Material hoists, personnel hoists, and elevators.
(a) General requirements.
The employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and limitations applicable to the operation of all hoists and elevators. Where manufacturer's specifications are not available, the limitations assigned to the equipment shall be based on the determinations of a professional engineer competent in the field.
Rated load capacities, recommended operating speeds, and special hazard warnings or instructions shall be posted on cars and platforms.
Wire rope shall be removed from service when any of the following conditions exists:
In hoisting ropes, six randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay or three broken wires in one strand in one rope lay;
Abrasion, scrubbing, flattening, or peening, causing loss of more than one-third of the original diameter of the outside wires;
Evidence of any heat damage resulting from a torch or any damage caused by contact with electrical wires;
Reduction from nominal diameter of more than three sixty-fourths inch for diameters up to and including three-fourths inch; one-sixteenth inch for diameters seven-eights to 1 1/8 inches; and three thirty-seconds inch for diameters 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 inches.
Hoisting ropes shall be installed in accordance with the wire rope manufacturers' recommendations.
The installation of live booms on hoists is prohibited.
The use of endless belt-type manlifts on construction shall be prohibited.
(b) Material hoists.
Operating rules shall be established and posted at the operator's station of the hoist. Such rules shall include signal system and allowable line speed for various loads. Rules and notices shall be posted on the car frame or crosshead in a conspicuous location, including the statement “No Riders Allowed.”
No person shall be allowed to ride on material hoists except for the purposes of inspection and maintenance.
All entrances of the hoistways shall be protected by substantial gates or bars which shall guard the full width of the landing entrance. All hoistway entrance bars and gates shall be painted with diagonal contrasting colors, such as black and yellow stripes.
Bars shall be not less than 2- by 4-inch wooden bars or the equivalent, located 2 feet from the hoistway line. Bars shall be located not less than 36 inches nor more than 42 inches above the floor.
Gates or bars protecting the entrances to hoistways shall be equipped with a latching device.
Overhead protective covering of 2-inch planking, 3/4 -inch plywood, or other solid material of equivalent strength, shall be provided on the top of every material hoist cage or platform.
The operator's station of a hoisting machine shall be provided with overhead protection equivalent to tight planking not less than 2 inches thick. The support for the overhead protection shall be of equal strength.
Hoist towers may be used with or without an enclosure on all sides. However, whichever alternative is chosen, the following applicable conditions shall be met:
When a hoist tower is enclosed, it shall be enclosed on all sides for its entire height with a screen enclosure of 1/2 -inch mesh, No. 18 U.S. gauge wire or equivalent, except for landing access.
When a hoist tower is not enclosed, the hoist platform or car shall be totally enclosed (caged) on all sides for the full height between the floor and the overhead protective covering with 1/2 -inch mesh of No. 14 U.S. gauge wire or equivalent. The hoist platform enclosure shall include the required gates for loading and unloading. A 6-foot high enclosure shall be provided on the unused sides of the hoist tower at ground level.
Car arresting devices shall be installed to function in case of rope failure.
All material hoist towers shall be designed by a licensed professional engineer.
All material hoists shall conform to the requirements of ANSI A10.5-1969, Safety Requirements for Material Hoists.
(c) Personnel hoists.
Hoist towers outside the structure shall be enclosed for the full height on the side or sides used for entrance and exit to the structure. At the lowest landing, the enclosure on the sides not used for exit or entrance to the structure shall be enclosed to a height of at least 10 feet. Other sides of the tower adjacent to floors or scaffold platforms shall be enclosed to a height of 10 feet above the level of such floors or scaffolds.
Towers inside of structures shall be enclosed on all four sides throughout the full height.
Towers shall be anchored to the structure at intervals not exceeding 25 feet. In addition to tie-ins, a series of guys shall be installed. Where tie-ins are not practical the tower shall be anchored by means of guys made of wire rope at least one-half inch in diameter, securely fastened to anchorage to ensure stability.
Hoistway doors or gates shall be not less than 6 feet 6 inches high and shall be provided with mechanical locks which cannot be operated from the landing side, and shall be accessible only to persons on the car.
Cars shall be permanently enclosed on all sides and the top, except sides used for entrance and exit which have car gates or doors.
A door or gate shall be provided at each entrance to the car which shall protect the full width and height of the car entrance opening.
Overhead protective covering of 2-inch planking, 3/4 -inch plywood or other solid material or equivalent strength shall be provided on the top of every personnel hoist.
Doors or gates shall be provided with electric contacts which do not allow movement of the hoist when door or gate is open.
Safeties shall be capable of stopping and holding the car and rated load when traveling at governor tripping speed.
Cars shall be provided with a capacity and data plate secured in a conspicuous place on the car or crosshead.
Internal combustion engines shall not be permitted for direct drive.
Normal and final terminal stopping devices shall be provided.
An emergency stop switch shall be provided in the car and marked “Stop.”
Ropes: (i) The minimum number of hoisting ropes used shall be three for traction hoists and two for drum-type hoists.
The minimum diameter of hoisting and counterweight wire ropes shall be 1/2 -inch.
Minimum Factors of Safety for Suspension Wire Ropes
Following assembly and erection of hoists, and before being put in service, an inspection and test of all functions and safety devices shall be made under the supervision of a competent person. A similar inspection and test is required following major alteration of an existing installation. All hoists shall be inspected and tested at not more than 3-month intervals. The employer shall prepare a certification record which includes the date the inspection and test of all functions and safety devices was performed; the signature of the person who performed the inspection and test; and a serial number, or other identifier, for the hoist that was inspected and tested. The most recent certification record shall be maintained on file.
All personnel hoists used by employees shall be constructed of materials and components which meet the specifications for materials, construction, safety devices, assembly, and structural integrity as stated in the American National Standard A10.4-1963, Safety Requirements for Workmen's Hoists. The requirements of this paragraph (c)(16) do not apply to cantilever type personnel hoists.
Personnel hoists used in bridge tower construction shall be approved by a registered professional engineer and erected under the supervision of a qualified engineer competent in this field.
When a hoist tower is not enclosed, the hoist platform or car shall be totally enclosed (caged) on all sides for the full height between the floor and the overhead protective covering with 3/4 -inch mesh of No. 14 U.S. gauge wire or equivalent. The hoist platform enclosure shall include the required gates for loading and unloading.
These hoists shall be inspected and maintained on a weekly basis. Whenever the hoisting equipment is exposed to winds exceeding 35 miles per hour it shall be inspected and put in operable condition before reuse.
Wire rope shall be taken out of service when any of the following conditions exist:
(a) In running ropes, six randomly distributed broken wires in one lay or three broken wires in one strand in one lay;
(b) Wear of one-third the original diameter of outside individual wires. Kinking, crushing, bird caging, or any other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure;
(c) Evidence of any heat damage from any cause;
(d) Reductions from nominal diameter of more than three-sixty-fourths inch for diameters to and including three-fourths inch, one-sixteenth inch for diameters seven-eights inch to 1 1/8 inches inclusive, three-thirty-seconds inch for diameters 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 inches inclusive;
(e) In standing ropes, more than two broken wires in one lay in sections beyond end connections or more than one broken wire at an end connection.
Permanent elevators under the care and custody of the employer and used by employees for work covered by this Act shall comply with the requirements of American National Standards Institute A17.1-1965 with addenda A17.1a-1967, A17.1b-1968, A17.1c-1969, A17.1d-1970, and inspected in accordance with A17.2-1960 with addenda A17.2a-1965, A17.2b-1967.
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 52 FR 36382, Sept. 28, 1987]