26 CFR 31.3406(c)-1 - Notified payee underreporting of reportable interest or dividend payments.

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§ 31.3406(c)-1 Notified payee underreporting of reportable interest or dividend payments.
(a) Overview. Withholding under section 3406(a)(1)(C) applies to any reportable interest or dividend payment (as defined in section 3406(b)(2)) made with respect to an account of a payee if the Internal Revenue Service or a broker notifies a payor under paragraph (c) (1) or (2) of this section that the payee is subject to withholding due to notified payee underreporting (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section), and the payor is required under paragraph (c)(3) of this section to identify that account. After receiving the notice and identifying accounts, the payor must notify the payee, in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section, that withholding due to notified payee underreporting has started. Paragraph (e) of this section describes the period for which withholding due to notified payee underreporting is required. Paragraph (f) of this section provides rules concerning notices that the Internal Revenue Service will send to a payee before notifying a payor that the payee is subject to withholding due to notified payee underreporting. Paragraph (g) of this section provides rules that a payee can use to prevent withholding due to notified payee underreporting from starting or to stop it once it has started. Paragraph (h) of this section provides special rules for joint accounts of payees who have filed a joint return. See section 6682 for the penalties that may apply to a payee subject to withholding under section 3406(a)(1)(C).
(b) Definitions—
(1) Notified payee underreporting. Notified payee underreporting means that the Internal Revenue Service has—
(i) Determined that there was a payee underreporting (as defined in paragraph (b)(2) of this section);
(ii) Mailed at least four notices under paragraph (f)(1) of this section to the payee (over a period of at least 120 days) with respect to the underreporting; and
(iii) Assessed any deficiency attributable to the underreporting in the case of any payee who has filed a return.
(2) Payee underreporting—
(i) In general. Payee underreporting means that the Internal Revenue Service has determined, for a taxable year, that—
(A) A payee failed to include in the payee's return of tax under chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code for that year any portion of a reportable interest or dividend payment required to be shown on that tax return; or
(B) A payee may be required to file a return for that year and to include a reportable interest or dividend payment in the return, but failed to file the return.
(ii) Payments included in making payee underreporting determination. The determination of whether there is payee underreporting is made by treating as reportable interest or dividend payments, all payments of dividends reported under section 6042, all patronage dividends reported under section 6044, and all interest and original issue discount reported under section 6049, regardless of whether withholding due to notified payee underreporting applies to those payments.
(c) Notice to payors regarding backup withholding due to notified payee underreporting—
(1) In general. If the Internal Revenue Service or a broker notifies a payor that a payee is subject to withholding due to notified payee underreporting, the payor must—
(i) Identify any accounts of the payee under the rules of paragraph (c)(3) of this section; and
(ii) Notify the payee and withhold under section 3406 on reportable interest or dividend payments made with respect to any identified account under the rules of paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section.
(2) Additional requirements for payors that are also brokers—
(i) In general. A broker must notify the payor of a readily tradable instrument that the payee of the instrument is subject to withholding due to notified payee underreporting if—
(A) The broker (in its capacity as a payor) receives a notice from the Internal Revenue Service under paragraph (c)(1) of this section that a payee is subject to withholding due to notified payee underreporting and the broker is required to identify an account of the payee under paragraph (c)(3) of this section;
(B) The payee subsequently acquires the instrument from the broker through the same account; and
(C) The acquisition of the instrument occurs after the close of the 30th business day after the date that the broker receives the notice (or on any earlier date that the broker may begin applying this paragraph (c)(2) after receipt of the notice described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section).
(ii) Transfer out of street name. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(2), an acquisition includes a transfer of an instrument out of street name into the name of the registered owner (i.e., the payee).
(iii) Method of providing notice. A broker must provide the notice required under this paragraph (c)(2) to the payor of the instrument with the transfer instructions for the acquisition. See § 31.3406(d)-4(a)(2).
(iv) Termination of obligation to provide information. The obligation of a broker to provide notice to payors under this paragraph (c)(2) terminates simultaneously with the termination of the broker's obligation to withhold (in its capacity as payor) due to notified payee underreporting on reportable interest or dividends made with respect to the account.
(3) Payor identification of accounts of the payee subject to backup withholding due to notified payee underreporting—
(i) In general—
(A) Notice from the Internal Revenue Service. If a payor receives a notice from the Internal Revenue Service under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the payor must identify, exercising reasonable care, all accounts using the same taxpayer identification number for information reporting purposes as the one provided in the notice. The notice may provide, however, that the payor need only identify the account or accounts corresponding to any account number or designation and related taxpayer identification number used for information reporting purposes as that listed on the notice.
(B) Notice from a broker. If a payor receives a notice from a broker under paragraphs (c) (1) and (2) of this section, the payor is not required to identify any account other than the account identified in the notice.
(ii) Exercise of reasonable care. If an account identified pursuant to paragraph (c)(3)(i)(A) of this section contains a customer identifier that can be used to retrieve systemically any other accounts that use the same taxpayer identification number for information reporting purposes, the payor must identify all accounts that can be so retrieved. Otherwise, a payor is considered to exercise reasonable care in identifying accounts subject to withholding under section 3406(a)(1)(C) if the payor searches any computer or other recordkeeping system for the region, division, or branch that serves the geographic area in which the payee's mailing address is located and that was established (or is maintained) to reflect reportable interest or dividend payments.
(iii) Newly opened accounts.
(A) In general, a new account is not subject to withholding under section 3406(a)(1)(C) if the payee provides to the payor a Form W-9 (or other acceptable substitute) on which the payor may reasonably rely (within the meaning of § 31.3406(h)-3(e)(2) without regard to § 31.3406(h)-3(e)(2)(v)), unless the payor has actual knowledge (within the meaning of paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(B) of this section) that the statements made on the form are not true.
(B) For purposes of paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(A) of this section, a payor is considered to have actual knowledge that a payee's statement that the payee is not subject to withholding under section 3406(a)(1)(C) is not true if—
(1) The employee or individual agent of the payor who receives the payee's certification knows that the statement is not true;
(2) In conducting the investigation, if any, required by paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(C) of this section, the payor identifies any other accounts of the payee that are already subject to withholding under section 3406(a)(1)(C); or
(3) In the course of processing the certification or in administering an account to which a certification relates, the payor discovers that the payor was previously notified by the Internal Revenue Service that the payee is subject to withholding under section 3406(a)(1)(C) and no notice was received to stop withholding pursuant to section 3406(c)(3) prior to the time of the discovery.
(C) Except as provided in this paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(C), a payor is not required to investigate whether the statements made on the Form W-9 described in paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(A) of this section are true. If, however, in opening a new account, the payor relies on the same Form W-9 (or appropriate substitute) that it relied on previously in opening another account, the payor must investigate whether any such existing account is subject to withholding under section 3406(a)(1)(C). Similarly, if the payor utilizes a universal account system described in the first sentence of paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section, and in opening a new account the payor searches its records to determine whether the new account should be identified under an existing identifier (because the payee has existing accounts with the payor), the payor must investigate whether any existing accounts identified with the same identifier are subject to withholding under section 3406(a)(1)(C).
(d) Notice from payors of backup withholding due to notified payee underreporting—
(1) In general. If a payor receives notice from the Internal Revenue Service or a broker under paragraph (c)(1) of this section and is required to identify an account under paragraph (c)(3) of this section as an account of the payee, the payor must notify the payee in accordance with paragraph (d)(2) of this section that withholding due to notified payee underreporting has started.
(2) Procedures. The payor must send the notice required by paragraph (d)(1) of this section to the payee no later than 15 days after the date that the payor makes the first payment subject to withholding due to notified payee underreporting. The payor must send the notice by first-class mail to the payee at the payee's last known address. The notice to the payee required by paragraph (d)(1) of this section must state—
(i) That the Internal Revenue Service has given notice that the payee has underreported reportable interest or dividends;
(ii) That, as a result of the underreporting, the payor is required under section 3406(a)(1)(C) of the Internal Revenue Code to withhold 31 percent of reportable interest or dividend payments made to the payee;
(iii) The date that the payor started (or plans to start) withholding due to notified payee underreporting under section 3406(a)(1)(C);
(iv) The account number or numbers that are subject to withholding due to notified payee underreporting;
(v) That the payee must obtain a determination from the Internal Revenue Service in order to stop the withholding due to notified payee underreporting; and
(vi) That while the payee is subject to withholding due to notified payee underreporting, the payee may not certify to a payor making reportable interest or dividend payments (or to a broker acquiring a readily tradable instrument for the payee) that the payee is not subject to withholding due to notified underreporting.
(e) Period during which backup withholding is required—
(1) In general. If a payor receives notice from the Internal Revenue Service or a broker under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the payor must impose withholding under section 3406(a)(1)(C) on all reportable interest or dividend payments with respect to any account of the payee required to be identified under paragraph (c)(3) of this section made after the close of the 30th business day after the day on which the payor receives that notice and before the stop date (as described in paragraph (e)(2) of this section). A payor may choose to start withholding under this paragraph (e)(1) at any time during the 30-business-day period described in the preceding sentence.
(2) Stop withholding—
(i) When no underreporting exists or undue hardship exists—
(A) Stop date. In the case of a determination under paragraph (g)(3) (i) or (iii) of this section that no underreporting exists or that an undue hardship exists, the stop date is the day that is 30 days after the earlier of—
(1) The date on which the payor receives written notification from the Internal Revenue Service under paragraph (g) of this section that withholding is to stop; or
(2) The date on which the payor receives a copy of the written certification provided to the payee by the Internal Revenue Service under paragraph (g) of this section that withholding is to stop.
(B) Acceleration of stop date. A payor may choose to stop withholding at any time during the 30-day period described in paragraph (e)(2)(i)(A) of this section.
(ii) When underreporting is corrected or bona fide dispute exists. In the case of a determination under paragraph (g)(3) (ii) or (iv) of this section that the underreporting has been corrected or that a bona fide dispute exists, the stop date occurs on the first day of January (immediately following a period of at least twelve months ending on October 15 of any calendar year in which the determination has been made) or if later, the stop date determined under paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section.
(3) Dormant accounts. The requirement that a payor withhold under this paragraph (e) on reportable interest or dividend payments made with respect to an account terminates no later than the close of the third calendar year ending after the later of—
(i) The date that the most recent reportable interest or dividend payment was made with respect to that account; or
(ii) The date that the payor received notice under paragraph (c)(1) of this section.
(f) Notice to payees from the Internal Revenue Service—
(1) Notice period. After the Internal Revenue Service determines under paragraph (b)(2) of this section that payee underreporting exists, the Internal Revenue Service will mail to the payee at least four notices over a period of at least 120 days (the notice period) before payors will be notified under paragraph (c)(1) of this section that the payee is subject to withholding due to notified payee underreporting. The notices may be accompanied by, or incorporated in, other notices provided to the payee by the Internal Revenue Service.
(2) Payee subject to backup withholding. After the Internal Revenue Service provides the notices described in paragraph (f)(1) of this section, the Internal Revenue Service will send notices to payors under paragraph (c)(1) of this section unless—
(i) A payee obtains a determination under paragraph (g) of this section; or
(ii) In the case of a payee who has filed a tax return, the Internal Revenue Service has not assessed the deficiency attributable to the underreporting.
(3) Disclosure of names of payors and brokers. Pursuant to section 3406(c)(5) the Internal Revenue Service may require a payee subject to withholding due to notified payee underreporting to disclose the names of all the payee's payors of reportable interest or dividend payments and the names of all of the brokers with whom the payee has accounts which may involve reportable interest or dividend payments. To the extent required in the request from the Internal Revenue Service, the payee must also provide the payee's account numbers and other information necessary to identify the payee's accounts.
(4) Backup withholding certification. After a payee receives a final notice from the Internal Revenue Service under paragraph (f)(1) of this section, the payee is not permitted to certify to any payor or broker, under penalties of perjury, that the payee is not subject to withholding under section 3406(a)(1)(C), until the payee receives the certification from the Internal Revenue Service under paragraph (g) of this section advising the payee that the payee is no longer subject to withholding under section 3406(a)(1)(C). A final notice will contain the information described in this paragraph (f)(4). See sections 6682 and 7205(b) for civil and criminal penalties for making a false certification.
(g) Determination by the Internal Revenue Service that backup withholding should not start or should be stopped—
(1) In general. A payee may prevent withholding due to notified payee underreporting from starting, or stop the withholding once it has started, by requesting and receiving a determination from the Internal Revenue Service under one or more of the provisions of paragraph (g)(3) of this section. Following its review of a request for a determination under paragraph (g)(3) of this section, the Internal Revenue Service will either make the determination or provide the payee with a written report informing the payee that the request for determination is being denied and the reasons for the denial. If a determination is made during the notice period (as defined in paragraph (f)(1) of this section), the payee is not subject to withholding due to notified payee underreporting with respect to any taxable year for which a determination was made. If a determination is made after the notice period, the Internal Revenue Service will, at the time prescribed in paragraph (g)(2) of this section, provide written certification to a payee that withholding is to stop, and will notify payors who were contacted pursuant to paragraph (c)(1) of this section to stop withholding. A broker who (in its capacity as payor) under this paragraph (g)(1) receives a notice from the Internal Revenue Service or a copy of the certification provided to a payee by the Internal Revenue Service is not required to provide a corresponding notice to any payors whom the broker has previously notified under paragraph (c)(2) of this section.
(2) Date notice to stop backup withholding will be provided—
(i) Underreporting corrected or bona fide dispute. If the Internal Revenue Service makes a determination under paragraph (g)(3) (ii) or (iv) of this section during the 12-month period ending on October 15 of any calendar year (as described in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) of this section), the Internal Revenue Service will provide the certification and the notices described in paragraph (g)(1) of this section no later than December 1 of that calendar year.
(ii) No underreporting or undue hardship. If the Internal Revenue Service makes a determination under paragraph (g)(3)(i) or (iii) of this section, the Internal Revenue Service will provide the notices described in paragraph (g)(1) of this section no later than the 45th day after the day on which the Internal Revenue Service makes its determination.
(3) Grounds for determination. The Internal Revenue Service will make a determination that withholding due to notified payee underreporting should not start or should stop once it has started if the payee—
(i) Shows that there was no payee underreporting (as provided in paragraph (g)(4) of this section) for each taxable year with respect to which the Internal Revenue Service determined under paragraph (b)(2) of this section that there was payee underreporting;
(ii) Corrects any payee underreporting (as provided in paragraph (g)(5) of this section) for each taxable year with respect to which the Internal Revenue Service determined under paragraph (b)(2) of this section that there was payee underreporting;
(iii) Shows that withholding will cause or is causing an undue hardship (as defined in paragraph (g)(6) of this section) and that it is unlikely that the payee will underreport interest or dividend payments again; or
(iv) Shows that a bona fide dispute exists regarding whether any underreporting has occurred (as provided in paragraph (g)(7) of this section) for each taxable year with respect to which the Internal Revenue Service determined under paragraph (b)(2) of this section that there was payee underreporting.
(4) No underreporting. A payee may show that no underreporting of reportable interest or dividends payments exists by presenting—
(i) Receipts or other satisfactory documentation to the Internal Revenue Service showing that all taxes relating to the payments were reported; or
(ii) Evidence showing that the payee did not have to file a return for the taxable year in question (e.g., because the payee did not make enough income) or that the underreporting determination was based upon a factual, clerical, or other error.
(5) Correcting any payee underreporting—
(i) Before issuance of a statutory notice of deficiency. Before a statutory notice of deficiency is issued to a payee pursuant to section 6212, the payee may correct underreporting—
(A) By filing a return if one was not previously filed and including the unreported interest and dividends thereon;
(B) By filing an amended return in the event a return was filed and including the unreported interest and dividends thereon; or
(C) By consenting to the additional assessment according to applicable notices and forms sent to the payee by the Internal Revenue Service with respect to the underreporting, and paying taxes, penalties, and interest due with respect to any underreported interest or dividend payments.
(ii) After issuance of a statutory notice of deficiency. After a statutory notice of deficiency is issued to a payee—
(A) The payee may correct underreporting at any time, by filing a return if one was not previously filed and paying the entire deficiency and any other taxes including penalties and interest attributable to any payee underreporting of interest or dividend payments; or
(B) The payee may correct underreporting after the mailing of the statutory notice of deficiency but before the expiration of the 90-day or 150-day period described in section 6213(a) or, if a petition is filed with the United States Tax Court, before the decision of the Tax Court is final, by making a remittance to the Internal Revenue Service of the amounts described in paragraph (g)(5)(ii)(A) of this section. The payee must specifically designate in writing that the remittance is a deposit in the nature of a cash bond.
(iii) Special rules. For purposes of paragraph (g)(5)(ii) of this section, the payee will not be deemed to have corrected the payee underreporting under paragraph (g)(5)(ii)(B) of this section after the remittance is returned to the payee in the manner described in any applicable administrative procedure. For further guidance on a deposit in the nature of a cash bond, see subparagraph 2 of section 4.01 of Rev. Proc. 84-58 (1984-2 C.B. 501). (See § 601.601(d)(2) of this chapter.) Once the remittance is returned to the payee, the rules of this section will apply. If the Internal Revenue Service previously contacted payors of the payee to start withholding with respect to the notified payee underreporting, however, the Internal Revenue Service will recontact those payors to start withholding under paragraph (c)(1) of this section with respect to the payee underreporting without regard to paragraph (f) of this section.
(6) Undue hardship—
(i) In general. A determination of undue hardship will be based on the overall impact to the payee of having reportable interest or dividend payments withheld at a 31 percent rate under section 3406. In addition, a determination of undue hardship will be made only if the Internal Revenue Service concludes that it is unlikely that any payee underreporting will occur again.
(ii) Factors. Factors that will be considered in determining whether withholding causes undue hardship include, but are not limited to, the following—
(A) Whether estimated tax payments, and other credits for current tax liabilities, or amounts withheld on employee wages or pensions, in addition to withholding under section 3406, would cause significant overwithholding;
(B) The payee's health, including the payee's ability to pay foreseeable medical expenses;
(C) The extent of the payee's reliance on interest and dividend payments to meet necessary living expenses and the existence, if any, of other sources of income;
(D) Whether other income of the payee is limited or fixed
(e.g., social security, pension, and unearned income);
(E) The payee's ability to sell or liquidate stocks, bonds, bank accounts, trust accounts, or other assets, and the consequences of doing so;
(F) Whether the payee reported and timely paid the most recent year's tax liability, including interest and dividend income; and
(G) Whether the payee has filed a bankruptcy petition with the United States Bankruptcy Court.
(7) Bona fide dispute. The Internal Revenue Service may make a determination under this paragraph (g)(7) if there is a dispute between the payee and the Internal Revenue Service on a question of fact or law that is material to a determination under paragraph (g)(3)(i) of this section and, based upon all the facts and circumstances, the Internal Revenue Service finds that the dispute is asserted in good faith by the payee and there is a reasonable basis for the payee's position.
(h) Payees filing a joint return—
(1) In general. For purposes of this section, if payee underreporting is found to exist with respect to a joint return, then the provisions of this section apply to both payees (i.e., the husband and wife). As a result, both payees are subject to withholding on accounts in their individual names as well as accounts in their joint names. Either or both payees may satisfy the criteria for a determination that no payee underreporting exists, that the underreporting has been corrected, or that a bona fide dispute exists (as provided in paragraph (g)(3) (i), (ii), or (iv) of this section). Both payees, however, must satisfy the criteria for a determination that withholding will cause or is causing undue hardship (as provided in paragraph (g)(3)(iii) of this section).
(2) Exceptions—
(i) Innocent spouse. A spouse who files a joint return may obtain a determination that withholding should stop or not start with respect to payments made to his or her individual accounts, if the spouse shows that—
(A) He or she did not underreport income because he or she is a spouse described in section 6013(e), i.e., innocent spouse; or
(B) There is a bona fide dispute regarding whether he or she is an innocent spouse and hence did not underreport income.
(ii) Divorced or legally separated payee. A payee who, at the time of the request for a determination under paragraph (g) of this section, is divorced or separated under State law may obtain a determination that undue hardship exists (or would exist) under paragraph (g)(3)(iii) of this section with respect to reportable interest or dividend payments made to his or her individual accounts if the divorced or legally separated payee satisfies the criteria for a determination under paragraph (g)(6) of this section.
(i) [Reserved]
(j) Penalties. For the application of penalties related to this section, see sections 6682 and 7205(b).
[T.D. 8637, 60 FR 66119, Dec. 21, 1995]

Title 26 published on 2014-04-01

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  • 2014-07-01; vol. 79 # 126 - Tuesday, July 1, 2014
    1. 79 FR 37181 - Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendments.
      Effective Date: These corrections are effective on July 1, 2014, and are applicable on March 6, 2014.
      26 CFR Parts 1 and 31

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Title 26 published on 2014-04-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR 31 after this date.

  • 2014-07-01; vol. 79 # 126 - Tuesday, July 1, 2014
    1. 79 FR 37181 - Withholding of Tax on Certain U.S. Source Income Paid to Foreign Persons, Information Reporting and Backup Withholding on Payments Made to Certain U.S. Persons, and Portfolio Interest Treatment; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Correcting amendments.
      Effective Date: These corrections are effective on July 1, 2014, and are applicable on March 6, 2014.
      26 CFR Parts 1 and 31