount of withholding with respect to Federal and qualified taxes. The Federal Tax Deposit form shall separately indicate:
The combined total amount of Federal income, FICA, and qualified taxes withheld;
The combined total amount of qualified taxes withheld; and
The total amount of qualified taxes withheld with respect to each electing State.
Data indicating the total amount of tax deposits processed by the Internal Revenue Service with respect to the qualified taxes of an electing State will be available to that State upon request on as frequent as a weekly basis. These data will be available no later than 10 working days after the end of the calendar week in which the deposits were processed by the Service.
(iv) Employment tax returns.
Forms 941 (Employer's Quarterly Federal Tax Return), 941-E (Quarterly Return of Withheld Income Tax), 941-M (Employer's Monthly Federal Tax Return), 942 (Employer's Quarterly Tax Return for Household Employees), and 943 (Employer's Annual Tax Return for Agricultural Employees), shall indicate the total amount withheld with respect to each qualified tax, as directed by such forms or their instructions.
(e) Criminal penalties.
A criminal offense committed with respect to a qualified tax shall be treated as a separate offense from a similar offense committed with respect to the Federal tax. Thus, for example, if a taxpayer willfully attempts to evade both the Federal tax and a qualified tax by failing to report a portion of his income, he shall be considered as having committed two criminal offenses, each subject to a separate penalty under section 7201. See also § 301.6362-7(f) with respect to criminal penalties.
(f) Allocation of amounts collected with respect to tax and criminal fines—
(1) In general.
The aggregate amount that has been collected from a taxpayer (including amounts collected by withholding) in respect of liability for both one or more qualified taxes and the Federal income tax for a taxable year shall be allocated among the Federal Government and the States imposing qualified taxes for which the taxpayer is liable in the proportion which the taxpayer's liability for each such tax bears to his aggregate liability for such year to all of such taxing jurisdictions with respect to such taxes. A reallocation shall be made either when an amount is collected from the taxpayer or his employer or is credited or refunded to the taxpayer, subsequent to the making of the initial allocation, or when a determination is made by the Commissioner that an error was made with respect to a previous allocation. However, any such allocation or reallocation shall not affect the amount of a taxpayer's or employer's liability to either jurisdiction, or the amount of the assessment and collection which may be made with respect to a taxpayer or employer. Accordingly, such allocations and reallocations shall not be taken into consideration for purposes of the application of statutes of limitation or provisions relating to interest, additions to tax, penalties, and criminal sanctions. See example 4 in subparagraph (4) of this paragraph (e). In addition, any such allocation or reallocation shall not affect the amount of the deduction to which a taxpayer is entitled under section 164 for a year in which he made payment (including payments made by withholding) of an amount which was designated as being in respect of his liability for a qualified tax. However, to the extent that an amount which was paid by a taxpayer and designated as being in respect of his liability for a qualified tax is allocated or reallocated in such a manner as to apply it toward the taxpayer's liability for the Federal income tax, such allocation or reallocation shall be treated as a refund to the taxpayer of an amount paid in respect of a State income tax, and shall be included in the gross income of the taxpayer to the extent appropriate under section 111 and the regulations thereunder in the year in which the allocation or reallocation is made. See section 451 and the regulations thereunder. Similarly, to the extent that an amount which was paid by a taxpayer and designated as being in respect of his Federal income tax liability is allocated or reallocated in such a manner as to apply it toward his liability for a qualified tax, such allocation or reallocation shall be treated as a payment made by the taxpayer in respect of a State income tax, and shall be deductible under section 164 in the year in which the allocation or reallocation is made. The Internal Revenue Service shall notify the taxpayer in writing of any allocation or reallocation of tax liabilities in a proportion other than that of the respective tax liabilities shown on the taxpayer's returns.
(2) Amounts of collections and liabilities.
For purposes of this paragraph the aggregate amount that has been collected from a taxpayer or his employer in respect of tax liability shall include the amounts of interest provided in chapter 67, and additions to tax and assessable penalties provided in chapter 68, which are collected with respect to such tax; but shall not include criminal fines provided in chapter 75, or in title 18 of the United States Code, which are collected with respect to offenses relating to such tax. (See subparagraph (3) of this paragraph (e) with respect to the treatment of such criminal fines.) However, for purposes of this paragraph, the amount of the taxpayer's liability for each tax shall exclude his liability for such interest additions to tax, and assessable penalties with respect to such tax, and his liability for criminal fines imposed with respect to offenses relating to such tax. For purposes of this paragraph, the amount of the taxpayer's liability for each tax shall be computed by taking credits into account, except that there shall be no reduction for any amounts paid on account of such liability, whether by means of withholding, estimated tax payment, or otherwise.
(3) Special rules relating to criminal fines.
Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, when a criminal charge is brought against a taxpayer with respect to a taxable year pursuant to chapter 75, or to title 18 of the United States Code, or to a corresponding provision of a qualified tax law, alleging that an offense was committed against the United States with respect to the Federal income tax or against a State with respect to a qualified tax, and an amount of money is collected by the Federal Government as a fine as a result of such charge, then the Federal Government shall remit an amount to each State, if any, which is an affected jurisdiction. The amount remitted to each such State shall bear the same proportion to the total amount collected as a fine as the taxpayer's liability with respect to the qualified taxes of that State bears to the aggregate of the taxpayer's income tax liabilities to all affected jurisdictions for the taxable year, as determined under subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph (e). For purposes of this subparagraph, an affected jurisdiction is (A) a jurisdiction with respect to the tax of which a criminal charge described in the preceding sentence was brought for the taxable year, or (B) a jurisdiction with respect to the Federal income tax or the qualified tax of which the acts or omissions alleged in such a criminal charge would constitute the basis for the bringing of a criminal charge for the same taxable year. However, in no case shall the amount received by an affected State, or the amount of the excess of the amount received by the Federal Government over the amount of its remissions to States, with respect to a fine exceed the maximum fine prescribed by statute for the offense against that jurisdiction with respect to which a criminal charge was brought, or with respect to which the bringing of a criminal charge could have been supported on the basis of the acts or omissions alleged in a criminal charge brought. For purposes of this subparagraph, the amount collected as a fine as a result of a criminal charge shall include amounts paid in settlement of an actual or potential liability for a fine, amounts paid pursuant to a conviction and amounts paid pursuant to a plea of guilty or nolo contendere.
If a criminal charge described in the first sentence of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph is actually brought with respect to the income tax of every affected jurisdiction with respect to the taxable year, and if a Court adjudicates on the merits the taxpayer's liability for a fine to each such jurisdiction, and includes in its decree a direction of the amount, if any, to be paid as a fine to each such jurisdiction, then that decree shall govern the allocation of the amount of money collected by the Federal Government as a fine with respect to the taxable year.
The application of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:
The total combined amount of State X qualified tax and Federal income tax collected from A, a resident of State X, for the taxable year is $5,100. The amounts of A's liabilities for such taxes for that year are $800 to State X and $4,000 to the Federal Government. Since A's tax liability to State X is one-sixth of the combined tax liability ($4,800), one-sixth ($50) of the amount to be refunded to A ($300) is chargeable against State X's account, and five-sixths ($250) is chargeable against the Federal Government's account.
Assume the same facts as in example 1 except that the total amount collected from A is $4,500. Since A's liabilities for the State X tax and the Federal tax are one-sixth and five-sixths, respectively, of the combined tax liability, the Federal Government shall pay over to State X one-sixth ($750) of the amount actually collected from A, and the Federal Government shall retain five-sixths ($3,750).
The total amount of State X qualified tax, State Y qualified tax, and Federal income tax collected from B, a resident of State X who is employed in State Y, for the taxable year is $5,500. The amounts of B's liabilities for such taxes for that year are: $250 for the State X tax (after allowance of a credit for State Y's qualified tax), $750 for the State Y tax, and $4,000 for the Federal tax. Since B's liability for the State X tax ($250) is 5 percent of the combined tax liability ($5,000), his liability for the State Y tax ($750) is 15 percent of such combined liability, and his liability for the Federal tax ($4,000) is 80 percent of such combined liability, the total amount to be refunded to B ($500) shall be chargeable in the following manner: 5 percent ($25) against State X's account, 15 percent ($75) against State Y's account, and 80 percent ($400) against the Federal Government's account.
C is liable for $2,000 in Federal income tax and $500 in State X qualified tax (a resident tax) for the taxable year. However, on his Federal income tax return for such year, C erroneously described himself as a resident of State Y (which does not have a qualified tax), and he filed with such return his declaration to the effect that he had no qualified tax liability for the year. Accordingly, C paid only $2,000 for his Federal tax liability, and such amount was retained in the account of the Federal Government. Subsequently, C's error is discovered. The amount collected by the Federal Government from C for such year must be allocated between the Federal Government and State X in proportion to C's tax liability to both. Accordingly, the Federal Government must pay over to State X the amount of $400 (which is 1/5 ($500/$2,500) of the $2,000 collected). If the Federal Government collects from C the additional $500 owed, it will retain $400 of such amount and pay the remaining $100 to State X. Similarly, if the Federal Government collects from C any interest, or any additions to tax or assessable penalties under chapter 68, 4/5 of the amount of such collections shall be retained by the Federal Government and 1/5 of such amount shall be paid over to State X. However, notwithstanding the allocation of the funds between the taxing jurisdictions, C's liability for the $500 retains its character as a liability for State X tax. Therefore, any interest, additions to tax, or assessable penalities imposed with respect to the State X tax shall be imposed with respect to C's full $500 liability for such tax, notwithstanding the fact that amounts collected with respect to such items shall be allocated 4/5 to the Federal Government.
A criminal charge is brought against D pursuant to chapter 75, alleging that he willfully evaded the payment of Federal income tax by failing to report interest income derived from obligations of the United States. D enters a plea of non contendere to the charge and pays $2,500 as a fine to the Federal Government. The act alleged in the criminal charge would not support the bringing of a criminal charge under a State law corresponding to chapter 75, or to title 18 of the United States Code, with respect to the qualified tax of any State; accordingly, the United States is the only affected jurisdiction, and no remittances shall be made to any State with respect to the amount collected by the Federal Government as a fine.
A criminal charge is brought against E pursuant to chapter 75, alleging that he willfully attempted to evade the assessment of liability for both Federal income tax and the qualified tax of State X by filing false and fraudulent income tax returns. E's case is settled upon the condition that he pay a fine in the amount of $5,000. As determined pursuant to subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, E's liabilities for the taxable year are in the amounts of $7,200 to the Federal Government and $800 to State X. Accordingly, after the Federal Government collects the fine, $500 ($5,000 $800×$8,000) is remitted to State X.
Assume the same facts as in example 6, except that E is tried and convicted on both charges, and pursuant to court decree he pays to the United States a fine of $6,000 with respect to each charge, or a total of $12,000. Because a criminal charge was brought with respect to each affected jurisdiction, and the allocation of the total amount paid as a fine was specifically imposed by a court decree, the direction of the Court shall govern the allocation. Accordingly, after the Federal Government collects the fines it pays over $6,000 to the account of State X.
[T.D. 7577, 43 FR 59361, Dec. 20, 1978]