29 CFR 1926.251 - Rigging equipment for material handling.

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§ 1926.251 Rigging equipment for material handling.
(a) General.
(1) Rigging equipment for material handling shall be inspected prior to use on each shift and as necessary during its use to ensure that it is safe. Defective rigging equipment shall be removed from service.
(2) Employers must ensure that rigging equipment:
(i) Has permanently affixed and legible identification markings as prescribed by the manufacturer that indicate the recommended safe working load;
(ii) Not be loaded in excess of its recommended safe working load as prescribed on the identification markings by the manufacturer; and
(iii) Not be used without affixed, legible identification markings, required by paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section.
(3) Rigging equipment, when not in use, shall be removed from the immediate work area so as not to present a hazard to employees.
(4) Special custom design grabs, hooks, clamps, or other lifting accessories, for such units as modular panels, prefabricated structures and similar materials, shall be marked to indicate the safe working loads and shall be proof-tested prior to use to 125 percent of their rated load.
(5) Scope. This section applies to slings used in conjunction with other material handling equipment for the movement of material by hoisting, in employments covered by this part. The types of slings covered are those made from alloy steel chain, wire rope, metal mesh, natural or synthetic fiber rope (conventional three strand construction), and synthetic web (nylon, polyester, and polypropylene).
(6) Inspections. Each day before being used, the sling and all fastenings and attachments shall be inspected for damage or defects by a competent person designated by the employer. Additional inspections shall be performed during sling use, where service conditions warrant. Damaged or defective slings shall be immediately removed from service.
(b) Alloy steel chains.
(1) Welded alloy steel chain slings shall have permanently affixed durable identification stating size, grade, rated capacity, and sling manufacturer.
(2) Hooks, rings, oblong links, pear-shaped links, welded or mechanical coupling links, or other attachments, when used with alloy steel chains, shall have a rated capacity at least equal to that of the chain.
(3) Job or shop hooks and links, or makeshift fasteners, formed from bolts, rods, etc., or other such attachments, shall not be used.
(4) Employers must not use alloy steel-chain slings with loads in excess of the rated capacities (i.e., working load limits) indicated on the sling by permanently affixed and legible identification markings prescribed by the manufacturer.
(5) Whenever wear at any point of any chain link exceeds that shown in Table H-1, the assembly shall be removed from service.
(6) Inspections.
(i) In addition to the inspection required by other paragraphs of this section, a thorough periodic inspection of alloy steel chain slings in use shall be made on a regular basis, to be determined on the basis of (A) frequency of sling use; (B) severity of service conditions; (C) nature of lifts being made; and (D) experience gained on the service life of slings used in similar circumstances. Such inspections shall in no event be at intervals greater than once every 12 months.
(ii) The employer shall make and maintain a record of the most recent month in which each alloy steel chain sling was thoroughly inspected, and shall make such record available for examination.
(c) Wire rope.
(1) Employers must not use improved plow-steel wire rope and wire-rope slings with loads in excess of the rated capacities (i.e., working load limits) indicated on the sling by permanently affixed and legible identification markings prescribed by the manufacturer.
(2) Protruding ends of strands in splices on slings and bridles shall be covered or blunted.
(3) Wire rope shall not be secured by knots, except on haul back lines on scrapers.
(4) The following limitations shall apply to the use of wire rope:
(i) An eye splice made in any wire rope shall have not less than three full tucks. However, this requirement shall not operate to preclude the use of another form of splice or connection which can be shown to be as efficient and which is not otherwise prohibited.
(ii) Except for eye splices in the ends of wires and for endless rope slings, each wire rope used in hoisting or lowering, or in pulling loads, shall consist of one continuous piece without knot or splice.
(iii) Eyes in wire rope bridles, slings, or bull wires shall not be formed by wire rope clips or knots.
(iv) Wire rope shall not be used if, in any length of eight diameters, the total number of visible broken wires exceeds 10 percent of the total number of wires, or if the rope shows other signs of excessive wear, corrosion, or defect.
(5) When U-bolt wire rope clips are used to form eyes, Table H-2 shall be used to determine the number and spacing of clips.
(i) When used for eye splices, the U-bolt shall be applied so that the “U” section is in contact with the dead end of the rope.
(i1) [Reserved]
(6) Slings shall not be shortened with knots or bolts or other makeshift devices.
(7) Sling legs shall not be kinked.
(8) Slings used in a basket hitch shall have the loads balanced to prevent slippage.
(9) Slings shall be padded or protected from the sharp edges of their loads.
(10) Hands or fingers shall not be placed between the sling and its load while the sling is being tightened around the load.
(11) Shock loading is prohibited.
(12) A sling shall not be pulled from under a load when the load is resting on the sling.
(13) Minimum sling lengths.
(i) Cable laid and 6 × 19 and 6 × 37 slings shall have a minimum clear length of wire rope 10 times the component rope diameter between splices, sleeves or end fittings.
(ii) Braided slings shall have a minimum clear length of wire rope 40 times the component rope diameter between the loops or end fittings.
(iii) Cable laid grommets, strand laid grommets and endless slings shall have a minimum circumferential length of 96 times their body diameter.
(14) Safe operating temperatures. Fiber core wire rope slings of all grades shall be permanently removed from service if they are exposed to temperatures in excess of 200 °F (93.33 °C). When nonfiber core wire rope slings of any grade are used at temperatures above 400 °F (204.44 °C) or below minus 60 °F (15.55 °C), recommendations of the sling manufacturer regarding use at that temperature shall be followed.
(15) End attachments.
(i) Welding of end attachments, except covers to thimbles, shall be performed prior to the assembly of the sling.
(ii) All welded end attachments shall not be used unless proof tested by the manufacturer or equivalent entity at twice their rated capacity prior to initial use. The employer shall retain a certificate of the proof test, and make it available for examination.
(16) Wire rope slings shall have permanently affixed, legible identification markings stating size, rated capacity for the type(s) of hitch(es) used and the angle upon which it is based, and the number of legs if more than one.
(d) Natural rope, and synthetic fiber.
(1) Employers must not use natural- and synthetic-fiber rope slings with loads in excess of the rated capacities (i.e., working load limits) indicated on the sling by permanently affixed and legible identification markings prescribed by the manufacturer.
(2) All splices in rope slings provided by the employer shall be made in accordance with fiber rope manufacturers recommendations.
(i) In manila rope, eye splices shall contain at least three full tucks, and short splices shall contain at least six full tucks (three on each side of the centerline of the splice).
(ii) In layed synthetic fiber rope, eye splices shall contain at least four full tucks, and short splices shall contain at least eight full tucks (four on each side of the centerline of the splice).
(iii) Strand end tails shall not be trimmed short (flush with the surface of the rope) immediately adjacent to the full tucks. This precaution applies to both eye and short splices and all types of fiber rope. For fiber ropes under 1-inch diameter, the tails shall project at least six rope diameters beyond the last full tuck. For fiber ropes 1-inch diameter and larger, the tails shall project at least 6 inches beyond the last full tuck. In applications where the projecting tails may be objectionable, the tails shall be tapered and spliced into the body of the rope using at least two additional tucks (which will require a tail length of approximately six rope diameters beyond the last full tuck).
(iv) For all eye splices, the eye shall be sufficiently large to provide an included angle of not greater than 60° at the splice when the eye is placed over the load or support.
(v) Knots shall not be used in lieu of splices.
(3) Safe operating temperatures. Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings, except for wet frozen slings, may be used in a temperature range from minus 20 °F (−28.88 °C) to plus 180 °F (82.2 °C) without decreasing the working load limit. For operations outside this temperature range and for wet frozen slings, the sling manufacturer's recommendations shall be followed.
(4) Splicing. Spliced fiber rope slings shall not be used unless they have been spliced in accordance with the following minimum requirements and in accordance with any additional recommendations of the manufacturer:
(i) In manila rope, eye splices shall consist of at least three full tucks, and short splices shall consist of at least six full tucks, three on each side of the splice center line.
(ii) In synthetic fiber rope, eye splices shall consist of at least four full tucks, and short splices shall consist of at least eight full tucks, four on each side of the center line.
(iii) Strand end tails shall not be trimmed flush with the surface of the rope immediately adjacent to the full tucks. This applies to all types of fiber rope and both eye and short splices. For fiber rope under 1 inch (2.54 cm) in diameter, the tail shall project at least six rope diameters beyond the last full tuck. For fiber rope 1 inch (2.54 cm) in diameter and larger, the tail shall project at least 6 inches (15.24 cm) beyond the last full tuck. Where a projecting tail interferes with the use of the sling, the tail shall be tapered and spliced into the body of the rope using at least two additional tucks (which will require a tail length of approximately six rope diameters beyond the last full tuck).
(iv) Fiber rope slings shall have a minimum clear length of rope between eye splices equal to 10 times the rope diameter.
(v) Knots shall not be used in lieu of splices.
(vi) Clamps not designed specifically for fiber ropes shall not be used for splicing.
(vii) For all eye splices, the eye shall be of such size to provide an included angle of not greater than 60 degrees at the splice when the eye is placed over the load or support.
(5) End attachments. Fiber rope slings shall not be used if end attachments in contact with the rope have sharp edges or projections.
(6) Removal from service. Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following conditions are present:
(i) Abnormal wear.
(ii) Powdered fiber between strands.
(iii) Broken or cut fibers.
(iv) Variations in the size or roundness of strands.
(v) Discoloration or rotting.
(vi) Distortion of hardware in the sling.
(7) Employers must use natural- and synthetic-fiber rope slings that have permanently affixed and legible identification markings that state the rated capacity for the type(s) of hitch(es) used and the angle upon which it is based, type of fiber material, and the number of legs if more than one.
(e) Synthetic webbing (nylon, polyester, and polypropylene). (1) The employer shall have each synthetic web sling marked or coded to show:
(i) Name or trademark of manufacturer.
(ii) Rated capacities for the type of hitch.
(iii) Type of material.
(2) Rated capacity shall not be exceeded.
(3) Webbing. Synthetic webbing shall be of uniform thickness and width and selvage edges shall not be split from the webbing's width.
(4) Fittings. Fittings shall be:
(i) Of a minimum breaking strength equal to that of the sling; and
(ii) Free of all sharp edges that could in any way damage the webbing.
(5) Attachment of end fittings to webbing and formation of eyes. Stitching shall be the only method used to attach end fittings to webbing and to form eyes. The thread shall be in an even pattern and contain a sufficient number of stitches to develop the full breaking strength of the sling.
(6) Environmental conditions. When synthetic web slings are used, the following precautions shall be taken:
(i) Nylon web slings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of acids or phenolics are present.
(ii) Polyester and polypropylene web slings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present.
(iii) Web slings with aluminum fittings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present.
(7) Safe operating temperatures. Synthetic web slings of polyester and nylon shall not be used at temperatures in excess of 180 °F (82.2 °C). Polypropylene web slings shall not be used at temperatures in excess of 200 °F (93.33 °C).
(8) Removal from service. Synthetic web slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following conditions are present:
(i) Acid or caustic burns;
(ii) Melting or charring of any part of the sling surface;
(iii) Snags, punctures, tears or cuts;
(iv) Broken or worn stitches; or
(v) Distortion of fittings.
(f) Shackles and hooks.
(1) Employers must not use shackles with loads in excess of the rated capacities (i.e., working load limits) indicated on the shackle by permanently affixed and legible identification markings prescribed by the manufacturer.
(2) The manufacturer's recommendations shall be followed in determining the safe working loads of the various sizes and types of specific and identifiable hooks. All hooks for which no applicable manufacturer's recommendations are available shall be tested to twice the intended safe working load before they are initially put into use. The employer shall maintain a record of the dates and results of such tests.
Table H-1—Maximum Allowable Wear at any Point of Link
Chain size (inches) Maximum allowable wear (inch)
1/4 3/64
3/8 5/64
1/2 7/64
5/8 9/64
3/4 5/32
7/8 11/64
1 3/16
11/8 7/32
11/4 1/4
13/8 9/32
11/2 5/16
13/4 11/32
Table H-2—Number and Spacing of U-Bolt Wire Rope Clips
Improved plow steel, rope diameter (inches) Number of clips Minimum spacing (inches)
Drop forged Other material
1/2 3 4 3
5/8 3 4 33/4
3/4 4 5 41/2
7/8 4 5 51/4
1 5 6 6
11/8 6 6 63/4
11/4 6 7 71/2
13/8 7 7 81/4
11/2 7 8 9
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 58 FR 35173, June 30, 1993; 76 FR 33611, June 8, 2011; 77 FR 23118, Apr. 18, 2012]

Title 29 published on 2013-07-01

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  • 2014-04-11; vol. 79 # 70 - Friday, April 11, 2014
    1. 79 FR 20316 - Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution; Electrical Protective Equipment
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      DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, Occupational Safety and Health Administration
      Final rule.
      The final rule becomes effective on July 10, 2014. (Certain provisions have compliance deadlines after this date as explained later in this preamble.)
      29 CFR Parts 1910 and 1926

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Title 29 published on 2013-07-01

The following are ALL rules, proposed rules, and notices (chronologically) published in the Federal Register relating to 29 CFR 1926 after this date.

  • 2014-04-15; vol. 79 # 72 - Tuesday, April 15, 2014
    1. 79 FR 21164 - Cranes and Derricks in Construction: Operator Certification
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      DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, Occupational Safety and Health Administration
      Notice of informal public hearing.
      Informal public hearing: The informal public hearing will be held on Monday, May 19, 2014, at 9:30 a.m. in the auditorium of the U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20210. Notice of intention to appear: Each person who wishes to testify at the hearing must submit a notice of intention to appear by April 25, 2014. Each person who files a notice of intention to appear may submit a written copy of additional comments to the record before or during the hearing for inclusion in the hearing record. Organizations may submit a single notice of intention to appear regarding multiple members of that organization, but the notice must list the name, occupational title, and position of each individual who plans to testify. In addition, all notices must also include the following information: (1) An email address or other contact information for receiving additional information about the hearing; (2) Name of the establishment or organization, if any, that each individual represents; (3) A brief summary of any documentary evidence each individual plans to present.
      29 CFR Part 1926