§ 1926.452Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds.
In addition to the applicable requirements of § 1926.451, the following requirements apply to the specific types of scaffolds indicated. Scaffolds not specifically addressed by § 1926.452, such as but not limited to systems scaffolds, must meet the requirements of § 1926.451.
(1) When platforms are being moved to the next level, the existing platform shall be left undisturbed until the new bearers have been set in place and braced, prior to receiving the new platforms.
(2) Crossbracing shall be installed between the inner and outer sets of poles on double pole scaffolds.
(3) Diagonal bracing in both directions shall be installed across the entire inside face of double-pole scaffolds used to support loads equivalent to a uniformly distributed load of 50 pounds (222 kg) or more per square foot (929 square cm).
(4) Diagonal bracing in both directions shall be installed across the entire outside face of all double- and single-pole scaffolds.
(5) Runners and bearers shall be installed on edge.
(6) Bearers shall extend a minimum of 3 inches (7.6 cm) over the outside edges of runners.
(7) Runners shall extend over a minimum of two poles, and shall be supported by bearing blocks securely attached to the poles.
(8) Braces, bearers, and runners shall not be spliced between poles.
(9) Where wooden poles are spliced, the ends shall be squared and the upper section shall rest squarely on the lower section. Wood splice plates shall be provided on at least two adjacent sides, and shall extend at least 2 feet (0.6 m) on either side of the splice, overlap the abutted ends equally, and have at least the same cross-sectional areas as the pole. Splice plates of other materials of equivalent strength may be used.
(10) Pole scaffolds over 60 feet in height shall be designed by a registered professional engineer, and shall be constructed and loaded in accordance with that design. Non-mandatory appendix A to this subpart contains examples of criteria that will enable an employer to comply with design and loading requirements for pole scaffolds under 60 feet in height.
(b)Tube and coupler scaffolds.
(1) When platforms are being moved to the next level, the existing platform shall be left undisturbed until the new bearers have been set in place and braced prior to receiving the new platforms.
(2) Transverse bracing forming an “X” across the width of the scaffold shall be installed at the scaffold ends and at least at every third set of posts horizontally (measured from only one end) and every fourth runner vertically. Bracing shall extend diagonally from the inner or outer posts or runners upward to the next outer or inner posts or runners. Building ties shall be installed at the bearer levels between the transverse bracing and shall conform to the requirements of § 1926.451(c)(1).
(3) On straight run scaffolds, longitudinal bracing across the inner and outer rows of posts shall be installed diagonally in both directions, and shall extend from the base of the end posts upward to the top of the scaffold at approximately a 45 degree angle. On scaffolds whose length is greater than their height, such bracing shall be repeated beginning at least at every fifth post. On scaffolds whose length is less than their height, such bracing shall be installed from the base of the end posts upward to the opposite end posts, and then in alternating directions until reaching the top of the scaffold. Bracing shall be installed as close as possible to the intersection of the bearer and post or runner and post.
(4) Where conditions preclude the attachment of bracing to posts, bracing shall be attached to the runners as close to the post as possible.
(5) Bearers shall be installed transversely between posts, and when coupled to the posts, shall have the inboard coupler bear directly on the runner coupler. When the bearers are coupled to the runners, the couplers shall be as close to the posts as possible.
(6) Bearers shall extend beyond the posts and runners, and shall provide full contact with the coupler.
(7) Runners shall be installed along the length of the scaffold, located on both the inside and outside posts at level heights (when tube and coupler guardrails and midrails are used on outside posts, they may be used in lieu of outside runners).
(8) Runners shall be interlocked on straight runs to form continuous lengths, and shall be coupled to each post. The bottom runners and bearers shall be located as close to the base as possible.
(9) Couplers shall be of a structural metal, such as drop-forged steel, malleable iron, or structural grade aluminum. The use of gray cast iron is prohibited.
(10) Tube and coupler scaffolds over 125 feet in height shall be designed by a registered professional engineer, and shall be constructed and loaded in accordance with such design. Non-mandatory appendix A to this subpart contains examples of criteria that will enable an employer to comply with design and loading requirements for tube and coupler scaffolds under 125 feet in height.
(c)Fabricated frame scaffolds (tubular welded frame scaffolds). (1) When moving platforms to the next level, the existing platform shall be left undisturbed until the new end frames have been set in place and braced prior to receiving the new platforms.
(2) Frames and panels shall be braced by cross, horizontal, or diagonal braces, or combination thereof, which secure vertical members together laterally. The cross braces shall be of such length as will automatically square and align vertical members so that the erected scaffold is always plumb, level, and square. All brace connections shall be secured.
(3) Frames and panels shall be joined together vertically by coupling or stacking pins or equivalent means.
(4) Where uplift can occur which would displace scaffold end frames or panels, the frames or panels shall be locked together vertically by pins or equivalent means.
(5) Brackets used to support cantilevered loads shall:
(i) Be seated with side-brackets parallel to the frames and end-brackets at 90 degrees to the frames;
(ii) Not be bent or twisted from these positions; and
(iii) Be used only to support personnel, unless the scaffold has been designed for other loads by a qualified engineer and built to withstand the tipping forces caused by those other loads being placed on the bracket-supported section of the scaffold.
(6) Scaffolds over 125 feet (38.0 m) in height above their base plates shall be designed by a registered professional engineer, and shall be constructed and loaded in accordance with such design.
(d)Plasterers', decorators', and large area scaffolds. Scaffolds shall be constructed in accordance with paragraphs (a), (b), or (c) of this section, as appropriate.
(e)Bricklayers' square scaffolds (squares).
(1) Scaffolds made of wood shall be reinforced with gussets on both sides of each corner.
(2) Diagonal braces shall be installed on all sides of each square.
(3) Diagonal braces shall be installed between squares on the rear and front sides of the scaffold, and shall extend from the bottom of each square to the top of the next square.
(4) Scaffolds shall not exceed three tiers in height, and shall be so constructed and arranged that one square rests directly above the other. The upper tiers shall stand on a continuous row of planks laid across the next lower tier, and shall be nailed down or otherwise secured to prevent displacement.
(1) Scaffolds shall not be constructed or arranged more than two tiers or 10 feet (3.0 m) in height, whichever is less.
(2) When horses are arranged in tiers, each horse shall be placed directly over the horse in the tier below.
(3) When horses are arranged in tiers, the legs of each horse shall be nailed down or otherwise secured to prevent displacement.
(4) When horses are arranged in tiers, each tier shall be crossbraced.
(g)Form scaffolds and carpenters' bracket scaffolds.
(1) Each bracket, except those for wooden bracket-form scaffolds, shall be attached to the supporting formwork or structure by means of one or more of the following: nails; a metal stud attachment device; welding; hooking over a secured structural supporting member, with the form wales either bolted to the form or secured by snap ties or tie bolts extending through the form and securely anchored; or, for carpenters' bracket scaffolds only, by a bolt extending through to the opposite side of the structure's wall.
(2) Wooden bracket-form scaffolds shall be an integral part of the form panel.
(3) Folding type metal brackets, when extended for use, shall be either bolted or secured with a locking-type pin.
(h)Roof bracket scaffolds.
(1) Scaffold brackets shall be constructed to fit the pitch of the roof and shall provide a level support for the platform.
(2) Brackets (including those provided with pointed metal projections) shall be anchored in place by nails unless it is impractical to use nails. When nails are not used, brackets shall be secured in place with first-grade manila rope of at least three-fourth inch (1.9 cm) diameter, or equivalent.
(1) The inboard end of outrigger beams, measured from the fulcrum point to the extreme point of anchorage, shall be not less than one and one-half times the outboard end in length.
(2) Outrigger beams fabricated in the shape of an I-beam or channel shall be placed so that the web section is vertical.
(3) The fulcrum point of outrigger beams shall rest on secure bearings at least 6 inches (15.2 cm) in each horizontal dimension.
(4) Outrigger beams shall be secured in place against movement, and shall be securely braced at the fulcrum point against tipping.
(5) The inboard ends of outrigger beams shall be securely anchored either by means of braced struts bearing against sills in contact with the overhead beams or ceiling, or by means of tension members secured to the floor joists underfoot, or by both.
(6) The entire supporting structure shall be securely braced to prevent any horizontal movement.
(7) To prevent their displacement, platform units shall be nailed, bolted, or otherwise secured to outriggers.
(8) Scaffolds and scaffold components shall be designed by a registered professional engineer and shall be constructed and loaded in accordance with such design.
(j)Pump jack scaffolds.
(1) Pump jack brackets, braces, and accessories shall be fabricated from metal plates and angles. Each pump jack bracket shall have two positive gripping mechanisms to prevent any failure or slippage.
(2) Poles shall be secured to the structure by rigid triangular bracing or equivalent at the bottom, top, and other points as necessary. When the pump jack has to pass bracing already installed, an additional brace shall be installed approximately 4 feet (1.2 m) above the brace to be passed, and shall be left in place until the pump jack has been moved and the original brace reinstalled.
(3) When guardrails are used for fall protection, a workbench may be used as the toprail only if it meets all the requirements in paragraphs (g)(4) (ii), (vii), (viii), and (xiii) of § 1926.451.
(4) Work benches shall not be used as scaffold platforms.
(5) When poles are made of wood, the pole lumber shall be straight-grained, free of shakes, large loose or dead knots, and other defects which might impair strength.
(6) When wood poles are constructed of two continuous lengths, they shall be joined together with the seam parallel to the bracket.
(7) When two by fours are spliced to make a pole, mending plates shall be installed at all splices to develop the full strength of the member.
(k)Ladder jack scaffolds.
(1) Platforms shall not exceed a height of 20 feet (6.1 m).
(2) All ladders used to support ladder jack scaffolds shall meet the requirements of subpart X of this part—Stairways and Ladders, except that job-made ladders shall not be used to support ladder jack scaffolds.
(3) The ladder jack shall be so designed and constructed that it will bear on the side rails and ladder rungs or on the ladder rungs alone. If bearing on rungs only, the bearing area shall include a length of at least 10 inches (25.4 cm) on each rung.
(4) Ladders used to support ladder jacks shall be placed, fastened, or equipped with devices to prevent slipping.
(5) Scaffold platforms shall not be bridged one to another.
(l)Window jack scaffolds.
(1) Scaffolds shall be securely attached to the window opening.
(2) Scaffolds shall be used only for the purpose of working at the window opening through which the jack is placed.
(3) Window jacks shall not be used to support planks placed between one window jack and another, or for other elements of scaffolding.
(m)Crawling boards (chicken ladders).
(1) Crawling boards shall extend from the roof peak to the eaves when used in connection with roof construction, repair, or maintenance.
(2) Crawling boards shall be secured to the roof by ridge hooks or by means that meet equivalent criteria (e.g., strength and durability).
(n)Step, platform, and trestle ladder scaffolds.
(1) Scaffold platforms shall not be placed any higher than the second highest rung or step of the ladder supporting the platform.
(2) All ladders used in conjunction with step, platform and trestle ladder scaffolds shall meet the pertinent requirements of subpart X of this part—Stairways and Ladders, except that job-made ladders shall not be used to support such scaffolds.
(3) Ladders used to support step, platform, and trestle ladder scaffolds shall be placed, fastened, or equipped with devices to prevent slipping.
(4) Scaffolds shall not be bridged one to another.
(o)Single-point adjustable suspension scaffolds.
(1) When two single-point adjustable suspension scaffolds are combined to form a two-point adjustable suspension scaffold, the resulting two-point scaffold shall comply with the requirements for two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds in paragraph (p) of this section.
(2) The supporting rope between the scaffold and the suspension device shall be kept vertical unless all of the following conditions are met:
(i) The rigging has been designed by a qualified person, and
(ii) The scaffold is accessible to rescuers, and
(iii) The supporting rope is protected to ensure that it will not chafe at any point where a change in direction occurs, and
(iv) The scaffold is positioned so that swinging cannot bring the scaffold into contact with another surface.
(3) Boatswains' chair tackle shall consist of correct size ball bearings or bushed blocks containing safety hooks and properly “eye-spliced” minimum five-eighth (5/8) inch (1.6 cm) diameter first-grade manila rope, or other rope which will satisfy the criteria (e.g., strength and durability) of manila rope.
(4) Boatswains' chair seat slings shall be reeved through four corner holes in the seat; shall cross each other on the underside of the seat; and shall be rigged so as to prevent slippage which could cause an out-of-level condition.
(5) Boatswains' chair seat slings shall be a minimum of five-eight (5/8) inch (1.6 cm) diameter fiber, synthetic, or other rope which will satisfy the criteria (e.g., strength, slip resistance, durability, etc.) of first grade manila rope.
(6) When a heat-producing process such as gas or arc welding is being conducted, boatswains' chair seat slings shall be a minimum of three-eight (3/8) inch (1.0 cm) wire rope.
(7) Non-cross-laminated wood boatswains' chairs shall be reinforced on their underside by cleats securely fastened to prevent the board from splitting.
(p)Two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds (swing stages). The following requirements do not apply to two-point adjustable suspension scaffolds used as masons' or stonesetters' scaffolds. Such scaffolds are covered by paragraph (q) of this section.
(1) Platforms shall not be more than 36 inches (0.9 m) wide unless designed by a qualified person to prevent unstable conditions.
(2) The platform shall be securely fastened to hangers (stirrups) by U-bolts or by other means which satisfy the requirements of § 1926.451(a).
(3) The blocks for fiber or synthetic ropes shall consist of at least one double and one single block. The sheaves of all blocks shall fit the size of the rope used.
(4) Platforms shall be of the ladder-type, plank-type, beam-type, or light-metal type. Light metal-type platforms having a rated capacity of 750 pounds or less and platforms 40 feet (12.2 m) or less in length shall be tested and listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
(5) Two-point scaffolds shall not be bridged or otherwise connected one to another during raising and lowering operations unless the bridge connections are articulated (attached), and the hoists properly sized.
(6) Passage may be made from one platform to another only when the platforms are at the same height, are abutting, and walk-through stirrups specifically designed for this purpose are used.
(1) When two or more scaffolds are used they shall not be bridged one to another unless they are designed to be bridged, the bridge connections are articulated, and the hoists are properly sized.
(2) If bridges are not used, passage may be made from one platform to another only when the platforms are at the same height and are abutting.
(3) Scaffolds shall be suspended from metal outriggers, brackets, wire rope slings, hooks, or means that meet equivalent criteria (e.g., strength, durability).
(1) No more than one platform shall be placed between consecutive vertical pickups, and no more than two platforms shall be used on a catenary scaffold.
(2) Platforms supported by wire ropes shall have hook-shaped stops on each end of the platforms to prevent them from slipping off the wire ropes. These hooks shall be so placed that they will prevent the platform from falling if one of the horizontal wire ropes breaks.
(3) Wire ropes shall not be tightened to the extent that the application of a scaffold load will overstress them.
(4) Wire ropes shall be continuous and without splices between anchors.
(s)Float (ship) scaffolds.
(1) The platform shall be supported by a minimum of two bearers, each of which shall project a minimum of 6 inches (15.2 cm) beyond the platform on both sides. Each bearer shall be securely fastened to the platform.
(2) Rope connections shall be such that the platform cannot shift or slip.
(3) When only two ropes are used with each float:
(i) They shall be arranged so as to provide four ends which are securely fastened to overhead supports.
(ii) Each supporting rope shall be hitched around one end of the bearer and pass under the platform to the other end of the bearer where it is hitched again, leaving sufficient rope at each end for the supporting ties.
(t)Interior hung scaffolds.
(1) Scaffolds shall be suspended only from the roof structure or other structural member such as ceiling beams.
(2) Overhead supporting members (roof structure, ceiling beams, or other structural members) shall be inspected and checked for strength before the scaffold is erected.
(3) Suspension ropes and cables shall be connected to the overhead supporting members by shackles, clips, thimbles, or other means that meet equivalent criteria (e.g., strength, durability).
(u)Needle beam scaffolds.
(1) Scaffold support beams shall be installed on edge.
(2) Ropes or hangers shall be used for supports, except that one end of a needle beam scaffold may be supported by a permanent structural member.
(3) The ropes shall be securely attached to the needle beams.
(4) The support connection shall be arranged so as to prevent the needle beam from rolling or becoming displaced.
(5) Platform units shall be securely attached to the needle beams by bolts or equivalent means. Cleats and overhang are not considered to be adequate means of attachment.
(v)Multi-level suspended scaffolds.
(1) Scaffolds shall be equipped with additional independent support lines, equal in number to the number of points supported, and of equivalent strength to the suspension ropes, and rigged to support the scaffold in the event the suspension rope(s) fail.
(2) Independent support lines and suspension ropes shall not be attached to the same points of anchorage.
(3) Supports for platforms shall be attached directly to the support stirrup and not to any other platform.
(1) Scaffolds shall be braced by cross, horizontal, or diagonal braces, or combination thereof, to prevent racking or collapse of the scaffold and to secure vertical members together laterally so as to automatically square and align the vertical members. Scaffolds shall be plumb, level, and squared. All brace connections shall be secured.
(i) Scaffolds constructed of tube and coupler components shall also comply with the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section;
(ii) Scaffolds constructed of fabricated frame components shall also comply with the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.
(2) Scaffold casters and wheels shall be locked with positive wheel and/or wheel and swivel locks, or equivalent means, to prevent movement of the scaffold while the scaffold is used in a stationary manner.
(3) Manual force used to move the scaffold shall be applied as close to the base as practicable, but not more than 5 feet (1.5 m) above the supporting surface.
(4) Power systems used to propel mobile scaffolds shall be designed for such use. Forklifts, trucks, similar motor vehicles or add-on motors shall not be used to propel scaffolds unless the scaffold is designed for such propulsion systems.
(5) Scaffolds shall be stabilized to prevent tipping during movement.
(6) Employees shall not be allowed to ride on scaffolds unless the following conditions exist:
(i) The surface on which the scaffold is being moved is within 3 degrees of level, and free of pits, holes, and obstructions;
(ii) The height to base width ratio of the scaffold during movement is two to one or less, unless the scaffold is designed and constructed to meet or exceed nationally recognized stability test requirements such as those listed in paragraph (x) of appendix A to this subpart (ANSI/SIA A92.5 and A92.6);
(iii) Outrigger frames, when used, are installed on both sides of the scaffold;
(iv) When power systems are used, the propelling force is applied directly to the wheels, and does not produce a speed in excess of 1 foot per second (.3 mps); and
(v) No employee is on any part of the scaffold which extends outward beyond the wheels, casters, or other supports.
(7) Platforms shall not extend outward beyond the base supports of the scaffold unless outrigger frames or equivalent devices are used to ensure stability.
(8) Where leveling of the scaffold is necessary, screw jacks or equivalent means shall be used.
(9) Caster stems and wheel stems shall be pinned or otherwise secured in scaffold legs or adjustment screws.
(10) Before a scaffold is moved, each employee on the scaffold shall be made aware of the move.
(x)Repair bracket scaffolds.
(1) Brackets shall be secured in place by at least one wire rope at least 1/2 inch (1.27 cm) in diameter.
(2) Each bracket shall be attached to the securing wire rope (or ropes) by a positive locking device capable of preventing the unintentional detachment of the bracket from the rope, or by equivalent means.
(3) Each bracket, at the contact point between the supporting structure and the bottom of the bracket, shall be provided with a shoe (heel block or foot) capable of preventing the lateral movement of the bracket.
(4) Platforms shall be secured to the brackets in a manner that will prevent the separation of the platforms from the brackets and the movement of the platforms or the brackets on a completed scaffold.
(5) When a wire rope is placed around the structure in order to provide a safe anchorage for personal fall arrest systems used by employees erecting or dismantling scaffolds, the wire rope shall meet the requirements of subpart M of this part, but shall be at least 5/16 inch (0.8 cm) in diameter.
(6) Each wire rope used for securing brackets in place or as an anchorage for personal fall arrest systems shall be protected from damage due to contact with edges, corners, protrusions, or other discontinuities of the supporting structure or scaffold components.
(7) Tensioning of each wire rope used for securing brackets in place or as an anchorage for personal fall arrest systems shall be by means of a turnbuckle at least 1 inch (2.54 cm) in diameter, or by equivalent means.
(8) Each turnbuckle shall be connected to the other end of its rope by use of an eyesplice thimble of a size appropriate to the turnbuckle to which it is attached.
(9) U-bolt wire rope clips shall not be used on any wire rope used to secure brackets or to serve as an anchor for personal fall arrest systems.
(10) The employer shall ensure that materials shall not be dropped to the outside of the supporting structure.
(11) Scaffold erection shall progress in only one direction around any structure.
(y)Stilts. Stilts, when used, shall be used in accordance with the following requirements:
(1) An employee may wear stilts on a scaffold only if it is a large area scaffold.
(2) When an employee is using stilts on a large area scaffold where a guardrail system is used to provide fall protection, the guardrail system shall be increased in height by an amount equal to the height of the stilts being used by the employee.
(3) Surfaces on which stilts are used shall be flat and free of pits, holes and obstructions, such as debris, as well as other tripping and falling hazards.
(4) Stilts shall be properly maintained. Any alteration of the original equipment shall be approved by the manufacturer.
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