27 CFR 4.21 - The standards of identity.

§ 4.21 The standards of identity.
Standards of identity for the several classes and types of wine set forth in this part shall be as follows:
(a) Class 1; grape wine—
(1) Grape wine is wine produced by the normal alcoholic fermentation of the juice of sound, ripe grapes (including restored or unrestored pure condensed grape must), with or without the addition, after fermentation, of pure condensed grape must, and with or without added grape brandy or alcohol, but without other addition or abstraction except as may occur in cellar treatment: Provided, That the product may be ameliorated before, during or after fermentation by either of the following methods:
(i) By adding, separately or in combination, dry sugar, or such an amount of sugar and water solution as will not increase the volume of the resulting product more than 35 percent; but in no event shall any product so ameliorated have an alcoholic content derived by fermentation, of more than 13 percent by volume, or a natural acid content, if water has been added, of less than 5 parts per thousand, or a total solids content of more than 22 grams per 100 cubic centimeters.
(ii) By adding, separately or in combination, not more than 20 percent by weight of dry sugar, or not more than 10 percent by weight of water.
(iii) In the case of domestic wine, in accordance with 26 U.S.C. 5383.
(iv) The maximum volatile acidity, calculated as acetic acid and exclusive of sulfur dioxide is 0.14 gram per 100 mL (20 °C) for natural red wine and 0.12 gram per 100 mL (20 °C) for other grape wine: Provided, That the maximum volatile acidity for wine produced from unameliorated juice of 28 or more degrees Brix is 0.17 gram per 100 milliliters for red wine and 0.15 gram per 100 milliliters for white wine. Grape wine deriving its characteristic color or lack of color from the presence or absence of the red coloring matter of the skins, juice, or pulp of grapes may be designated as “red wine,” “pink (or rose) wine,” “amber wine,” or “white wine” as the case may be. Any grape wine containing no added grape brandy or alcohol may be further designated as “natural.”
(2) Table wine is grape wine having an alcoholic content not in excess of 14 percent by volume. Such wine may also be designated as “light wine,” “red table wine,” “light white wine,” “sweet table wine,” etc., as the case may be.
(3) Dessert wine is grape wine having an alcoholic content in excess of 14 percent but not in excess of 24 percent by volume. Dessert wine having the taste, aroma and characteristics generally attributed to sherry and an alcoholic content, derived in part from added grape brandy or alcohol, of not less than 17 percent by volume, may be designated as “sherry”. Dessert wines having the taste, aroma and characteristics generally attributed to angelica, madeira, muscatel and port and an alcoholic content, derived in part from added grape brandy or alcohol, of not less than 18 percent by volume, may be designated as “angelica,” “madeira,” “muscatel,” or “port” respectively. Dessert wines having the taste, aroma, and characteristics generally attributed to any of the above products and an alcoholic content, derived in part from added grape brandy or alcohol, in excess of 14 percent by volume but, in the case of sherry, less than 17 percent, or, in other cases, less than 18 percent by volume, may be designated as “light sherry,” “light angelica,” “light madeira,” “light muscatel” or “light port,” respectively.
(b) Class 2; sparkling grape wine.
(1) Sparkling grape wine (including “sparkling wine,” “sparkling red wine” and “sparkling white wine”) is grape wine made effervescent with carbon dioxide resulting solely from the fermentation of the wine within a closed container, tank or bottle.
(2) Champagne is a type of sparkling light wine which derives its effervescence solely from the secondary fermentation of the wine within glass containers of not greater than one gallon capacity, and which possesses the taste, aroma, and other characteristics attributed to champagne as made in the champagne district of France.
(3)
(i) A sparkling light wine having the taste, aroma, and characteristics generally attributed to champagne but not otherwise conforming to the standard for “champagne” may, in addition to but not in lieu of the class designation “sparkling wine,” be further designated as:
(A) “Champagne style;” or
(B) “Champagne type;” or
(C) “American (or New York State, Napa Valley, etc.) champagne,” along with one of the following terms: “Bulk process,” “fermented outside the bottle,” “secondary fermentation outside the bottle,” “secondary fermentation before bottling,” “not fermented in the bottle,” or “not bottle fermented.” The term “charmat method” or “charmat process” may be used as additional information.
(ii) Labels shall be so designed that all the words in such further designation are readily legible under ordinary conditions and are on a contrasting background. In the case of paragraph (b)(3)(i)(C) of this section, TTB will consider whether the label as a whole provides the consumer with adequate information about the method of production and origin of the wine. TTB will evaluate each label for legibility and clarity, based on such factors as type size and style for all components of the further designation and the optional term “charmat method” or “charmat process,” as well as the contrast between the lettering and its background, and the placement of information on the label.
(iii) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (b)(3)(i)(A), (B) and (C) of this section, the appropriate TTB officer may authorize the use of a term on sparkling wine labels, as an alternative to those terms authorized in paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section, but not in lieu of the required class designation “sparkling wine,” upon a finding that such term adequately informs the consumer about the method of production of the sparkling wine.
(4) Crackling wine, petillant wine, frizzante wine (including cremant, perlant, reciotto, and other similar wine) is sparkling light wine normally less effervescent than champagne or other similar sparkling wine, but containing sufficient carbon dioxide in solution to produce, upon pouring under normal conditions, after the disappearance of air bubbles, a slow and steady effervescence evidenced by the formation of gas bubbles flowing through the wine. Crackling wine which derives its effervescence from secondary fermentation in containers greater than 1-gallon capacity shall be designated “crackling wine—bulk process,” and the words “bulk process” shall appear in lettering of substantially the same size as the words “crackling wine.”
(c) Class 3; carbonated grape wine. “Carbonated grape wine” (including “carbonated wine,” “carbonated red wine,” and “carbonated white wine”) is grape wine made effervescent with carbon dioxide other than that resulting solely from the secondary fermentation of the wine within a closed container, tank or bottle.
(d) Class 4; citrus wine.
(1)
(i) Citrus wine or citrus fruit wine is wine produced by the normal alcoholic fermentation of the juice of sound, ripe citrus fruit (including restored or unrestored pure condensed citrus must), with or without the addition, after fermentation, of pure condensed citrus must, and with or without added citrus brandy or alcohol, but without any other addition or abstraction except as may occur in cellar treatment: Provided, That a domestic product may be ameliorated or sweetened in accordance with the provisions of 26 U.S.C. 5384 and any product other than domestic may be ameliorated before, during, or after fermentation by adding, separately or in combination, dry sugar, or such an amount of sugar and water solution as will not increase the volume of the resulting product more than 35 percent, or in the case of products produced from citrus fruit having a normal acidity of 20 parts or more per thousand, not more than 60 percent, but in no event shall any product so ameliorated have an alcoholic content, derived by fermentation, of more than 14 percent by volume, or a natural acid content, if water has been added, of less than 5 parts per thousand, or a total solids content or more than 22 grams per 100 cubic centimeters.
(ii) The maximum volatile acidity, calculated as acetic acid and exclusive of sulfur dioxide, shall not be, for natural citrus wine, more than 0.14 gram, and for other citrus wine, more than 0.12 gram, per 100 milliliters (20 °C.).
(iii) Any citrus wine containing no added brandy or alcohol may be further designated as “natural.”
(2) Citrus table wine or citrus fruit table wine is citrus wine having an alcoholic content not in excess of 14 percent by volume. Such wine may also be designated “light citrus wine,” “light citrus fruit wine,” “light sweet citrus fruit wine,” etc., as the case may be.
(3) Citrus dessert wine or citrus fruit dessert wine is citrus wine having an alcoholic content in excess of 14 percent but not in excess of 24 percent by volume.
(4) Citrus wine derived wholly (except for sugar, water, or added alcohol) from one kind of citrus fruit, shall be designated by the word “wine” qualified by the name of such citrus fruit, e.g., “orange wine,” “grapefruit wine.” Citrus wine not derived wholly from one kind of citrus fruit shall be designated as “citrus wine” or “citrus fruit wine” qualified by a truthful and adequate statement of composition appearing in direct conjunction therewith. Citrus wine rendered effervescent by carbon dioxide resulting solely from the secondary fermentation of the wine within a closed container, tank, or bottle shall be further designated as “sparkling”; and citrus wine rendered effervescent by carbon dioxide otherwise derived shall be further designated as “carbonated.”
(e) Class 5; fruit wine.
(1)
(i) Fruit wine is wine (other than grape wine or citrus wine) produced by the normal alcoholic fermentation of the juice of sound, ripe fruit (including restored or unrestored pure condensed fruit must), with or without the addition, after fermentation, of pure condensed fruit must, and with or without added fruit brandy or alcohol, but without other addition or abstraction except as may occur in cellar treatment: Provided, That a domestic product may be ameliorated or sweetened in accordance with the provisions of 26 U.S.C. 5384 and any product other than domestic may be ameliorated before, during, or after fermentation by adding, separately or in combination, dry sugar, or such an amount of dry sugar and water solution as will increase the volume of the resulting product, in the case of wines produced from any fruit or berry other than grapes, having a normal acidity of 20 parts or more per thousand, not more than 60 percent, and in the case of other fruit wines, not more than 35%, but in no event shall any product so ameliorated have an alcoholic content, derived by fermentation, of more than 14 percent by volume, or a natural acid content, if water has been added, of less than 5 parts per thousand, or a total solids content of more than 22 grams per 100 cubic centimeters.
(ii) The maximum volatile acidity, calculated as acetic acid and exclusive of sulfur dioxide, shall not be, for natural fruit wine, more than 0.14 gram, and for other fruit wine, more than 0.12 gram, per 100 milliliters (20 °C.).
(iii) Any fruit wine containing no added brandy or alcohol may be further designated as “natural.”
(2) Berry wine is fruit wine produced from berries.
(3) Fruit table wine or berry table wine is fruit or berry wine having an alcoholic content not in excess of 14 percent by volume. Such wine may also be designated “light fruit wine,” or “light berry wine.”
(4) Fruit dessert wine or berry dessert wine is fruit or berry wine having an alcoholic content in excess of 14 percent but not in excess of 24 percent by volume.
(5) Fruit wine derived wholly (except for sugar, water, or added alcohol) from one kind of fruit shall be designated by the word “wine” qualified by the name of such fruit, e.g., “peach wine,” “blackberry wine.” Fruit wine not derived wholly from one kind of fruit shall be designated as “fruit wine” or “berry wine,” as the case may be, qualified by a truthful and adequate statement of composition appearing in direct conjunction therewith. Fruit wines which are derived wholly (except for sugar, water, or added alcohol) from apples or pears may be designated “cider” and “perry,” respectively, and shall be so designated if lacking in vinous taste, aroma, and characteristics. Fruit wine rendered effervescent by carbon dioxide resulting solely from the secondary fermentation of the wine within a closed container, tank, or bottle shall be further designated as “sparkling”; and fruit wine rendered effervescent by carbon dioxide otherwise derived shall be further designated as “carbonated.”
(f) Class 6; wine from other agricultural products.
(1)
(i) Wine of this class is wine (other than grape wine, citrus wine, or fruit wine) made by the normal alcoholic fermentation of sound fermentable agricultural products, either fresh or dried, or of the restored or unrestored pure condensed must thereof, with the addition before or during fermentation of a volume of water not greater than the minimum necessary to correct natural moisture deficiencies in such products, with or without the addition, after fermentation, of pure condensed must, and with or without added alcohol or such other spirits as will not alter the character of the product, but without other addition or abstraction except as may occur in cellar treatment: Provided, That a domestic product may be ameliorated or sweetened in accordance with part 24, of this chapter, and any product other than domestic may be ameliorated before, during, or after fermentation by adding, separately or in combination, dry sugar or such an amount of sugar and water solution as will not increase the volume of the resulting product more than 35 percent, but in no event shall any product so ameliorated have an alcoholic content, derived by fermentation of more than 14 percent by volume, or a natural acid content, if water has been added, of less than 5 parts per thousand, or a total solids content of more than 22 grams per 100 cubic centimeters.
(ii) The maximum volatile acidity, calculated as acetic acid and exclusive of sulfur dioxide, shall not be, for natural wine of this class, more than 0.14 gram, and for other wine of this class, more than 0.12 gram, per 100 milliliters (20 °C.).
(iii) Wine of this class containing no added alcohol or other spirits may be further designated as “natural”.
(2) Table wine of this class is wine having an alcoholic content not in excess of 14 percent by volume. Such wine may also be designated as “light”.
(3) Dessert wine of this class is wine having an alcoholic content in excess of 14 percent but not in excess of 24 percent by volume.
(4) Raisin wine is wine of this class made from dried grapes.
(5) Sake is wine of this class produced from rice in accordance with the commonly accepted method of manufacture of such product.
(6) Wine of this class derived wholly (except for sugar, water, or added alcohol) from one kind of agricultural product shall except in the case of “sake,” be designated by the word “wine” qualified by the name of such agricultural product, e.g., “honey wine,” “raisin wine,” “dried blackberry wine.” Wine of this class not derived wholly from one kind of agricultural product shall be designated as “wine” qualified by a truthful and adequate statement of composition appearing in direct conjunction therewith. Wine of this class rendered effervescent by carbon dioxide resulting solely from the secondary fermentation of wine within a closed container, tank, or bottle shall be further designated as “sparkling”; and wine of this class rendered effervescent by carbon dioxide otherwise derived shall be further designated as “carbonated.”
(g) Class 7; aperitif wine.
(1) Aperitif wine is wine having an alcoholic content of not less than 15 percent by volume, compounded from grape wine containing added brandy or alcohol, flavored with herbs and other natural aromatic flavoring materials, with or without the addition of caramel for coloring purposes, and possessing the taste, aroma, and characteristics generally attributed to aperitif wine and shall be so designated unless designated as “vermouth” under paragraph (g)(2) of this section.
(2) Vermouth is a type of aperitif wine compounded from grape wine, having the taste, aroma, and characteristics generally attributed to vermouth, and shall be so designated.
(h) Class 8; imitation and substandard or other than standard wine.
(1) “Imitation wine” shall bear as a part of its designation the word “imitation,” and shall include:
(i) Any wine containing synthetic materials.
(ii) Any wine made from a mixture of water with residue remaining after thorough pressing of grapes, fruit, or other agricultural products.
(iii) Any class or type of wine the taste, aroma, color, or other characteristics of which have been acquired in whole or in part, by treatment with methods or materials of any kind (except as permitted in § 4.22(c)(6)), if the taste, aroma, color, or other characteristics of normal wines of such class or type are acquired without such treatment.
(iv) Any wine made from must concentrated at any time to more than 80° (Balling).
(2) “Substandard wine” or “other than standard wine” shall bear as a part of its designation the words “substandard” or “other than standard,” and shall include:
(i) Any wine having a volatile acidity in excess of the maximum prescribed therefor in §§ 4.20 to 4.25.
(ii) Any wine for which no maximum volatile acidity is prescribed in §§ 4.20 to 4.25, inclusive, having a volatile acidity, calculated as acetic acid and exclusive of sulfur dioxide, in excess of 0.14 gram per 100 milliliters (20 °C.).
(iii) Any wine for which a standard of identity is prescribed in this §§ 4.20 to 4.25, inclusive, which, through disease, decomposition, or otherwise, fails to have the composition, color, and clean vinous taste and aroma of normal wines conforming to such standard.
(iv) Any “grape wine” “citrus wine,” “fruit wine,” or “wine from other agricultural products” to which has been added sugar and water solution in an amount which is in excess of the limitations prescribed in the standards of identity for these products, unless, in the case of “citrus wine,” “fruit wine” and “wine from other agricultural products” the normal acidity of the material from which such wine is produced is 20 parts or more per thousand and the volume of the resulting product has not been increased more than 60 percent by such addition.
(i) Class 9; retsina wine. “Retsina wine” is grape table wine fermented or flavored with resin.
Cross Reference:
For regulations relating to the use of spirits in wine, see part 24 of this chapter.
[T.D. 6521, 25 FR 13835, Dec. 29, 1960]]
Editorial Note:
For Federal Register citations affecting § 4.21, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov.

Title 27 published on 2014-04-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.

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U.S. Code: Title 27 - INTOXICATING LIQUORS