§ 1926.1001Minimum performance criteria for rollover protective structures for designated scrapers, loaders, dozers, graders, and crawler tractors.
(a)General. This section prescribes minimum performance criteria for rollover protective structures (ROPS) for rubber-tired self-propelled scrapers; rubber-tired front-end loaders and rubber-tired dozers; crawler tractors, and crawler-type loaders, and motor graders. The vehicle and ROPS as a system shall have the structural characteristics prescribed in paragraph (f) of this section for each type of machine described in this paragraph.
(b) The static laboratory test prescribed herein will determine the adequacy of the structures used to protect the operator under the following conditions:
(1) For rubber-tired self-propelled scrapers, rubber-tired front-end loaders, and rubber-tired dozers: Operating between 0 and 10 miles per hour over hard clay where rollover would be limited to a maximum roll angle of 360° down a slope of 30° maximum.
(2) For motor graders: Operating between 0 and 10 miles per hour over hard clay where rollover would be limited to 360° down a slope of 30° maximum.
(3) For crawler tractors and crawler-type loaders: Operating between 0 and 10 miles per hour over hard clay where rollover would be limited to a maximum roll angle of 360° down a slope of 45°.
(c)Facilities and apparatus.
(1) The following material is necessary:
(i) Material, equipment, and tiedown means adequate to insure that the ROPS and its vehicle frame absorb the applied energy.
(ii) Equipment necessary to measure and apply loads to the ROPS. Adequate means to measure deflections and lengths should also be provided.
(iii) Recommended, but not mandatory, types of test setups are illustrated in Figure W-1 for all types of equipment to which this section applies; and in Figure W-2 for rubber-tired self-propelled scrapers; Figure W-3 for rubber-tired front-end loaders, rubber-tired dozers, and motor graders; and Figure W-4 for crawler tractors and crawler-type loaders.
(2) Table W-1 contains a listing of the required apparatus for all types of equipment described in paragraph (a) of this section.
Means to measure
Deflection of ROPS, inches
±5% of deflection measured.
Vehicle weight, pounds
±5% of the weight measured.
Force applied to frame, pounds
±5% of force measured.
Dimensions of critical zone, inches
(d)Vehicle condition. The ROPS to be tested must be attached to the vehicle structure in the same manner as it will be attached during vehicle use. A totally assembled vehicle is not required. However, the vehicle structure and frame which support the ROPS must represent the actual vehicle installation. All normally detachable windows, panels, or nonstructural fittings shall be removed so that they do not contribute to the strength of the ROPS.
(e)Test procedure. The test procedure shall include the following, in the sequence indicated:
(1) Energy absorbing capabilities of ROPS shall be verified when loaded laterally by incrementally applying a distributed load to the longitudinal outside top member of the ROPS, as shown in Figure W-1, W-2, or W-3, as applicable. The distributed load must be applied so as to result in approximately uniform deflection of the ROPS. The load increments should correspond with approximately 0.5 in. ROPS deflection increment in the direction of the load application, measured at the ROPS top edge. Should the operator's seat be offcenter, the load shall be applied on the offcenter side. For each applied load increment, the total load (lb.) versus corresponding deflection (in.) shall be plotted, and the area under the load -deflection curve shall be calculated. This area is equal to the energy (in.-lb.) absorbed by the ROPS. For a typical load-deflection curve and calculation method, see Figure W-5.
Incremental loading shall be continued until the ROPS has absorbed the amount of energy and the minimum applied load specified under paragraph (f) of this section has been reached or surpassed.
(2) To cover the possibility of the vehicle coming to rest on its top, the support capability shall be verified by applying a distributed vertical load to the top of the ROPS so as to result in approximately uniform deflection (see Figure W-1). The load magnitude is specified in paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section.
(3) The low temperature impact strength of the material used in the ROPS shall be verified by suitable material tests or material certification (see paragraph (f)(2)(iv) of this section).
(1)General performance requirements.
(i) No repairs or straightening of any member shall be carried out between each prescribed test.
(ii) During each test, no part of the ROPS shall enter the critical zone as detailed in SAE J397 (1969). Deformation of the ROPS shall not allow the plane of the ground to enter this zone.
(2)Specific performance requirements.
(i) The energy requirement for purposes of meeting the requirements of paragraph (e)(1) of this section is to be determined by referring to the plot of the energy versus weight of vehicle (see Figure W-6 for rubber-tired self-propelled scrapers; Figure W-7 for rubber-tired front-end loaders and rubber-tired dozers; Figure W-8 for crawler tractors and crawler-type loaders; and Figure W-9 for motor graders). For purposes of this section, force and weight are measured as pounds (lb.); energy (U) is measured as inch-pounds.
(ii) The applied load must attain at least a value which is determined by multiplying the vehicle weight by the corresponding factor shown in Figure W-10 for rubber-tired self-propelled scrapers; in Figure W-11 for rubber-tired front-end loaders and rubber-tired dozers; in Figure W-12 for crawler tractors and crawler-type loaders; and in Figure W-13 for motor graders.
(iii) The load magnitude for purposes of compliance with paragraph (e)(2) of this section is equal to the vehicle weight. The test of load magnitude shall only be made after the requirements of paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section are met.
(iv) Material used in the ROPS must have the capability of performing at zero degrees Fahrenheit, or exhibit Charpy V notch impact strength of 8 foot-pounds at minus 20 °Fahrenheit.
This is a standard Charpy specimen as described in American Society of Testing and Materials A 370, Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products (available at each Regional Office of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration). The purpose of this requirement is to reduce the tendency of brittle fracture associated with dynamic loading, low temperature operation, and stress raisers which cannot be entirely avoided on welded structures.
(g)Definitions. For purposes of this section, “vehicle weight” means the manufacturer's maximum weight of the prime mover for rubber-tired self-propelled scrapers. For other types of equipment to which this section applies, “vehicle weight” means the manufacturer's maximum recommended weight of the vehicle plus the heaviest attachment.
(h)Source of standard. This standard is derived from, and restates, the following Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practices: SAE J320a, Minimum Performance Criteria for Roll-Over Protective Structure for Rubber-Tired, Self-Propelled Scrapers; SAE J394, Minimum Performance Criteria for Roll-Over Protective Structure for Rubber-Tired Front End Loaders and Rubber-Tired Dozers; SAE J395, Minimum Performance Criteria for Roll-Over Protective Structure for Crawler Tractors and Crawler-Type Loaders; and SAE J396, Minimum Performance Criteria for Roll-Over Protective Structure for Motor Graders. These recommended practices shall be resorted to in the event that questions of interpretation arise. The recommended practices appear in the 1971 SAE Handbook, which may be examined in each of the Regional Offices of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
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