29 CFR 1926.1435 - Tower cranes.

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§ 1926.1435 Tower cranes.
(a) This section contains supplemental requirements for tower cranes; all sections of this subpart apply to tower cranes unless specified otherwise.
(b) Erecting, climbing and dismantling.
(1) Section 1926.1403 (Assembly/Disassembly—selection of manufacturer or employer procedures), § 1926.1404 (Assembly/Disassembly—general requirements (applies to all assembly and disassembly operations)), § 1926.1405 (Disassembly—additional requirements for dismantling of booms and jibs (applies to both the use of manufacturer procedures and employer procedures)), and § 1926.1406 (Assembly/Disassembly—employer procedures—general requirements), apply to tower cranes (except as otherwise specified), except that the term “assembly/disassembly” is replaced by “erecting, climbing and dismantling,” and the term “disassembly” is replaced by “dismantling.”
(2) Dangerous areas (self-erecting tower cranes). In addition to the requirements in § 1926.1404(e), for self-erecting tower cranes, the following applies: Employees must not be in or under the tower, jib, or rotating portion of the crane during erecting, climbing and dismantling operations until the crane is secured in a locked position and the competent person in charge indicates it is safe to enter this area, unless the manufacturer's instructions direct otherwise and only the necessary personnel are permitted in this area.
(3) Foundations and structural supports. Tower crane foundations and structural supports (including both the portions of the structure used for support and the means of attachment) must be designed by the manufacturer or a registered professional engineer.
(4) Addressing specific hazards. The requirements in § 1926.1404(h)(1) through (9) apply. In addition, the A/D director must address the following:
(i) Foundations and structural supports. The A/D director must determine that tower crane foundations and structural supports are installed in accordance with their design.
(ii) Loss of backward stability. Backward stability before swinging self erecting cranes or cranes on traveling or static undercarriages.
(iii) Wind speed. Wind must not exceed the speed recommended by the manufacturer or, where manufacturer does not specify this information, the speed determined by a qualified person.
(5) Plumb tolerance. Towers must be erected plumb to the manufacturer's tolerance and verified by a qualified person. Where the manufacturer does not specify plumb tolerance, the crane tower must be plumb to a tolerance of at least 1:500 (approximately 1 inch in 40 feet).
(6) Multiple tower crane jobsites. On jobsites where more than one fixed jib (hammerhead) tower crane is installed, the cranes must be located such that no crane can come in contact with the structure of another crane. Cranes are permitted to pass over one another.
(7) Climbing procedures. Prior to, and during, all climbing procedures (including inside climbing and top climbing), the employer must:
(i) Comply with all manufacturer prohibitions.
(ii) Have a registered professional engineer verify that the host structure is strong enough to sustain the forces imposed through the braces, brace anchorages and supporting floors.
(8) Counterweight/ballast.
(i) Equipment must not be erected, dismantled or operated without the amount and position of counterweight and/or ballast in place as specified by the manufacturer or a registered professional engineer familiar with the equipment.
(ii) The maximum counterweight and/or ballast specified by the manufacturer or registered professional engineer familiar with the equipment must not be exceeded.
(c) Signs. The size and location of signs installed on tower cranes must be in accordance with manufacturer specifications. Where these are unavailable, a registered professional engineer familiar with the type of equipment involved must approve in writing the size and location of any signs.
(d) Safety devices.
(1) Section 1926.1415 does not apply to tower cranes.
(2) The following safety devices are required on all tower cranes unless otherwise specified:
(i) Boom stops on luffing boom type tower cranes.
(ii) Jib stops on luffing boom type tower cranes if equipped with a jib attachment.
(iii) Travel rail end stops at both ends of travel rail.
(iv) Travel rail clamps on all travel bogies.
(v) Integrally mounted check valves on all load supporting hydraulic cylinders.
(vi) Hydraulic system pressure limiting device.
(vii) The following brakes, which must automatically set in the event of pressure loss or power failure, are required:
(A) A hoist brake on all hoists.
(B) Swing brake.
(C) Trolley brake.
(D) Rail travel brake.
(viii) Deadman control or forced neutral return control (hand) levers.
(ix) Emergency stop switch at the operator's station.
(x) Trolley end stops must be provided at both ends of travel of the trolley.
(3) Proper operation required. Operations must not begin unless the devices listed in this section are in proper working order. If a device stops working properly during operations, the operator must safely stop operations. The equipment must be taken out of service, and operations must not resume until the device is again working properly. See§ 1926.1417(f). Alternative measures are not permitted to be used.
(e) Operational aids.
(1) Section 1926.1416 does not apply to tower cranes.
(2) The devices listed in this section (“operational aids”) are required on all tower cranes covered by this subpart, unless otherwise specified.
(3) Operations must not begin unless the operational aids are in proper working order, except where the employer meets the specified temporary alternative measures. More protective alternative measures specified by the tower crane manufacturer, if any, must be followed. See§ 1926.1417(j) for additional requirements.
(4) If an operational aid stops working properly during operations, the operator must safely stop operations until the temporary alternative measures are implemented or the device is again working properly. If a replacement part is no longer available, the use of a substitute device that performs the same type of function is permitted and is not considered a modification under § 1926.1434.
(5) Category I operational aids and alternative measures. Operational aids listed in this paragraph that are not working properly must be repaired no later than 7 calendar days after the deficiency occurs. Exception: If the employer documents that it has ordered the necessary parts within 7 calendar days of the occurrence of the deficiency, the repair must be completed within 7 calendar days of receipt of the parts.
(i) Trolley travel limiting device. The travel of the trolley must be restricted at both ends of the jib by a trolley travel limiting device to prevent the trolley from running into the trolley end stops. Temporary alternative measures:
(A) Option A. The trolley rope must be marked (so it can be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the trolley prior to the end stops.
(B) Option B. A spotter who is in direct communication with the operator must be used when operations are conducted within 10 feet of the outer or inner trolley end stops.
(ii) Boom hoist limiting device. The range of the boom must be limited at the minimum and maximum radius. Temporary alternative measures: Clearly mark the cable (so it can be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the boom hoist within the minimum and maximum boom radius, or use a spotter who is in direct communication with the operator to inform the operator when this point is reached.
(iii) Anti two-blocking device. The tower crane must be equipped with a device which automatically prevents damage from contact between the load block, overhaul ball, or similar component, and the boom tip (or fixed upper block or similar component). The device(s) must prevent such damage at all points where two-blocking could occur. Temporary alternative measures: Clearly mark the cable (so it can be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to prevent two-blocking, or use a spotter who is in direct communication with the operator to inform the operator when this point is reached.
(iv) Hoist drum lower limiting device. Tower cranes manufactured after November 8, 2011 must be equipped with a device that prevents the last 2 wraps of hoist cable from being spooled off the drum. Temporary alternative measures: Mark the cable (so it can be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist prior to last 2 wraps of hoist cable being spooled off the drum, or use a spotter who is in direct communication with the operator to inform the operator when this point is reached
(v) Load moment limiting device. The tower crane must have a device that prevents moment overloading. Temporary alternative measures: A radius indicating device must be used (if the tower crane is not equipped with a radius indicating device, the radius must be measured to ensure the load is within the rated capacity of the crane). In addition, the weight of the load must be determined from a source recognized by the industry (such as the load's manufacturer), or by a calculation method recognized by the industry (such as calculating a steel beam from measured dimensions and a known per foot weight), or by other equally reliable means. This information must be provided to the operator prior to the lift.
(vi) Hoist line pull limiting device. The capacity of the hoist must be limited to prevent overloading, including each individual gear ratio if equipped with a multiple speed hoist transmission. Temporary alternative measures: The operator must ensure that the weight of the load does not exceed the capacity of the hoist (including for each individual gear ratio if equipped with a multiple speed hoist transmission).
(vii) Rail travel limiting device. The travel distance in each direction must be limited to prevent the travel bogies from running into the end stops or buffers. Temporary alternative measures: A spotter who is in direct communication with the operator must be used when operations are conducted within 10 feet of either end of the travel rail end stops; the spotter must inform the operator of the distance of the travel bogies from the end stops or buffers.
(viii) Boom hoist drum positive locking device and control. The boom hoist drum must be equipped with a control that will enable the operator to positively lock the boom hoist drum from the cab. Temporary alternative measures: The device must be manually set when required if an electric, hydraulic or automatic control is not functioning.
(6) Category II operational aids and alternative measures. Operational aids listed in this paragraph that are not working properly must be repaired no later than 30 calendar days after the deficiency occurs. Exception: If the employer documents that it has ordered the necessary parts within 7 calendar days of the occurrence of the deficiency, and the part is not received in time to complete the repair in 30 calendar days, the repair must be completed within 7 calendar days of receipt of the parts.
(i) Boom angle or hook radius indicator.
(A) Luffing boom tower cranes must have a boom angle indicator readable from the operator's station.
(B) Hammerhead tower cranes manufactured after November 8, 2011 must have a hook radius indicator readable from the operator's station.
(C) Temporary alternative measures: Hook radii or boom angle must be determined by measuring the hook radii or boom angle with a measuring device.
(ii) Trolley travel deceleration device. The trolley speed must be automatically reduced prior to the trolley reaching the end limit in both directions. Temporary alternative measure: The employer must post a notice in the cab of the crane notifying the operator that the trolley travel deceleration device is malfunctioning and instructing the operator to take special care to reduce the trolley speed when approaching the trolley end limits.
(iii) Boom hoist deceleration device. The boom speed must be automatically reduced prior to the boom reaching the minimum or maximum radius limit. Temporary alternative measure: The employer must post a notice in the cab of the crane notifying the operator that the boom hoist deceleration device is malfunctioning and instructing the operator to take special care to reduce the boom speed when approaching the minimum or maximum radius limits.
(iv) Load hoist deceleration device. The load speed must be automatically reduced prior to the hoist reaching the upper limit. Temporary alternative measure: The employer must post a notice in the cab of the crane notifying the operator that the load hoist deceleration device is malfunctioning and instructing the operator to take special care to reduce the load speed when approaching the upper limits.
(v) Wind speed indicator. A device must be provided to display the wind speed and must be mounted above the upper rotating structure on tower cranes. On self erecting cranes, it must be mounted at or above the jib level. Temporary alternative measures: Use of wind speed information from a properly functioning indicating device on another tower crane on the same site, or a qualified person estimates the wind speed.
(vi) Load indicating device. Cranes manufactured after November 8, 2011 must have a device that displays the magnitude of the load on the hook. Displays that are part of load moment limiting devices that display the load on the hook meet this requirement. Temporary alternative measures: The weight of the load must be determined from a source recognized by the industry (such as the load's manufacturer), or by a calculation method recognized by the industry (such as calculating a steel beam from measured dimensions and a known per foot weight), or by other equally reliable means. This information must be provided to the operator prior to the lift.
(f) Inspections.
(1) Section 1926.1412 (Inspections) applies to tower cranes, except that the term “assembly” is replaced by “erection.” Section 1926.1413 (Wire rope—inspection) applies to tower cranes.
(2) Pre-erection inspection. Before each crane component is erected, it must be inspected by a qualified person for damage or excessive wear.
(i) The qualified person must pay particular attention to components that will be difficult to inspect thoroughly during shift inspections.
(ii) If the qualified person determines that a component is damaged or worn to the extent that it would create a safety hazard if used on the crane, that component must not be erected on the crane unless it is repaired and, upon reinspection by the qualified person, found to no longer create a safety hazard.
(iii) If the qualified person determines that, though not presently a safety hazard, the component needs to be monitored, the employer must ensure that the component is checked in the monthly inspections. Any such determination must be documented, and the documentation must be available to any individual who conducts a monthly inspection.
(3) Post-erection inspection. In addition to the requirements in § 1926.1412(c), the following requirements must be met:
(i) A load test using certified weights, or scaled weights using a certified scale with a current certificate of calibration, must be conducted after each erection.
(ii) The load test must be conducted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions when available. Where these instructions are unavailable, the test must be conducted in accordance with written load test procedures developed by a registered professional engineer familiar with the type of equipment involved.
(4) Monthly. The following additional items must be included:
(i) Tower (mast) bolts and other structural bolts (for loose or dislodged condition) from the base of the tower crane up or, if the crane is tied to or braced by the structure, those above the upper-most brace support.
(ii) The upper-most tie-in, braces, floor supports and floor wedges where the tower crane is supported by the structure, for loose or dislodged components.
(5) Annual. In addition to the items that must be inspected under § 1926.1412(f), all turntable and tower bolts must be inspected for proper condition and torque.

Title 29 published on 2013-07-01

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  • 2014-09-26; vol. 79 # 187 - Friday, September 26, 2014
    1. 79 FR 57785 - Cranes and Derricks in Construction: Operator Certification
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      DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, Occupational Safety and Health Administration
      Final rule.
      This final rule will become effective November 9, 2014.
      29 CFR Part 1926

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Title 29 published on 2013-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 29 CFR 1926 after this date.

  • 2014-10-10; vol. 79 # 197 - Friday, October 10, 2014
    1. 79 FR 61384 - Chemical Management and Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs)
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      DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, Occupational Safety and Health Administration
      Request for Information (RFI).
      Comments must be submitted by the following dates: Hard copy: must be submitted (postmarked or sent) by April 8, 2015. Electronic transmission or facsimile: must be submitted by April 8, 2015.
      29 CFR Parts 1910, 1915, 1917, 1918, and 1926