(a) Structural stability shall be maintained at all times during the erection process.
Note to paragraph (a):
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) regulations incorporate by reference a number of standards, policies, and standard specifications published by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and other organizations. (See23 CFR 625.4). Many of these incorporated provisions may be relevant to maintaining structural stability during the erection process. For instance, as of May 17, 2010, in many cases FHWA requires a Registered Engineer to prepare and seal working drawings for falsework used in highway bridge construction. (See AASHTO Specifications for Highway Bridges, Div. II, § 3.2.1, 15th edition, 1992, which FHWA incorporates by reference in 23 CFR 625.4). FHWA also encourages compliance with AASHTO Specifications that the FHWA regulations do not currently incorporate by reference. (See http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/lrfd/index.htm.)
(b) The following additional requirements shall apply for multi-story structures:
(1) The permanent floors shall be installed as the erection of structural members progresses, and there shall be not more than eight stories between the erection floor and the upper-most permanent floor, except where the structural integrity is maintained as a result of the design.
(2) At no time shall there be more than four floors or 48 feet (14.6 m), whichever is less, of unfinished bolting or welding above the foundation or uppermost permanently secured floor, except where the structural integrity is maintained as a result of the design.
(3) A fully planked or decked floor or nets shall be maintained within two stories or 30 feet (9.1 m), whichever is less, directly under any erection work being performed.
(c)Walking/working surfaces—shear connectors and other similar devices—
(1)Tripping hazards. Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing bars, deformed anchors or threaded studs shall not be attached to the top flanges of beams, joists or beam attachments so that they project vertically from or horizontally across the top flange of the member until after the metal decking, or other walking/working surface, has been installed.
(2)Installation of shear connectors on composite floors, roofs and bridge decks. When shear connectors are used in construction of composite floors, roofs and bridge decks, employees shall lay out and install the shear connectors after the metal decking has been installed, using the metal decking as a working platform. Shear connectors shall not be installed from within a controlled decking zone (CDZ), as specified in § 1926.760(c)(8).
(1) When deemed necessary by a competent person, plumbing-up equipment shall be installed in conjunction with the steel erection process to ensure the stability of the structure.
(2) When used, plumbing-up equipment shall be in place and properly installed before the structure is loaded with construction material such as loads of joists, bundles of decking or bundles of bridging.
(3) Plumbing-up equipment shall be removed only with the approval of a competent person.
(1)Hoisting, landing and placing of metal decking bundles.
(i) Bundle packaging and strapping shall not be used for hoisting unless specifically designed for that purpose.
(ii) If loose items such as dunnage, flashing, or other materials are placed on the top of metal decking bundles to be hoisted, such items shall be secured to the bundles.
(iii) Bundles of metal decking on joists shall be landed in accordance with § 1926.757(e)(4).
(iv) Metal decking bundles shall be landed on framing members so that enough support is provided to allow the bundles to be unbanded without dislodging the bundles from the supports.
(v) At the end of the shift or when environmental or jobsite conditions require, metal decking shall be secured against displacement.
(2)Roof and floor holes and openings. Metal decking at roof and floor holes and openings shall be installed as follows:
(i) Framed metal deck openings shall have structural members turned down to allow continuous deck installation except where not allowed by structural design constraints or constructibility.
(ii) Roof and floor holes and openings shall be decked over. Where large size, configuration or other structural design does not allow openings to be decked over (such as elevator shafts, stair wells, etc.) employees shall be protected in accordance with § 1926.760(a)(1).
(iii) Metal decking holes and openings shall not be cut until immediately prior to being permanently filled with the equipment or structure needed or intended to fulfill its specific use and which meets the strength requirements of paragraph (e)(3) of this section, or shall be immediately covered.
(3)Covering roof and floor openings.
(i) Covers for roof and floor openings shall be capable of supporting, without failure, twice the weight of the employees, equipment and materials that may be imposed on the cover at any one time.
(ii) All covers shall be secured when installed to prevent accidental displacement by the wind, equipment or employees.
(iii) All covers shall be painted with high-visibility paint or shall be marked with the word “HOLE” or “COVER” to provide warning of the hazard.
(iv) Smoke dome or skylight fixtures that have been installed, are not considered covers for the purpose of this section unless they meet the strength requirements of paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section.
(4)Decking gaps around columns. Wire mesh, exterior plywood, or equivalent, shall be installed around columns where planks or metal decking do not fit tightly. The materials used must be of sufficient strength to provide fall protection for personnel and prevent objects from falling through.
(5)Installation of metal decking.
(i) Except as provided in § 1926.760(c), metal decking shall be laid tightly and immediately secured upon placement to prevent accidental movement or displacement.
(ii) During initial placement, metal decking panels shall be placed to ensure full support by structural members.
(6) Derrick floors. (i) A derrick floor shall be fully decked and/or planked and the steel member connections completed to support the intended floor loading.
(ii) Temporary loads placed on a derrick floor shall be distributed over the underlying support members so as to prevent local overloading of the deck material.