27 CFR 70.207 - Civil actions by persons other than taxpayers.

§ 70.207 Civil actions by persons other than taxpayers.
(a) Actions permitted—
(1) Wrongful levy. If a levy has been made on property, or property has been sold pursuant to a levy, any person (other than the person against whom is assessed the tax out of which such levy arose) may bring a civil action against the United States in a district court of the United States based upon such person's claim:
(i) That the person has an interest in, or a lien on, such property which is senior to the interest of the United States; and
(ii) That such property was wrongfully levied upon.
No action is permitted under 26 U.S.C. 7426(a)(1) unless there has been a levy upon the property claimed.
(2) Surplus proceeds. If property has been sold pursuant to levy, any person (other than the person against whom is assessed the tax out of which such levy arose) may bring a civil action against the United States in a district court of the United States based upon the claim that the person:
(i) Has an interest in or lien on such property junior to that of the United States; and
(ii) Is entitled to the surplus proceeds of such sale.
(3) Substituted sale proceeds. Any person who claims to be legally entitled to all or any part of the amount which is held as a fund from the sale of property pursuant to an agreement described in 26 U.S.C. 6325(b)(3) may bring a civil action against the United States in a district court of the United States to obtain the relief provided by 26 U.S.C. 7426(b)(4). It is not necessary that the claimant be a party to the agreement which provides for the substitution of the sale proceeds for the property subject to the lien.
(b) Adjudication—
(1) Wrongful levy. If the court determines that property has been wrongfully levied upon, the court may:
(i) Grant an injunction to prohibit the enforcement of such levy or to prohibit a sale of such property if such sale would irreparably injure rights in the property which are superior to the rights of the United States in such property; or
(ii) Order the return of specific property if the United States is in possession of such property; or
(iii) Grant a judgment for the amount of money levied upon, with interest thereon at the overpayment rate established under 26 U.S.C. 6621 from the date that the officer who made the levy receives the money wrongfully levied upon to the date of payment of such judgment, or
(iv) Grant a judgment for an amount not exceeding the amount received by the United States from the sale of such property (which, in the case of property declared purchased by the United States at a sale, shall be the greater of the minimum amount determined pursuant to 26 U.S.C. 6335(e) or the amount received by the United States from the resale of such property), or the fair market value of such property immediately before the levy, with interest thereon at the overpayment rate established under 26 U.S.C. 6621 from the date of the sale of the property to the date of payment of such judgment.
For purposes of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, a levy is wrongful against a person (other than the taxpayer against whom the assessment giving rise to the levy is made), if the levy is upon property exempt from levy under 26 U.S.C. 6334, or the levy is upon property in which the taxpayer had no interest at the time the lien arose or thereafter, or the levy is upon property with respect to which such person is a purchaser against whom the lien is invalid under 26 U.S.C. 6323 or 6324(a)(2) or (b), or the levy or sale pursuant to levy will or does effectively destroy or otherwise irreparably injure such person's interest in the property which is senior to the Federal tax lien. A levy may be wrongful against a holder of a senior lien upon the taxpayer's property under certain circumstances although legal rights to enforce the holder's interest survive the levy procedure. For example, the levy may be wrongful against such a person if the property is an obligation which is collected pursuant to the levy rather than sold and nothing thereafter remains for the senior lienholder, or the property levied upon is of such a nature that when it is sold at a public sale the property subject to the senior lien is not available for the senior lienholder as a realistic source for the enforcement of the holder's interest. Some of the factors which should be taken into account in determining whether property remains or will remain a realistic source from which the senior lienholder may realize collection are: The nature of the property, the number of purchasers, the value of each unit sold or to be sold, whether, as a direct result of the distraint sale, the costs of realizing collection from the security have or will be so substantially increased as to render the security substantially valueless as a source of collection, and whether the property subject to the distraint sale constitutes substantially all of the property available as security for the payment of the indebtedness to the senior lienholder.
(2) Surplus proceeds. If the court determines that the interest or lien of any party to an action under 26 U.S.C. 7426 was transferred to the proceeds of a sale of the property, the court may grant a judgment in an amount equal to all or any part of the amount of the surplus proceeds of such sale. The term “surplus proceeds” means property remaining after application of the provisions of 26 U.S.C. 6342(a).
(3) Substituted sale proceeds. If the court determines that a party has an interest in or lien on the amount held as a fund pursuant to an agreement described in 26 U.S.C. 6325(b)(3), the court may grant a judgment in an amount equal to all or any part of the amount of such fund.

Title 27 published on 2014-04-01

no entries appear in the Federal Register after this date.

This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.

This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].

It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site.


United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 5 - GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION AND EMPLOYEES
U.S. Code: Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE

§ 4181 - Imposition of tax

§ 4182 - Exemptions

§ 5123 - Preservation and inspection of records, and entry of premises for inspection

§ 5203 - Entry and examination of premises

§ 5207 - Records and reports

§ 5275 - Records and reports

§ 5367 - Records

§ 5415 - Records and returns

§ 5504 - Operation

§ 5555 - Records, statements, and returns

§ 5684 - Penalties relating to the payment and collection of liquor taxes

§ 5741 - Records to be maintained

§ 5761 - Civil penalties

§ 5802 - Registration of importers, manufacturers, and dealers

§ 6020 - Returns prepared for or executed by Secretary

§ 6021 - Listing by Secretary of taxable objects owned by nonresidents of internal revenue districts

§ 6064 - Signature presumed authentic

§ 6102 - Computations on returns or other documents

§ 6155 - Payment on notice and demand

§ 6159 - Agreements for payment of tax liability in installments

§ 6201 - Assessment authority

§ 6203 - Method of assessment

§ 6204 - Supplemental assessments

§ 6301 - Collection authority

§ 6303 - Notice and demand for tax

§ 6311 - Payment of tax by commercially acceptable means

§ 6313 - Fractional parts of a cent

§ 6314 - Receipt for taxes

§ 6321 - Lien for taxes

§ 6323 - Validity and priority against certain persons

§ 6325 - Release of lien or discharge of property

§ 6326 - Administrative appeal of liens

§ 6331 - Levy and distraint

§ 6332 - Surrender of property subject to levy

§ 6333 - Production of books

§ 6334 - Property exempt from levy

§ 6335 - Sale of seized property

§ 6336 - Sale of perishable goods

§ 6337 - Redemption of property

§ 6338 - Certificate of sale; deed of real property

§ 6339 - Legal effect of certificate of sale of personal property and deed of real property

§ 6340 - Records of sale

§ 6341 - Expense of levy and sale

§ 6342 - Application of proceeds of levy

§ 6343 - Authority to release levy and return property

§ 6401 - Amounts treated as overpayments

§ 6402 - Authority to make credits or refunds

§ 6403 - Overpayment of installment

§ 6404 - Abatements

§ 6407 - Date of allowance of refund or credit

§ 6416 - Certain taxes on sales and services

§ 6423 - Conditions to allowance in the case of alcohol and tobacco taxes

§ 6501 - Limitations on assessment and collection

§ 6502 - Collection after assessment

§ 6503 - Suspension of running of period of limitation

§ 6511 - Limitations on credit or refund

§ 6513 - Time return deemed filed and tax considered paid

§ 6514 - Credits or refunds after period of limitation

§ 6532 - Periods of limitation on suits

§ 6601 - Interest on underpayment, nonpayment, or extensions of time for payment, of tax

§ 6602 - Interest on erroneous refund recoverable by suit

§ 6611 - Interest on overpayments

§ 6621 - Determination of rate of interest

§ 6622 - Interest compounded daily

§ 6651 - Failure to file tax return or to pay tax

§ 6653 - Failure to pay stamp tax

§ 6656 - Failure to make deposit of taxes

§ 6657 - Bad checks

§ 6658 - Coordination with title 11

§ 6665 - Applicable rules

§ 6671 - Rules for application of assessable penalties

§ 6672 - Failure to collect and pay over tax, or attempt to evade or defeat tax

§ 6701 - Penalties for aiding and abetting understatement of tax liability

§ 6723 - Failure to comply with other information reporting requirements

§ 6801 - Authority for establishment, alteration, and distribution

§ 6862 - Jeopardy assessment of taxes other than income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes

§ 6863 - Stay of collection of jeopardy assessments

§ 6901 - Transferred assets

§ 7011 - Registration—persons paying a special tax

§ 7101 - Form of bonds

§ 7102 - Single bond in lieu of multiple bonds

§ 7121 - Closing agreements

§ 7122 - Compromises

§ 7207 - Fraudulent returns, statements, or other documents

§ 7209 - Unauthorized use or sale of stamps

§ 7214 - Offenses by officers and employees of the United States

§ 7304 - Penalty for fraudulently claiming drawback

§ 7401 - Authorization

§ 7403 - Action to enforce lien or to subject property to payment of tax

§ 7406 - Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered

§ 7423 - Repayments to officers or employees

§ 7424 - Intervention

§ 7425 - Discharge of liens

§ 7426 - Civil actions by persons other than taxpayers

§ 7429 - Review of jeopardy levy or assessment procedures

§ 7430 - Awarding of costs and certain fees

§ 7432 - Civil damages for failure to release lien

§ 7502 - Timely mailing treated as timely filing and paying

§ 7503 - Time for performance of acts where last day falls on Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday

§ 7505 - Sale of personal property acquired by the United States

§ 7506 - Administration of real estate acquired by the United States

§ 7513 - Reproduction of returns and other documents

§ 7601 - Canvass of districts for taxable persons and objects

§ 7602 - Examination of books and witnesses

§ 7603 - Service of summons

§ 7604 - Enforcement of summons

§ 7605 - Time and place of examination

§ 7606 - Entry of premises for examination of taxable objects

§ 7608 - Authority of internal revenue enforcement officers

§ 7609 - Special procedures for third-party summonses

§ 7610 - Fees and costs for witnesses

§ 7622 - Authority to administer oaths and certify

§ 7623 - Expenses of detection of underpayments and fraud, etc.

§ 7653 - Shipments from the United States

§ 7805 - Rules and regulations