26 CFR 53.4945-1 - Taxes on taxable expenditures.

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§ 53.4945-1 Taxes on taxable expenditures.
(a) Imposition of initial taxes—
(1) Tax on private foundation. Section 4945(a)(1) of the Code imposes an excise tax on each taxable expenditure (as defined in section 4945(d)) of a private foundation. This tax is to be paid by the private foundation and is at the rate of 10 percent of the amount of each taxable expenditure.
(2) Tax on foundation manager—
(i) In general. Section 4945(a)(2) of the Code imposes, under certain circumstances, an excise tax on the agreement of any foundation manager to the making of a taxable expenditure by a private foundation. This tax is imposed only in cases in which the following circumstances are present:
(a) A tax is imposed by section 4945(a)(1);
(b) Such foundation manager knows that the expenditure to which he agrees is a taxable expenditure, and
(c) Such agreement is willfull and is not due to reasonable cause.
However, the tax with respect to any particular expenditure applies only to the agreement of those foundation managers who are authorized to approve, or to exercise discretion in recommending approval of, the making of the expenditure by the foundation and to those foundation managers who are members of a group (such as the foundation's board of directors or trustees) which is so authorized. For the definition of the term foundation manager, see section 4946(b) and the regulations thereunder.
(ii) Agreement. The agreement of any foundation manager to the making of a taxable expenditure shall consist of any manifestation of approval of the expenditure which is sufficient to constitute an exercise of the foundation manager's authority to approve, or to exercise discretion in recommending approval of, the making of the expenditure by the foundation, whether or not such manifestation of approval is the final or decisive approval on behalf of the foundation.
(iii) Knowing. For purposes of section 4945, a foundation mangager shall be considered to have agreed to an expenditure “knowing” that it is a taxable expenditure only if:
(a) He has actual knowledge of sufficient facts so that, based solely upon such facts, such expenditure would be a taxable expenditure,
(b) He is aware that such an expenditure under these circumstances may violate the provisions of federal tax law governing taxable expenditures, and
(c) He negligently fails to make reasonable attempts to ascertain whether the expenditure is a taxable expenditure, or he is in fact aware that it is such an expenditure.
For purposes of this part and Chapter 42, the term knowing does not mean “having reason to know”. However, evidence tending to show that a foundation manager has reason to know of a particular fact or particular rule is relevant in determining whether he had actual knowledge of such fact or rule. Thus, for example, evidence tending to show that a foundation manager has reason to know of sufficient facts so that, based solely upon such facts, an expenditure would be a taxable expenditure is relevant in determining whether he has actual knowledge of such facts.
(iv) Willful. A foundation manager's agreement to a taxable expenditure is willful if it is voluntary, conscious, and intentional. No motive to avoid the restrictions of the law or the incurrence of any tax is necessary to make an agreement willful. However, a foundation manager's agreement to a taxable expenditure is not willful if he does not know that it is a taxable expenditure.
(v) Due to reasonable cause. A foundation manager's actions are due to reasonable cause if he has exercised his responsibility on behalf of the foundation with ordinary business care and prudence.
(vi) Advice of counsel. If a foundation manager, after full disclosure of the factual situation to legal counsel (including house counsel), relies on the advice of such counsel expressed in a reasoned written legal opinion that an expenditure is not a taxable expenditure under section 4945 (or that expenditures conforming to certain guidelines are not taxable expenditures), although such expenditure is subsequently held to be a taxable expenditure (or that certain proposed reporting procedures with respect to an expenditure will satisfy the tests of section 4945(h), although such procedures are subsequently held not to satisfy such section), the foundation manager's agreement to such expenditure (or to grants made with provision for such reporting procedures which are taxable solely because of such inadequate reporting procedures) will ordinarily not be considered “knowing” or “willful” and will ordinarily be considered “due to reasonable cause” within the meaning of section 4945(a)(2). For purposes of the subdivision, a written legal opinion will be considered “reasoned” even if it reaches a conclusion which is subsequently determined to be incorrect so long as such opinion addresses itself to the facts and applicable law. However, a written legal opinion will not be considered “reasoned” if it does nothing more than recite the facts and express a conclusion. However, the absence of advice of counsel with respect to an expenditure shall not, by itself, give rise to any inference that a foundation manager agreed to the making of the expenditure knowingly, willfully, or without reasonable cause.
(vii) Rate and incidence of tax. The tax imposed under section 4945(a)(2) is at the rate of 21/2 percent of the amount of each taxable expenditure to which the foundation manager has agreed. This tax shall be paid by the foundation manager.
(viii) Cross reference. For provisions relating to the burden of proof in cases involving the issue whether a foundation manager has knowingly agreed to the making of a taxable expenditure, see section 7454(b).
(b) Imposition of additional taxes—
(1) Tax on private foundation. Section 4945(b)(1) of the Code imposes an excise tax in any case in which an initial tax is imposed under section 4945(a)(1) on a taxable expenditure of a private foundation and the expenditure is not corrected within the taxable period (as defined in section 4945(i)(2)). The tax imposed under section 4945(b)(1) is to be paid by the private foundation and is at the rate of 100 percent of the amount of each taxable expenditure.
(2) Tax on foundation manager. Section 4945(b)(2) of the Code imposes an excise tax in any case in which a tax is imposed under section 4945(b)(1) and a foundation manager has refused to agree to part or all of the correction of the taxable expenditure. The tax imposed under section 4945(b)(2) is at the rate of 50 percent of the amount of the taxable expenditure. This tax is to be paid by any foundation manager who has refused to agree to part or all of the correction of the taxable expenditure.
(c) Special rules—
(1) Joint and several liability. In any case where more than one foundation manager is liable for tax imposed under section 4945 (a) (2) or (b)(2) with respect to the making of a taxable expenditure, all such foundation managers shall be jointly and severally liable for the tax imposed under such paragraph with respect to such taxable expenditure.
(2) Limits on liability for management. The maximum aggregate amount of tax collectible under section 4945(a)(2) from all foundation managers with respect to any one taxable expenditure shall be $5,000, and the maximum aggregate amount of tax collectible under section 4945(b) (2) from all foundation managers with respect to any one taxable expenditure shall be $10,000.
(3) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:
Example 1.
A, B, and C comprise the board of directors of Foundation M. They vote unanimously in favor of a grant of $100,000 to D, a business associate of each of the directors. The grant is to be used by D for travel and educational purposes and is not made in accordance with the requirements of section 4945(g). Each director knows that D was selected as the recipient of the grant solely because of his friendship with the directors and is aware that some grants made for travel, study, or other similar purposes may be taxable expenditures. Also, none of the directors makes any attempt to consult counsel, or to otherwise determine, whether this grant is a taxable expenditure. Initial taxes are imposed under paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 4945(a). The tax to be paid by the foundation is $10,000 (10 percent of $100,000). The tax to be paid by the board of directors is $2,500 (21/2 percent of $100,000). A, B, and C are jointly and severally liable for this $2,500 and this sum may be collected by the Service from any one of them.
Example 2.
Assume the same facts as in example (1). Further assume that within the taxable period A makes a motion to correct the taxable expenditure at a meeting of the board of directors. The motion is defeated by a two-to-one vote, A voting for the motion and B and C voting against it. In these circumstances an additional tax is imposed on the private foundation in the amount of $100,000 (100 percent of $100,000). The additional tax imposed on B and C is $10,000 (50 percent of $100,000 subject to a maximum of $10,000). B and C are jointly and severally liable for the $10,000, and this sum may be collected by the Service from either of them.
(d) Correction—
(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (d) (2) or (3) of this paragraph, correction of a taxable expenditure shall be accomplished by recovering part or all of the expenditure to the extent recovery is possible, and, where full recovery cannot be accomplished, by any additional corrective action which the Commissioner may prescribe. Such additional corrective action is to be determined by the circumstances of each particular case and may include the following:
(i) Requiring that any unpaid funds due the grantee be withheld;
(ii) Requiring that no further grants be made to the particular grantee;
(iii) In addition to other reports that are required, requiring periodic (e.g., quarterly) reports from the foundation with respect to all expenditures of the foundation (such reports shall be equivalent in detail to the reports required by section 4945(h)(3) and § 53.4945-5(d));
(iv) Requiring improved methods of exercising expenditure responsibility;
(v) Requiring improved methods of selecting recipients of individual grants; and
(vi) Requiring such other measures as the Commissioner may prescribe in a particular case.
The foundation making the expenditure shall not be under any obligation to attempt to recover the expenditure by legal action if such action would in all probability not result in the satisfaction of execution on a judgment.
(2) Correction for inadequate reporting. If the expenditure is taxable only because of a failure to obtain a full and complete report as required by section 4945(h)(2) or because of a failure to make a full and detailed report as required by section 4945(h)(3), correction may be accomplished by obtaining or making the report in question. In addition, if the expenditure is taxable only because of a failure to obtain a full and complete report as required by section 4945(h)(2) and an investigation indicates that no grant funds have been diverted to any use not in furtherance of a purpose specified in the grant, correction may be accomplished by exerting all reasonable efforts to obtain the report in question and reporting the failure to the Internal Revenue Service, even though the report is not finally obtained.
(3) Correction for failure to obtain advance approval. Where an expenditure is taxable under section 4945(d)(3) only because of a failure to obtain advance approval of procedures with respect to grants as required by section 4945(g), correction may be accomplished by obtaining approval of the grant making procedures and establishing to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that:
(i) No grant funds have been diverted to any use not in furtherance of a purpose specified in the grant;
(ii) The grant making procedures instituted would have been approved if advance approval of such procedures had been properly requested; and
(iii) Where advance approval of grant making procedures is subsequently required, such approval will be properly requested.
(e) Certain periods—
(1) Taxable period. For purposes of section 4945, the term “taxable period” means, with respect to any taxable expenditure, the period beginning with the date on which the taxable expenditure occurs and ending on the earlier of:
(i) The date of mailing of a notice of deficiency under section 6212 with respect to the tax imposed on taxable expenditures by section 4945(a)(1); or
(ii) The date on which the tax imposed by section 4945(a)(1) is assessed.
(2) Cross reference. For rules relating to taxable events that are corrected within the correction period, defined in section 4963(e), see section 4961(a) and the regulations thereunder.
[T.D. 7215, 37 FR 23161, Oct. 31, 1972, as amended by T.D. 7299, 38 FR 35305, Dec. 27, 1973; T.D. 7527, 42 FR 64625, Dec. 27, 1977; T.D. 8084, 51 FR 16303, May 2, 1986]

Title 26 published on 2013-04-01

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  • 2013-09-26; vol. 78 # 187 - Thursday, September 26, 2013
    1. 78 FR 59228 - Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return; Correction
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      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Final and temporary regulations; correction
      This correction is effective on September 26, 2013 and applicable beginning August 15, 2013.
      26 CFR Part 53

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Title 26 published on 2013-04-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 26 CFR 53 after this date.

  • 2013-09-26; vol. 78 # 187 - Thursday, September 26, 2013
    1. 78 FR 59228 - Requirement of a Section 4959 Excise Tax Return and Time for Filing the Return; Correction
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY, Internal Revenue Service
      Final and temporary regulations; correction
      This correction is effective on September 26, 2013 and applicable beginning August 15, 2013.
      26 CFR Part 53