26 CFR 31.3231(b)-1 - Who are employees.

Status message

There are 11 Updates appearing in the Federal Register for 26 CFR 31. View below or at eCFR (GPOAccess)
§ 31.3231(b)-1 Who are employees.
(a) In general.
(1) An individual who is in the service of one or more employers for compensation is an employee within the meaning of the act. (For definitions of the terms “employer”, “service”, and “compensation”, see subsections (a), (d), and (e), respectively, of section 3231.) An individual is in the service of an employer, with respect to services rendered for compensation, if—
(i) He is subject to the continuing authority of the employer to supervise and direct the manner in which he renders such services; or
(ii) He is rendering professional or technical services and is integrated into the staff of the employer; or
(iii) He is rendering, on the property used in the employer's operations, other personal services the rendition of which is integrated into the employer's operations.
(2) In order that an individual may be in the service of an employer within the meaning of paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section, it is not necessary that the employer actually direct or control the manner in which the services are rendered; it is sufficient if the employer has the right to do so. The right of an employer to discharge an individual is also an important factor indicating that the individual is subject to the continuing authority of the employer to supervise and direct the manner of rendition of the services. Other factors indicating that an individual is subject to the continuing authority of the employer to supervise and direct the manner of rendition of the services are the furnishing of tools and the furnishing of a place to work by the employer to the individual who renders the services.
(3) In general, if an individual is subject to the control or direction of an employer merely as to the result to be accomplished by the work and not as to the means and methods for accomplishing the result, he is an independent contractor. On individual performing services as an independent contractor is not, as to such services, in the service of an employer within the meaning of paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section. However, an individual performing services as an independent contractor may be, as to such services, in the service of an employer within the meaning of paragraph (a)(1) (ii) or (iii) of this section.
(4) Whether or not an individual is an employee will be determined upon an examination of the particular facts of the case.
(5) If an individual is an employee, it is of no consequence that he is designated as a partner, coadventurer, agent, independent contractor, or otherwise, or that he performs services on a part-time basis.
(6) No distinction is made between classes or grades of employees. Thus, superintendents, managers, and other supervisory personnel are employees within the meaning of the act. An officer of an employer is an employee, but a director as such is not.
(7) In determining whether an individual is an employee with respect to services rendered within the United States, the citizenship or residence of the individual, or the place where the contract of service was entered into is immaterial.
(8) If an individual performs services for an employer (other than a local lodge or division or a general committee of a railway-labor-organization employer) which does not conduct the principal part of its business within the United States, such individual shall be deemed to be in the service of such employer only to the extent that he performs services for it in the United States. Thus, with respect to services rendered for such employer outside the United States, such individual is not in the service of an employer.
(9) If an individual performs services for an employer (other than a local lodge or division or a general committee of a railway-labor-organization employer) which conducts the principal part of its business within the United States, he is in the service of such employer whether his services are rendered within or without the United States. In the case of an individual, not a citizen or resident of the United States, rendering services in a place outside the United States to an employer which is required under the laws applicable in such place to employ, in whole or in part, citizens or residents thereof, such individual shall not be deemed to be in the service of an employer with respect to services so rendered.
(10) The term “employee” does not include any individual while he is engaged in the physical operations consisting of the mining of coal, the preparation of coal, the handling (other than movement by rail with standard railroad locomotives) of coal not beyond the mine tipple, or the loading of coal at the tipple.
(b) Employees of local lodges or divisions of railway-labor-organization employers.
(1) An individual is in the service of a local lodge or division of a railway-labor-organization employer (see paragraph (a)(6) of § 31.3231(a)-1) only if—
(i) All, or substantially all, the individuals constituting the membership of such local lodge or division are employees of an employer conducting the principal part of its business in the United States; or
(ii) The headquarters of such local lodge or division is located in the United States.
(2)
(i) An individual in the service of a local lodge or division is not an employee within the meaning of the act unless he was, on or after August 29, 1935, in the service of a carrier (see § 31.3231(g) for definition of carrier) or he was, on August 29, 1935, in the “employment relation” to a carrier.
(ii) An individual shall be deemed to have been in the employment relation to a carrier on August 29, 1935, if (a) he was on that date on leave of absence from his employment expressly granted to him by the carrier by whom he was employed, or by a duly authorized representative or such carrier, and the grant of such leave of absence was established to the satisfaction of the Railroad Retirement Board before July 1947; or (b) he was in the service of a carrier after August 29, 1935, and before January 1946 in each of six calendar months whether or not consecutive; or (c) before August 29, 1935, he did not retire and was not retired or discharged from the service of the last carrier by whom he was employed or its corporate or operating successor, but (1) solely by reason of his physical or mental disability he ceased before August 29, 1935, to be in the service of such carrier and thereafter remained continuously disabled until he attained age sixty-five or until August 1945, or (2) solely for such last stated reason a carrier by whom he was employed before August 29, 1935, or a carrier who is its successor did not on or after August 29, 1935, and before August 1945 call him to return to service, or (3) if he was so called he was solely for such reason unable to render service in six calendar months as provided in (b) of this subdivision; or (d) he was on August 29, 1935, absent from the service of a carrier by reason of a discharge which, within one year after the effective date thereof, was protested, to an appropriate labor representative or to the carrier, as wrongful, and which was followed within 10 years of the effective date thereof by his reinstatement in good faith to his former service with all his seniority rights. However, an individual shall not be deemed to have been in the employment relation to a carrier on August 29, 1935, if before that date he was granted a pension or gratuity on the basis of which a pension was awarded to him pursuant to section 6 of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 (45 U.S.C. 228f), or if during the last payroll period before August 29, 1935, in which he rendered service to a carrier he was not, with respect to any service in such payroll period, in the service of an employer (see paragraph (a) of this section).
(c) Employees of general committees of railway-labor-organization employers. An individual is in the service of a general committee of a railway-labor-organization employer (see paragraph (a)(6) of § 31.3231(a)-1) only if—
(1) He is representing a local lodge or division described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section; or
(2) All, or substantially all, the individuals represented by such general committee are employees of an employer conducting the principal part of its business in the United States; or
(3) He acts in the capacity of a general chairman or an assistant general chairman of a general committee which represents individuals rendering service in the United States to an employer. In such case, if his office or headquarters is not located in the United States and the individuals represented by such general committee are employees of an employer not conducting the principal part of its business in the United States, only a part of his remuneration for such service shall be regarded as compensation. The part of his remuneration regarded as compensation shall be in the same proportion to his total remuneration as the mileage in the United States under the jurisdiction of such general committee bears to the total mileage under its jurisdiction, unless such mileage formula is inapplicable, in which case such other formula as the Railroad Retirement Board may have prescribed pursuant to section 1(c) of the Railroad Retirement Act of 1937 (45 U.S.C. 228a) shall be applicable. However, no part of his remuneration for such service shall be regarded as compensation if the application of such mileage formula, or such other formula as the Railroad Retirement Board may have prescribed, would result in his compensation for the service being less than 10 percent of his remuneration for such service.

Title 26 published on 2013-04-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 26.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2014-09-16; vol. 79 # 179 - Tuesday, September 16, 2014
    1. 79 FR 55362 - Authority for Voluntary Withholding on Other Payments
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Final regulations and removal of temporary regulations.
      Effective Date: These regulations are effective on September 16, 2014. Applicability Date: For date of applicability, see § 31.3402(p)-1(d).
      26 CFR Part 31

Title 26 published on 2013-04-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR 31 after this date.

  • 2014-09-16; vol. 79 # 179 - Tuesday, September 16, 2014
    1. 79 FR 55362 - Authority for Voluntary Withholding on Other Payments
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Final regulations and removal of temporary regulations.
      Effective Date: These regulations are effective on September 16, 2014. Applicability Date: For date of applicability, see § 31.3402(p)-1(d).
      26 CFR Part 31