29 CFR 1910.21 - Definitions.

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§ 1910.21 Definitions.
(a) As used in § 1910.23, unless the context requires otherwise, floor and wall opening, railing and toe board terms shall have the meanings ascribed in this paragraph.
(1) Floor hole. An opening measuring less than 12 inches but more than 1 inch in its least dimension, in any floor, platform, pavement, or yard, through which materials but not persons may fall; such as a belt hole, pipe opening, or slot opening.
(2) Floor opening. An opening measuring 12 inches or more in its least dimension, in any floor, platform, pavement, or yard through which persons may fall; such as a hatchway, stair or ladder opening, pit, or large manhole. Floor openings occupied by elevators, dumb waiters, conveyors, machinery, or containers are excluded from this subpart.
(3) Handrail. A single bar or pipe supported on brackets from a wall or partition, as on a stairway or ramp, to furnish persons with a handhold in case of tripping.
(4) Platform. A working space for persons, elevated above the surrounding floor or ground; such as a balcony or platform for the operation of machinery and equipment.
(5) Runway. A passageway for persons, elevated above the surrounding floor or ground level, such as a footwalk along shafting or a walkway between buildings.
(6) Standard railing. A vertical barrier erected along exposed edges of a floor opening, wall opening, ramp, platform, or runway to prevent falls of persons.
(7) Standard strength and construction. Any construction of railings, covers, or other guards that meets the requirements of § 1910.23.
(8) Stair railing. A vertical barrier erected along exposed sides of a stairway to prevent falls of persons.
(9) Toeboard. A vertical barrier at floor level erected along exposed edges of a floor opening, wall opening, platform, runway, or ramp to prevent falls of materials.
(10) Wall hole. An opening less than 30 inches but more than 1 inch high, of unrestricted width, in any wall or partition; such as a ventilation hole or drainage scupper.
(11) Wall opening. An opening at least 30 inches high and 18 inches wide, in any wall or partition, through which persons may fall; such as a yard-arm doorway or chute opening.
(b) As used in § 1910.24, unless the context requires otherwise, fixed industrial stair terms shall have the meaning ascribed in this paragraph.
(1) Handrail. A single bar or pipe supported on brackets from a wall or partition to provide a continuous handhold for persons using a stair.
(2) Nose, nosing. That portion of a tread projecting beyond the face of the riser immediately below.
(3) Open riser. The air space between the treads of stairways without upright members (risers).
(4) Platform. An extended step or landing breaking a continuous run of stairs.
(5) Railing. A vertical barrier erected along exposed sides of stairways and platforms to prevent falls of persons. The top member of railing usually serves as a handrail.
(6) Rise. The vertical distance from the top of a tread to the top of the next higher tread.
(7) Riser. The upright member of a step situated at the back of a lower tread and near the leading edge of the next higher tread.
(8) Stairs, stairway. A series of steps leading from one level or floor to another, or leading to platforms, pits, boiler rooms, crossovers, or around machinery, tanks, and other equipment that are used more or less continuously or routinely by employees, or only occasionally by specific individuals. A series of steps and landings having three or more risers constitutes stairs or stairway.
(9) Tread. The horizontal member of a step.
(10) Tread run. The horizontal distance from the leading edge of a tread to the leading edge of an adjacent tread.
(11) Tread width. The horizontal distance from front to back of tread including nosing when used.
(c) As used in § 1910.25, unless the context requires otherwise, portable wood ladders terms shall have the meanings ascribed in this paragraph.
(1) Ladders. A ladder is an appliance usually consisting of two side rails joined at regular intervals by cross- pieces called steps, rungs, or cleats, on which a person may step in ascending or descending.
(2) Stepladder. A stepladder is a selfsupporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, having flat steps and a hinged back. Its size is designated by the overall length of the ladder measured along the front edge of the side rails.
(3) Single ladder. A single ladder is a non-self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, consisting of but one section. Its size is designated by the overall length of the side rail.
(4) Extension ladder. An extension ladder is a non-self-supporting portable ladder adjustable in length. It consists of two or more sections traveling in guides or brackets so arranged as to permit length adjustment. Its size is designated by the sum of the lengths of the sections measured along the side rails.
(5) Sectional ladder. A sectional ladder is a non-self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, consisting of two or more sections of ladder so constructed that the sections may be combined to function as a single ladder. Its size is designated by the overall length of the assembled sections.
(6) Trestle ladder. A trestle ladder is a self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, consisting of two sections hinged at the top to form equal angles with the base. The size is designated by the length of the side rails measured along the front edge.
(7) Extension trestle ladder. An extension trestle ladder is a self-supporting portable ladder, adjustable in length, consisting of a trestle ladder base and a vertically adjustable single ladder, with suitable means for locking the ladders together. The size is designated by the length of the trestle ladder base.
(8) Special-purpose ladder. A special-purpose ladder is a portable ladder which represents either a modification or a combination of design or construction features in one of the general-purpose types of ladders previously defined, in order to adapt the ladder to special or specific uses.
(9) Trolley ladder. A trolley ladder is a semifixed ladder, nonadjustable in length, supported by attachments to an overhead track, the plane of the ladder being at right angles to the plane of motion.
(10) Side-rolling ladder. A side-rolling ladder is a semifixed ladder, nonadjustable in length, supported by attachments to a guide rail, which is generally fastened to shelving, the plane of the ladder being also its plane of motion.
(11) Wood characteristics. Wood characteristics are distinguishing features which by their extent and number determine the quality of a piece of wood.
(12) Wood irregularities. Wood irregularities are natural characteristics in or on wood that may lower its durability, strength, or utility.
(13) Cross grain. Cross grain (slope of grain) is a deviation of the fiber direction from a line parallel to the sides of the piece.
(14) Knot. A knot is a branch or limb, imbedded in the tree and cut through in the process of lumber manufacture, classified according to size, quality, and occurrence. The size of the knot is determined as the average diameter on the surface of the piece.
(15) Pitch and bark pockets. A pitch pocket is an opening extending parallel to the annual growth rings containing, or that has contained, pitch, either solid or liquid. A bark pocket is an opening between annual growth rings that contains bark.
(16) Shake. A shake is a separation along the grain, most of which occurs between the rings of annual growth.
(17) Check. A check is a lengthwise separation of the wood, most of which occurs across the rings of annual growth.
(18) Wane. Wane is bark, or the lack of wood from any cause, on the corner of a piece.
(19) Decay. Decay is disintegration of wood substance due to action of wood-destroying fungi. It is also known as dote and rot.
(20) Compression failure. A compression failure is a deformation (buckling) of the fibers due to excessive compression along the grain.
(21) Compression wood. Compression wood is an aberrant (abnormal) and highly variable type of wood structure occurring in softwood species. The wood commonly has density somewhat higher than does normal wood, but somewhat lower stiffness and tensile strength for its weight in addition to high longitudinal shrinkage.
(22) Low density. Low-density wood is that which is exceptionally light in weight and usually deficient in strength properties for the species.
(d) As used in § 1910.26, unless the context requires otherwise, portable metal ladder terms shall have the meanings ascribed in this paragraph.
(1) Ladder. A ladder is an appliance usually consisting of two side rails joined at regular intervals by cross- pieces called steps, rungs, or cleats, on which a person may step in ascending or descending.
(2) Step ladder. A step ladder is a self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, having flat steps and a hinged back. Its size is designated by the overall length of the ladder measured along the front edge of the side rails.
(3) Single ladder. A single ladder is a non-self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, consisting of but one section. Its size is designated by the overall length of the side rail.
(4) Extension ladder. An extension ladder is a non-self-supporting portable ladder adjustable in length. It consists of two or more sections traveling in guides or brackets so arranged as to permit length adjustment. Its size is designated by the sum of the lengths of the sections measured along the side rails.
(5) Platform ladder. A self-supporting ladder of fixed size with a platform provided at the working level. The size is determined by the distance along the front rail from the platform to the base of the ladder.
(6) Sectional ladder. A sectional ladder is a non-self-supporting portable ladder, non-adjustable in length, consisting of two or more sections so constructed that the sections may be combined to function as a single ladder. Its size is designated by the overall length of the assembled sections.
(7) Trestle ladder. A trestle ladder is a self-supporting portable ladder, non-adjustable in length, consisting of two sections, hinged at the top to form equal angles with the base. The size is designated by the length of the side rails measured along the front edge.
(8) Extension trestle ladder. An extension trestle ladder is a self-supporting portable ladder, adjustable in length, consisting of a trestle ladder base and a vertically adjustable single ladder, with suitable means for locking the ladders together. The size is designated by the length of the trestle ladder base.
(9) Special-purpose ladder. A special-purpose ladder is a portable ladder which represents either a modification or a combination of design or construction features in one of the general-purpose types of ladders previously defined, in order to adapt the ladder to special or specific uses.
(e) As used in § 1910.27, unless the context requires otherwise, fixed ladder terms shall have the meanings ascribed in this paragraph.
(1) Ladder. A ladder is an appliance usually consisting of two side rails joined at regular intervals by cross- pieces called steps, rungs, or cleats, on which a person may step in ascending or descending.
(2) Fixed ladder. A fixed ladder is a ladder permanently attached to a structure, building, or equipment.
(3) Individual-rung ladder. An individual-rung ladder is a fixed ladder each rung of which is individually attached to a structure, building, or equipment.
(4) Rail ladder. A rail ladder is a fixed ladder consisting of side rails joined at regular intervals by rungs or cleats and fastened in full length or in sections to a building, structure, or equipment.
(5) Railings. A railing is any one or a combination of those railings constructed in accordance with § 1910.23. A standard railing is a vertical barrier erected along exposed edges of floor openings, wall openings, ramps, platforms, and runways to prevent falls of persons.
(6) Pitch. Pitch is the included angle between the horizontal and the ladder, measured on the opposite side of the ladder from the climbing side.
(7) Fastenings. A fastening is a device to attach a ladder to a structure, building, or equipment.
(8) Rungs. Rungs are ladder cross- pieces of circular or oval cross-section on which a person may step in ascending or descending.
(9) Cleats. Cleats are ladder cross- pieces of rectangular cross-section placed on edge on which a person may step in ascending or descending.
(10) Steps. Steps are the flat cross- pieces of a ladder on which a person may step in ascending or descending.
(11) Cage. A cage is a guard that may be referred to as a cage or basket guard which is an enclosure that is fastened to the side rails of the fixed ladder or to the structure to encircle the climbing space of the ladder for the safety of the person who must climb the ladder.
(12) Well. A well is a permanent complete enclosure around a fixed ladder, which is attached to the walls of the well. Proper clearances for a well will give the person who must climb the ladder the same protection as a cage.
(13) Ladder safety device. A ladder safety device is any device, other than a cage or well, designed to eliminate or reduce the possibility of accidental falls and which may incorporate such features as life belts, friction brakes, and sliding attachments.
(14) Grab bars. Grab bars are individual handholds placed adjacent to or as an extension above ladders for the purpose of providing access beyond the limits of the ladder.
(15) Through ladder. A through ladder is one from which a man getting off at the top must step through the ladder in order to reach the landing.
(16) Side-step ladder. A side-step ladder is one from which a man getting off at the top must step sideways from the ladder in order to reach the landing.
(f) As used in § 1910.28, unless the context requires otherwise, scaffolding terms shall have the meaning ascribed in this paragraph.
(1) Bearer. A horizontal member of a scaffold upon which the platform rests and which may be supported by ledgers.
(2) Boatswain's chair. A seat supported by slings attached to a suspended rope, designed to accommodate one workman in a sitting position.
(3) Brace. A tie that holds one scaffold member in a fixed position with respect to another member.
(4) Bricklayers' square scaffold. A scaffold composed of framed wood squares which support a platform limited to light and medium duty.
(5) Carpenters' bracket scaffold. A scaffold consisting of wood or metal brackets supporting a platform.
(6) Coupler. A device for locking together the component parts of a tubular metal scaffold. The material used for the couplers shall be of a structural type, such as a drop-forged steel, malleable iron, or structural grade aluminum. The use of gray cast iron is prohibited.
(7) Crawling board or chicken ladder. A plank with cleats spaced and secured at equal intervals, for use by a worker on roofs, not designed to carry any material.
(8) Double pole or independent pole scaffold. A scaffold supported from the base by a double row of uprights, independent of support from the walls and constructed of uprights, ledgers, horizontal platform bearers, and diagonal bracing.
(9) Float or ship scaffold. A scaffold hung from overhead supports by means of ropes and consisting of a substantial platform having diagonal bracing underneath, resting upon and securely fastened to two parallel plank bearers at right angles to the span.
(10) Guardrail. A rail secured to uprights and erected along the exposed sides and ends of platforms.
(11) Heavy duty scaffold. A scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load not to exceed 75 pounds per square foot.
(12) Horse scaffold. A scaffold for light or medium duty, composed of horses supporting a work platform.
(13) Interior hung scaffold. A scaffold suspended from the ceiling or roof structure.
(14) Ladder jack scaffold. A light duty scaffold supported by brackets attached to ladders.
(15) Ledger (stringer). A horizontal scaffold member which extends from post to post and which supports the putlogs or bearer forming a tie between the posts.
(16) Light duty scaffold. A scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load not to exceed 25 pounds per square foot.
(17) Manually propelled mobile scaffold. A portable rolling scaffold supported by casters.
(18) Masons' adjustable multiple-point suspension scaffold. A scaffold having a continuous platform supported by bearers suspended by wire rope from overhead supports, so arranged and operated as to permit the raising or lowering of the platform to desired working positions.
(19) Maximum intended load. The total of all loads including the working load, the weight of the scaffold, and such other loads as may be reasonably anticipated.
(20) Medium duty scaffold. A scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load not to exceed 50 pounds per square foot.
(21) Mid-rail. A rail approximately midway between the guardrail and platform, used when required, and secured to the uprights erected along the exposed sides and ends of platforms.
(22) Needle beam scaffold. A light duty scaffold consisting of needle beams supporting a platform.
(23) Outrigger scaffold. A scaffold supported by outriggers or thrustouts projecting beyond the wall or face of the building or structure, the inboard ends of which are secured inside of such a building or structure.
(24) Putlog. A scaffold member upon which the platform rests.
(25) Roofing bracket. A bracket used in sloped roof construction, having provisions for fastening to the roof or supported by ropes fastened over the ridge and secured to some suitable object.
(26) Runner. The lengthwise horizontal bracing or bearing members or both.
(27) Scaffold. Any temporary elevated platform and its supporting structure used for supporting workmen or materials or both.
(28) Single-point adjustable suspension scaffold. A manually or power-operated unit designed for light duty use, supported by a single wire rope from an overhead support so arranged and operated as to permit the raising or lowering of the platform to desired working positions.
(29) Single pole scaffold. Platforms resting on putlogs or crossbeams, the outside ends of which are supported on ledgers secured to a single row of posts or uprights and the inner ends of which are supported on or in a wall.
(30) Stone setters' adjustable multiple-point suspension scaffold. A swinging-type scaffold having a platform supported by hangers suspended at four points so as to permit the raising or lowering of the platform to the desired working position by the use of hoisting machines.
(31) Toeboard. A barrier secured along the sides and ends of a platform, to guard against the falling of material.
(32) Tube and coupler scaffold. An assembly consisting of tubing which serves as posts, bearers, braces, ties, and runners, a base supporting the posts, and special couplers which serve to connect the uprights and to join the various members.
(33) Tubular welded frame scaffold. A sectional, panel, or frame metal scaffold substantially built up of prefabricated welded sections which consist of posts and horizontal bearer with intermediate members. Panels or frames shall be braced with diagonal or cross braces.
(34) Two-point suspension scaffold (swinging scaffold). A scaffold, the platform of which is supported by hangers (stirrups) at two points, suspended from overhead supports so as to permit the raising or lowering of the platform to the desired working position by tackle or hoisting machines.
(35) Window jack scaffold. A scaffold, the platform of which is supported by a bracket or jack which projects through a window opening.
(36) Working load. Load imposed by men, materials, and equipment.
(g) As used in § 1910.29, unless the context requires otherwise, manually propelled mobile ladder stand and scaffold (tower) terms shall have the meaning ascribed in this paragraph.
(1) Bearer. A horizontal member of a scaffold upon which the platform rests and which may be supported by ledgers.
(2) Brace. A tie that holds one scaffold member in a fixed position with respect to another member.
(3) Climbing ladder. A separate ladder with equally spaced rungs usually attached to the scaffold structure for climbing and descending.
(4) Coupler. A device for locking together the components of a tubular metal scaffold which shall be designed and used to safely support the maximum intended loads.
(5) Design working load. The maximum intended load, being the total of all loads including the weight of the men, materials, equipment, and platform.
(6) Equivalent. Alternative design or features, which will provide an equal degree or factor of safety.
(7) Guardrail. A barrier secured to uprights and erected along the exposed sides and ends of platforms to prevent falls of persons.
(8) Handrail. A rail connected to a ladder stand running parallel to the slope and/or top step.
(9) Ladder stand. A mobile fixed size self-supporting ladder consisting of a wide flat tread ladder in the form of stairs. The assembly may include handrails.
(10) Ledger (stringer). A horizontal scaffold member which extends from post to post and which supports the bearer forming a tie between the posts.
(11) Mobile scaffold (tower). A light, medium, or heavy duty scaffold mounted on casters or wheels.
(12) Mobile. “Manually propelled.”
(13) Mobile work platform. Generally a fixed work level one frame high on casters or wheels, with bracing diagonally from platform to vertical frame.
(14) Runner. The lengthwise horizontal bracing and/or bearing members.
(15) Scaffold. Any temporary elevated platform and its necessary vertical, diagonal, and horizontal members used for supporting workmen and materials. (Also known as a scaffold tower.)
(16) Toeboard. A barrier at platform level erected along the exposed sides and ends of a scaffold platform to prevent falls of materials.
(17) Tube and coupler scaffold. An assembly consisting of tubing which serves as posts, bearers, braces, ties, and runners, a base supporting the posts, and uprights, and serves to join the various members, usually used in fixed locations.
(18) Tubular welded frame scaffold. A sectional, panel, or frame metal scaffold substantially built up of prefabricated welded sections, which consist of posts and bearers with intermediate connecting members and braced with diagonal or cross braces.
(19) Tubular welded sectional folding scaffold. A sectional, folding metal scaffold either of ladder frame or inside stairway design, substantially built of prefabricated welded sections, which consist of end frames, platform frame, inside inclined stairway frame and braces, or hinged connected diagonal and horizontal braces, capable of being folded into a flat package when the scaffold is not in use.
(20) Work level. The elevated platform, used for supporting workmen and their materials, comprising the necessary vertical, horizontal, and diagonal braces, guardrails, and ladder for access to the work platform.

Title 29 published on 2013-07-01

The following are only the Rules published in the Federal Register after the published date of Title 29.

For a complete list of all Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices view the Rulemaking tab.

  • 2014-07-01; vol. 79 # 126 - Tuesday, July 1, 2014
    1. 79 FR 37189 - Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms and Logging Operations; Corrections
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, Occupational Safety and Health Administration
      Correcting amendments.
      Effective July 1, 2014.
      29 CFR Part 1910

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United States Code
U.S. Code: Title 5 - GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION AND EMPLOYEES
U.S. Code: Title 20 - EDUCATION
U.S. Code: Title 29 - LABOR
U.S. Code: Title 31 - MONEY AND FINANCE
U.S. Code: Title 33 - NAVIGATION AND NAVIGABLE WATERS
U.S. Code: Title 40 - PUBLIC BUILDINGS, PROPERTY, AND WORKS
U.S. Code: Title 49 - TRANSPORTATION
Statutes at Large
Public Laws

Title 29 published on 2013-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 29 CFR 1910 after this date.

  • 2014-07-01; vol. 79 # 126 - Tuesday, July 1, 2014
    1. 79 FR 37189 - Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms and Logging Operations; Corrections
      GPO FDSys XML | Text
      DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, Occupational Safety and Health Administration
      Correcting amendments.
      Effective July 1, 2014.
      29 CFR Part 1910